Theses in medieval history, 2010-2018: an overview

Annex: Medieval History

PhD Theses in Portuguese Universities (2010-2018)

Prepared by the editors of e-JPH with the assistance of Elsa Lorga Vila (Graduate of University of Evora; Master’s Degree in History-Nova University of Lisbon)

ANDRADE, Maria Filomena Pimentel de Carvalho, In Oboedientia, sine proprio, et in castitate, sub clausura. The Order of Santa Clara in Portugal (13th and 14th centuries), PhD in History submitted to the School of Social Sciences and Humanities of the Universidade Nova de Lisboa, supervised by Iria Vicente Gonçalves, 2011 (

Keywords: Monastery; Nunnery; Cloister; Female monasticism; Foundation; Women's history; Women's spirituality; Religious orders; Franciscan; Poor clares; Monastic rules

Abstract: My research focuses on the Order of Santa Clara in Portugal, presenting the foundation and the lives of their nunneries, during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. So, I am concerned about the institution and the processes used to implement the first communities, the way they live the Rule, and express their faith. But to survive a female monastery must have a heritage - managed in common - and formed by the initial allocation of goods by the founders and benefactors and all those who enter the convents. It should also capture the powerful protection and development of networks, which transform the monastery into a center of power, organizer and distributor of life's graces and benefits. The female monasticism thus takes on an active role in society and contributes to an interpretative reading of the religious phenomenon in medieval.

ARAÚJO, Richard Max de, The Construction of Ibn-aldūn’s Historical Method: Between Jurisprudence and History, PhD in History submitted to the Institute for Advanced Studies and Research of the Universidade de Évora, supervised by Filipe Themudo Barata, 2018


Keywords: Ibn Khaldun; History; Historiography; Jurisprudence; Islam

Abstract: Ibn-Ḫaldūn (1332-1406) in Xifāʾ as-Sāʾil and in Muqaddimah examined discussions on the development of civilization in western Islam. In the first book, which is judicial in nature, he speaks as a judge, using characteristic terminology and style. In the second, which is historical in nature, he speaks as a historian, while maintaining the style characteristic of a jurist. In his case the influence of the methodology of Jurisprudence in History helped refine his interpretative ability. His preference for a system of government ruled by God - the Caliphate - is motivated by God’s divine transcendence that no human institution can match. In this sense, religion provides politics with just solutions.

BARRADAS, Aurélio Paulo da Costa Henriques, Martyrologium Lamecense, PhD in History: Medieval History submitted to the Faculty of Arts and Humanities of the Universidade de Coimbra, supervised by Saúl António Gomes Coelho da Silva and António Manuel Ribeiro Rebelo, 2013 (

Keywords: Not available

Abstract: Not available

BERTOLI, André Luiz, War, violence and chivalry in Portugal, 1367-1481, PhD in History: Medieval History submitted to the School of Social Sciences and Humanities of the Universidade Nova de Lisboa, supervised by Maria de Lurdes Rosa and Miguel Gomes Martins, 2016 (

Keywords: War; Violence; Chivalry

Abstract: The timeline of this research goes through the government of the king D. Fernando until D. Afonso V reign, focusing in warfare and violence present in the wars against Castile and the Moors in North Africa. This study tries to analyze war and violence represented in the Portuguese medieval texts, believing this approach can fill some gaps between the Historic-Literary studies and those dedicated to Military History. Thus, this thesis observes the behavior models reproduced by the warrior culture and represented in narratives and documents that inform the contemporary historians about the Portuguese conflicts. Taking into account a wider tradition in Portuguese medieval historiography, this work tries to characterize the relation between war, violence and chivalry; to verify how this relation was perceived and written in the texts; to analyze the warrior violence in the Portuguese kingdom, and the ways this violence was mitigated by chivalry. It also attempts to systematize a typology of the violence visible in the documents and to shape a perspective about the relation between the writers’ texts, the war practices and the warriors archetypes established during the late Portuguese Middle Ages. Doing a great effort to get close to the historiography that researches the importance of war, violence and chivalry to the organization of medieval society, this work aims at understanding how the noble and warrior culture were captured by the chroniclers and fashioned according to the main stream ideologies that they represented.

