Joukowsky Institute for Archaeology & the Ancient World
Box 1837 / 60 George Street
Providence, RI 02912
Telephone: (401) 863-3188
Fax: (401) 863-9423
This term refers to the local customs of land and labor division at the village level that existed before the Arab conquest. It is especially important because of its role in the iqta system. Where there was no ruling from Islamic law to govern the distribution of land, it was the old customs that were used. They varied from place to place and were subject to change as the iqta system changed Egyptian agriculture, but still relied on native practices alongside the new Islamic government.