CAMPOS, Maria Amélia Álvaro de, Santa Justa of Coimbra in Middle Ages: the urban, religious and socio-economic space, PhD in History: Medieval History submitted to the Faculty of Arts and Humanities of the Universidade de Coimbra, supervised by Maria Helena da Cruz Coelho, 2012 (

Keywords: Not available

Abstract: This essay studies the collegiate church of Santa Justa in Coimbra, between the final of the 11th century and the beginning of the second half of the 15th century. Through the knowledge of the religious institution, of its chapter and the dynamics related to the acquisition and asset management, we try to find the characterization of the urban parish, from the social and territorial point of view. The first part of the work, defines the inclusion of the Santa Justa district in the urban fabric of Coimbra, bearing in mind the political, social and ecclesiastical profile of the city. For such, we present, briefly, the historical conjuncture of the city, since its definitive reconquest until the establishment of its nine parishes. Thereafter, we study the foundation of Santa Justa church and the subsequent definition of the respective ecclesiastical rights. Done the story of this church in the city context, it follows the topographic description of the parish area, its district and the presentation of the defining elements of its morphology. Finally, we characterize the secular society: the inhabitants of the district and the benefactors of the church. In development the second part studies the process of consolidation of the church community, as well as the normative that guided the communal life. Then, its exposed each of the positions that constituted the hierarchy of the community, their roles, liturgical and administrative assumptions. At a later stage, from a prosopographic analysis, we articulate several aspects of the course of the beneficiaries of this collegiate, with a view to their social characterization, to the perception of their client networks and the understanding of their levels of wealth. At last, focuses on the liturgical duties of the community, responsible for the liturgy of the capitular church, that was also the parish seat. In the last part of the dissertation, we treat the various aspects related to the heritage land of collegiate: the ways to acquisition and exploration of the property. We make the characterization of this patrimony, dividing it according to four different territorial areas: the outskirts Coimbra; the rural ring periurban; the country; other deployments outside. And study the strategies of property management, based, almost exclusively, in the emphyteusis regime. Finally, characterizes, social and economically, the tenants of the use of domain of the collegiate buildings of Santa Justa.

CAMPOS, Nuno Miguel Silva, The Teles: a lineage between Castile and Portugal in the Middle Ages (1161-1385), PhD in History submitted to the Institute for Advanced Studies and Research of the Universidade de Évora, supervised by Filipe Themudo Barata, 2012


Keywords: Not available

Abstract: This thesis aims to study and analyze the power strategies of the Teles family members, working as individuals and as a family, in the kingdoms of Portugal and Castille, during the Late Middle Ages, between the years of 1161 and 1385. Concerning this purpose, we have proceeded to the identification, analysis and interpretation of sources and expressions of these family members’ power, as well as the process of its construction and reproduction within the two kingdoms, since the members of family operate in both political territories. It was given special attention to the phenomenon of connections and circulation in the two kingdoms. The perception of this phenomenon is of utmost importance not only to identify the family's strategies but also to understand the peninsular society and policies relations’, including the nature and the dynamics of established power.

CORREIA, Fernando Manuel Rodrigues Branco, Fortification, war and powers in Garb al-Andalus (from the beginnings of Islamization in the North African domain), PhD in History submitted to the Institute for Advanced Studies and Research of the Universidade de Évora, supervised by Filipe Themudo Barata and Christophe Picard, 2010 (

Keywords: Not available

Abstract: The thesis focuses on aspects of warfare and fortifications in the western part of the Iberian peninsula - known from Arabic written sources as 'Garb al-Andalus’ - from the eighth century and first half of XIII. In geographical terms, the territory in question covers an extensive area between the basins of the Tagus and Guadiana - without border between Portugal and Spain a dividing line - extending, sometimes, to areas close to the Douro and the part the current western Andalusia. These pages use information from the written documentation of Arab and Mediaeval origin, but also from archaeological source, and they reinterpretate some information from toponymy. The origin of regional dynasties that managed to assert itself in the governance of the western part of al-Andalus is studied, as well as how the Arab Umayyad dynasty was able to assert in the region during the Emirate and the Caliphate of Cordoba. On the other hand, are also studied the impacts of both administrative and military Islamic dynasties of North African origin - Almoravids and Almohads. Thus, to focus on key aspects of contact between the occidental region of the Iberian Peninsula to the western Islamic world, this thesis is interested in fundamental aspects of a patrimonial heritage, history and art common to southern Europe and North Africa. In the other hand, it tries to show how in the medieval period have crossed into this territory plural influences from Christian and from Islamic societies.

COSTA, João Tiago dos Santos, Palmela. Territory and people (12th to 16th centuries), PhD in History: Medieval History submitted to the School of Social Sciences and Humanities of the Universidade Nova de Lisboa, supervised by Bernardo Vasconcelos e Sousa and Luís Filipe Oliveira, 2016 (

Keywords: Palmela; Order of Santiago; Territory; Population; Institutional relations

Abstract: To look at medieval Palmela for about 400 years of history means avail ourselves to the study of circumstances and structures that accompany the historical development of the Portuguese Kingdom since its formation until dawn of the Modern world. Being a territory of the Order of Santiago, that established there its first and last monastic seat, influences the whole development of local life and that’s our starting point. It therefore matters to understand how the institutions and the people who represented themselves coorelated in Palmela and understand existing permeabilities between them, especially at the level of the local oligarchy. Simultaneously, understand the evolution of these behaviors lead us to also perceive the logics of occupation and exploitation of space, trying to be traced a geography of powers and a sociology of space. Finally, and because Palmela was not an isolated territory in the Portuguese Kingdom, we will discuss the institutional relationships established with neighboring municipalities that, in due measure, influenced the economic and social dynamics in Palmela.

DOMINGUEZ, Rodrigo da Costa, The Financing of the Portuguese Crown in the late Middle Ages: between the “African” and the “Fortunate”, PhD in History submitted to the Faculty of Arts and Humanities of the Universidade do Porto, supervised by Luís Miguel Ribeiro de Oliveira Duarte and Hilario Casado Alonso, 2013 (

Keywords: Not available

Abstract: Not available

FERNANDES, Aires Gomes, The Canons of St. Augustine in Northern Portugal in the Late Middle Ages: from the beginning of the 14th century to the Congregation of Holy Cross, PhD in History: Medieval History submitted to the Faculty of Arts and Humanities of the Universidade de Coimbra, supervised by Saúl António Gomes and Maria Cristina Cunha, 2011


Keywords: Not available

Abstract: Not available

FERREIRA, João Paulo Martins, The Galician-Portuguese nobility of the diocese of Tuy (915-1381), PhD in History submitted to the Faculty of Arts and Humanities of the Universidade do Porto, supervised by José Augusto Pereira de Sotto Mayor Pizarro, 2016…………………………………………….. (

Keywords: Not available

Abstract: Not available

FERREIRA, Sérgio Carlos Moreira Matos, Prices, wages and living standards in Portugal in the lower middle ages, PhD in History submitted to the Faculty of Arts and Humanities of the Universidade do Porto, supervised by Luís Miguel Duarte, 2014 (

Keywords: Not available

Abstract: Not available

FONTES, João Luís Inglês, From «Poor Life» to the Congregation of the Serra de Ossa: Genesis and Institutionalization of a Heremitical Experience (1366-1510), PhD in History: Medieval History submitted to the School of Social Sciences and Humanities of the Universidade Nova de Lisboa, supervised by José Mattoso, 2012 (

Keywords: Portugal; Middle Ages; Hermitic Life; Congregation of the Hermits of Serra de Ossa; Reformation of Religious Life; Spirituality

Abstract: The present thesis studies the origins, expansion and institutionalization of the groups of hermits which, attestable as such since 1366, in the region of Serra de Ossa, South Portugal, were to become an institutionalized congregation in 1482, and to affiliate themselves as an autonomous community within the Order of the Hermits of St. Paul in 1578. At this latter date, the enforcement of the decisions of the Council of Trent in what concerned the religious life, would end up determining the progressive clericalization of its communities, the standardization of its liturgical life, the mandatory nature of the profession of the three vows, and the prohibition of accepting illiterate members. This study, however, focuses especially on the period which anteceded this last phase. We take as our starting point an apostolic sentence issued in 1378, which testifies with particular strength not only to the surprising expansion of these hermits close to the councils of Southern of Portugal, but also to the precocious papal approval of such form of religious life, to the point of including them in its religious reformation policies for the Kingdom of Portugal. The surviving documentary evidence and the study of the itinerary of Fr. Vasco, closely associated to the origins of the Jeronimous Friars in Portugal and Spain, allows for the reinforcement of the thesis which proposes to connect the first Portuguese Hermits to the influence exerted by circles close to the Italian fraticelli, and the Franciscan Spiritual Movements. On a second moment, we study the evolution and the expansion of the hermitical groups, during the Portuguese 15th century. We analyze the relationship of these hermits with the Royal Power, with the local and regional authorities and with the urban populations as well as with the other ecclesiastical institutions, so as to try and understand the reasons behind their success and popularity, and also the different institutional solutions adopted bearing in mind the preservation of their very specific way of life and discipline. The tendency would be that of a progressive institutionalization of the different groups, whilst managing to steer themselves away from the pressures to get them under the sphere of royal influence or the annexation by other religious orders (Lóios e Jerónimos). As a result of this, the hermits form, in 1466, a brotherhood in the Serra de Ossa and later on, in 1482, they would agree to accept to live under the more centralized model of Congregatio. The first articulate normative texts that came to our knowledge, date from this period, and they configure, together with the papal obligation of chastity vows, the form of life that these men of the community of Serra de Ossa were to live until the Great Reformation of 1578. The recruitment and composition of these communities allow us to understand in a clearer form, their capacity for resisting the consecutive attempts at including them into a more normal form of “religious” life. They, therefore, kept themselves away from the urban nuclea, living in communities mainly composed of lay members, who conciliated the contemplative dimension with the manual work and the option for a poor and austere life. Until 1536, they wouldn’t even be submitted to any kind of Rule, and until 1578 the only vows they took were the vow of chastity. Finally, the reconstitution of the biographies of the hermits, which takes up all the second part of this thesis, allows us to understand more clearly the parcourses of those who integrated these communities of poor life, thus bringing to life and exemplifying many of the aspects studied in the first part of this thesis.

LOURINHO, Inês Bailão, Frontier of the Gharb Al-Andalus: Land of confrontation between Almoravids and Christians (1093-1147), PhD in History: Medieval History submitted to the School of Arts and Humanities of the Universidade de Lisboa, supervised by Hermenegildo Fernandes, 2018 (

Keywords: Not available

Abstract: When in 1094 the Almoravids came into contact with the border of the Gharb al-Andalus, Granada and Seville were part of an empire born in the sands of the Sahara desert that, in 30 years, expanded to Ceuta and crossed the Mediterranean, towards the Iberian Peninsula, where the political instability facilitated their entry. Christians pressured the taifa kingdoms, provoking sedition among Muslims and demanding tribute in exchange for a supposed protection, which resulted in a tax overload and discontent of the populations and added a sense of injustice, which the Berber conquerors used to their advantage with the help of local elites and especially the families of judges and lawyers who had held power since the end of the caliphate of Cordoba and legitimized their governance.

MARINHO, Duarte Maria Monteiro de Babo, The Portuguese ambassadors in the Iberian kingdoms (1431-1474): a sociodemographic study, PhD in History submitted to the Faculty of Arts and Humanities of the Universidade do Porto, supervised by Paula Maria de Carvalho Pinto Costa and Maria Cristina Almeida e Cunha Alegre, 2017 (

Keywords: Not available

Abstract: Not available

MARQUES, André Manuel Evangelista de Oliveira, Landscape and settlement: from documentary representation to the materiality of space in the territory of the diocese of Braga (IX-XI centuries). Methodological essay, PhD in History submitted to the Faculty of Arts and Humanities of the Universidade do Porto, supervised by Luís Carlos Amaral and José Ángel García de Cortázar, 2012 (

Keywords: Not available

Abstract: Not available

MARTINS, Maria Odete Banha da Fonseca Sequeira, Power and society: The Duchess of Beja, PhD in History: Medieval History submitted to the School of Arts and Humanities of the Universidade de Lisboa, supervised by Manuela Mendonça, 2011 (

Keywords: D. Brites; Duchess of Viseu; Duchess of Beja; History of Portugal; Middle Ages

Abstract: Princess D. Brites (?-1506), duchess of Viseu and Beja, was a personage who played a decisive role in the History of Portugal. She intervened directly in the policy of that particular time and with her sagacity and intelligence she managed and administered, on behalf of her sons, the huge patrimony of the Household. She controlled, powerfully, all the Court which moved around her assuming herself as an alternative.

MENINO, Vanda Lisa Lourenço, Queen D. Beatriz and her House (1293-1359), PhD in History: Medieval History submitted to the School of Social Sciences and Humanities of the Universidade Nova de Lisboa, supervised by Bernardo Vasconcelos e Sousa, 2012


Keywords: Queen; Beatriz; Afonso IV; Household; Queenship; XIVth century

Abstract: The infanta Beatriz of Portugal daughter of the King of Castile Sancho IV and queen Maria de Molina, became Queen of Portugal by marriage, in the year 1309, with Afonso IV. It was to serve the political interests of the two kingdoms that this marriage was established in the agreements of the Treaty of Alcanises (1297), contrary to the ecclesiastical doctrine that condemned as incestuous marriages between those related by blood or related. In the present case, the future Portuguese monarchs were included in this ecclesiastical interdict, although they have received the necessary papal dispensation. The three roles played by Beatriz of Portugal, mother, wife and queen, we intend to demonstrate that the consort had a different role from that granted to the monarch, but that we cannot consider of less relevance. The documents showed that the queen exercised authority in their lands. With proceeds received from such land, the Queen maintained her vassals and retainers who shared the daily experience as a part of her household. Of the many conflicts that marked the reign of Bravo we believe that the one who deserved a greater attention on the part of The Queen was the one opposing the monarch to the infante Pedro, his son and future King of Portugal. In this open conflict between father and son, the Queen, not neglecting her role as a wife, did not oppose, openly, her husband. However, documentation allows us her concern as a mother, revealing a set of backstage playing by the Queen with the aim of achieving peace not only for the Kingdom, but also for their relatives. Death was a reality as constant and present in the everyday life of medieval society that it was accepted as inherent to human nature itself. However, this familiarity did not reduced the fear felt in the face of death. Because it is certain, but uncertain of its time, it was necessary to prepare the "exiting" of this world. In this context the queen Beatriz had wrote three wills and a codicil in which she established our her estate should be divided after the delivery of the soul to God and clauses regarding how to take care of her body. It is understandable that the Queen wanted to contemplate, in a privileged manner, those of their lineage, seeking to avoid irretrievable fragmentation of their goods. With the information obtained in her testament we can imagine the sovereign during her daily existence wandering about the different spaces in a manner which materialised in ostentation of her wealth, as was imposed by her social condition. The objects that once adorned her body and made her shine with all her glitz and glamour were, on the one hand, part of the memory of lineage, and, on the other, part of her own existence. The Union of this couple remained after death, having chosen the same location for their grave, the Cathedral of Lisbon, thus demonstrating the Union needed to face the unknown.

MIRANDA, Flávio Miguel Fernandes, Portugal and the Medieval Atlantic. Commercial Diplomacy, Merchants, and Trade, 1143-1488, PhD in History submitted to the Faculty of Arts and Humanities of the Universidade do Porto, supervised by Luís Miguel Duarte and Hilario Casado Alonso, 2012 (

Keywords: Portugal; Medieval Atlantic; Merchants; Trade; Hundred Years War; Over-seas expansion; England; Zeeland; Flanders; Normandy

Abstract: This thesis is about the commercial relations between Portugal and the medieval Atlantic, roughly from the twelfth century until the end of the fifteenth century, covering the first commercial contacts with England, Zeeland, Flanders, Normandy, and Brittany, the consolidation of overseas commerce in those territories, the effect of the Hundred Years War on commercial exchange, and the changes produced in trade by the overseas expansion. The focus is both on commercial diplomacy and the role of Portuguese merchants in overseas trade, in order to understand when, how and why did traders begin to travel to Euro-Atlantic markets, how commercial statutes, treaties, and warfare stimulated or hindered trade routes, in what way Portugal’s socioeconomic and political convulsions affected external commerce, and how significant were these circumstances for the kingdom’s urban and economic growth, and institutional development.

MOITEIRO, Gilberto Coralejo, The Dominican nuns of Aveiro (c. 1450-1525): Memory and identity of a textual community, PhD in History: Medieval History submitted to the School of Social Sciences and Humanities of the Universidade Nova de Lisboa, supervised by Maria de Lurdes Rosa, 2013 (

Keywords: Identity; Textual community; Rules; Memory; Monastery of Jesus in Aveiro

Abstract: This work focuses on a female convent of the Order of Preachers, between the years prior to its foundation in 1461 until the end of the third prioress government, who died in 1525. During this period, the nuns of the Monastery of Jesus received and composed a set of texts intended to serve both liturgical and identity needs. The argument is based on a textual universe formed by normative and memorial documents, which appears consistent with the context of its production. The documentary testimonies reflect the observant environment in which the Dominican nuns were part as reception and expansion agents of the reform at a national level. They show concern to provide the community with a set of written media able to join them around a religious discourse whose message should translate the power necessary for the making of their collective identity. This message is based on ethical contents present in the normative injunctions, but also in the written memory of community, which embodies the normative principles with examples, assuming an hagiographic dimension, with the power to inflame the spirits and to give sense to their behavior.

MOURA, Carlos Manuel da Silva, The Manor House of the Counts and Marquises of Vila Real (15th-16th centuries), PhD in History: Medieval History submitted to the School of Social Sciences and Humanities of the Universidade Nova de Lisboa, supervised by João Silva de Sousa and João Paulo Oliveira e Costa, 2017 (

Keywords: Noble households; House of Vila Real; Marquises of Vila Real; 1400-1500

Abstract: Formally established in the second quarter of 1400’s, the House of Vila Real was one of the most important noble households in the kingdom of Portugal, between the mid-fifteenth and seventeenth centuries. In 1641, their representatives were judicially sentenced for alleged conspiracy and high treason against the king. Having a family background that dates back to bastard sons of kings of Portugal and Castile and also to warlords who served the first kings of Avis, the first holders of the House of Vila Real occupied a sociopolitical top place on the main nobility of the kingdom through which they carried out a number of various services, specially, being captains and governors of Ceuta, in Morocco. The high success of their military services and his familiarity with the royal house were decisive factors for their sociopolitical projection and for the increase of their lands and revenues between the mid-fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Between 1445 and 1543, the first three marquises - D. Pedro de Meneses, D. Fernando de Meneses and D. Pedro de Meneses - have accumulated for the House of Vila Real a large number of royal donations by which they have obtained several lands, jurisdictions, incomes, exclusive rights and privileges, including the granting of nobility titles and military dignities. All this, in exchanging of services provided to the different monarchs who reigned in that period. Analyzing a common set of data about the lives of these three nobles (birth and death; marriages and offspring; social alliances and family bonds; military dignities and nobility titles; wealth sources and inherited economic situation; ranks and sociopolitical rivalries; itineraries and residence places; symbols of power and social representation; and cultural signs of education, behavior and religiosity), our aim is to understand the evolution of the House of Vila Real, in the mid-fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Applying the biographical method in these first three marquises of Vila Real, simultaneously, the representatives and the embodiment of their noble house, we intend to give a further contribution to the social, political and behavioral knowledge of the Portuguese aristocracy from late-medieval period.

MUHAJ, Ardian, When all the ways lead to Portugal: Impact of the one hundred-year war on the economic and political life of Portugal (14th-15th centuries), PhD in History: Medieval History submitted to the School of Arts and Humanities of the Universidade de Lisboa, supervised by Manuela Mendonça, 2014 (

Keywords: Hundred Years War; Portugal; Golden Age; Discoveries

Abstract: The Hundred Years War has had a profound impact on the history of France and England. Yet its impact and importance on the history of other European countries and of Europe in general has been overlooked and much less studied. Even the supporters of the so-called “late medieval crisis”, have not shown any interest in establishing any kind of relationship between the “crisis” of the Late Middle Ages, and the Hundred Years War, although both match perfectly in chronological terms. We aim to establish a relation between the Anglo-French conflict of the Late Middle Ages and the difficulties and/or the decline of some European countries and regions during the same time span. Before the war France was the commercial hub of Europe, but during the course of the war became its main battlefield. It was a conflict between England and France, fought and decided entirely in French territories and dependencies. So, how this transformation of the biggest, the richest, the most central and the most important kingdom of Europe, from a commercial hub to a battlefield, influenced the economic landscape of the continent, is a central question to answer? Instead of focusing the attention on the movements and itineraries of the fighting or ravaging armies, we aim to focus on the itineraries of the traders and on the shifting geography of the trade routes. Through her transformation in a battlefield France, once a paradise for the traders, became a paradise for the chivalry and the soldiers, but a hell for the traders. Thus, many countries and regions better suited to serve as an alternative choice for the commerce and the traders, increased their share of the commercial traffic, or better said, of the wealth available. Portugal became one of these commercial paradises that helped the stream of goods and wealth to flow. At the same time this shifting geography of the trade routes, not only helped these new commercial paradises to strengthen their economies, but it increased the costs of transactions and maintenance of the commerce. Goods and wealth flowed easily through the new routes, but these new trade routes were expensive alternatives of the old French-centred routes. With the end of the Hundred Years War, ended the need to avoid the French routes, and the flow of commerce shifted back to France, but the new geography of the expanded commerce and the wealth accumulated during the war continued for some time to foster the development of the these countries during the time that France was retaking its centrality in the commercial routes of the continent. Portugal’s economic outlook during the Hundred Years War has been traditionally linked by the historians to the French pattern, widely accepted as negative, depressionist and in deep crisis. The broad framework for this relation is the “late medieval crisis”, or the Malthusian interpretation of the history of Late Middle Ages. According to this interpretation, the “late medieval crisis” was general to the whole of Europe, and even beyond, although recognizing some insignificant exceptions. In fact, focusing on the broad picture, except the generalized effect of the Black Death, most parts of Europe did not go through a “late medieval crisis”. Portugal had all the conditions to gain from the shift of the trade routes, and was one of the most important countries that served the economic system of the continent to continue to run smoothly even with the significant obstacle of the war. During the supposed “crisis”, Portugal went from strength to strength in economic terms. The Black Death took its toll and the money was devalued, but commerce expanded, the area under cultivation increased, its political and geographical boundaries expanded, technological advance was one of the greatest in the continent, its international projection increased, its independence was assured, its towns increased at the time that agriculture boomed and the wealth and the welfare of its people increased.

NORTE, Armando José Gomes, Scholars and literate culture in Portugal (12th and 13th centuries), PhD in History: Medieval History submitted to the School of Arts and Humanities of the Universidade de Lisboa, supervised by Hermenegildo Fernandes, 2013 (

Keywords: Cultural History; Middle Ages; Kingdom of Portugal; Scholars; Libraries; Authors and Auctoritates; Prosopography

Abstract: The present doctoral thesis aspires to produce a portrayal of the twelfth and thirteenth Portuguese literary culture. It was based on the study of the main cultural agents of the time and on the analysis of the libraries formed by the clerics and by the main monasteries and cathedral churches settled in the kingdom. In the first part of the work, guided by a sociological approach, it has been attempted an identification and characterization of the group composed by the scholars supported in a prosopographic study. This study was conducted over individuals who exhibited a master or doctor degree in the sources, when those titles seemed standing for contacts with advanced studies. In the second part of the work, it has been attempted to reenact the cultural substract of those individuals. This was based on the surveillance of the manuscripts gathered in the shelves of monastic houses, church cathedrals and clergymen, in order to understand their intellectual interests, their favorite authors and their affiliation to the main cultural trends of the time.

PINA, Maria Isabel Pessoa Castro, The Lóios Congregation in Portugal: On the beginnings of the Congregação dos Cónegos Seculares de São João Evangelista, PhD in History: Medieval History submitted to the School of Social Sciences and Humanities of the Universidade Nova de Lisboa, supervised by José Mattoso and Bernardo Vasconcelos e Sousa, 2011 (

Keywords: Portugal; Middle Ages; Fifteenth century; Religious orders; Reform of the church; Spirituality; Observance

Abstract: The Congregação de Cónegos Seculares de S. João Evangelista (Congregation of Secular Canons of St. John Evangelist), founded in 1425 and commonly referred to as Lóios, was a Portuguese congregation influenced by religious reform movements of the late Middle Ages, especially by the trend of observance that deeply renewed monastic spirituality. During the fifteenth century, along the lines of canonical tradition and imbued in the humanist and reformist ideals of the fourteenth century, the Congregação de Cónegos Seculares de S. João Evangelista quickly spread to the main dioceses of the country. Consisting of clergy and laymen, the congregation was affiliated with the Italian congregation of St. Jorge de Alga, in Venice, and adopted the institutional model of this Congregation. The Congregation benefited from the favors of the pontificate and, in Portugal, from the King’s protection. Moreover, Lóios were representatives of Regal interests before the Roman curia, besides being very well known as confessors and preachers. These relationships may explain why they often found themselves in the midst of political fights. The first one involved the powerful archbishop of Braga, D. Fernando da Guerra and D. Afonso, first Duke of Bragança and head of the most important manor house in the kingdom. Afterwards, they were involved in the struggle between the king D. João II and D. Fernando, Duke of Bragança, accused of high treason and sentenced to death. The canon lóios collaborated in the reform of the Church, and in hospital and missionary activity. The Lóios was the first Portuguese Congregation to receive canonical approval as an institute of religious life without solemn vows and without adopting one of the traditional rules, anticipating, so to speak, the institutional model of the ecclesiastic congregations that, in the context of the post-Tridentine reform, would have a special place in the life of the Church. Therefore, the Congregação de Cónegos Seculares de S. João Evangelista was a link between the traditional orders and the new congregations. Similarly to what happened later on with the Regular canons or the Jesuits, the Lóios searched for new ways to answer both Church and society’s needs, renewing the priestly order, recovering the communitarian discipline of religious and promoting a high level of education among its members. In line with the period in which they were founded, lóios’ spirituality shows two distinct trends: first, as a reform movement of the 15thcentury Church it emphasized the call for ascetic rigorism and observance, and second, it encouraged the propagation of the devotio moderna, a spiritual movement that emphasized personal piety and a more interior and less formal relationship with God. Apart from these influences, the lóios suffered the direct influx of the historic-geographical context in which they were founded. Their religious practices reflect some of the most outstanding cultural and devotional trends in the Portuguese 15thcentury society, namely Italian humanism, conveyed by religious reformers; the previously mentioned devotio moderna and; the concern for moral, catechetical and hagiographic themes that characterized the country’s devout society, mainly among the royal court.

PIRES, Hélio Fernando Vitorino, Norse Incursions in Western Iberia (844-1147): Sources, History, and Traces, PhD in History: Medieval History submitted to the School of Social Sciences and Humanities of the Universidade Nova de Lisboa, supervised by João Luís de Lima e Silva de Sousa and Maria da Graça Videira Lopes, 2012 (

Keywords: Portugal; Galicia; Scandinavia; Norse; Vikings; Attacks; Literature; Legends; Fortifications; Christianization; Crusaders

Abstract: The Viking Age, which started at the end of the 8th century, inevitably reached the western part of the Iberian Peninsula, where the first recorded attack took place in 844. What followed were more than two hundred years of incursions, first by Norse pirates and, in time, by northern European crusaders who travelled to Palestine. The present work analyses that period of History in the greater context of the Viking Age and the changes that took place in Scandinavia at the time. It starts by presenting the essential sources for the study of the topic, including critical aspects that need to be taken into consideration when reading them, before entering the several centuries of attacks and, in the end, recording traces left by the Norse.

ROLDÃO, Ana Filipa Firmino Sequeira Pinto, The memory of the city. Urban administration and writing practices in Évora (1415-1536), PhD in History: Medieval History submitted to the School of Arts and Humanities of the Universidade de Lisboa, supervised by Maria Helena da Cruz Coelho and Luís Filipe Barreto, 2011 (

Keywords: Archive; Memory; Power; Évora; Middle Ages

Abstract: This doctoral thesis reflects on the constitution of the archives of the city council of Évora between the years 1415 and 1536, trying to evaluate to what extent the archive is a space of creation of the memory of the powers that cross in municipal administration. In Part I, called "The construction of the archive", the processes by which Évora’s city council preserved the written objects produced and received by the city are evidenced, namely through a "treasure-archive", stored in the ark of the county, and of the reproduction of these documents in codices, which were called, preferentially, "books of the council". In Part II, entitled "The documentary projection of the powers", the material marks left by subjects with power (public powers or documentary powers) are identified and characterized in the parchment of the same “books of the council”, glimpsed here as a “documentary territory”, where these powers define dominant positions. The same approach is taken up in desultory documentation, recovering immaterial vestiges of political negotiation between the king and the county. The study of the political dimension of a municipal archive, such as Évora’s, allows us to recover the fundamental foundations of an urban memory, in which the central sphere of powers - central and peripheral - seems to constantly overlap with the sphere of local powers. The years 1415 and 1536 are two milestones of this dynamics, within which the restructuring of documentary writing and preservation practices suffered by the chamber archive consists, above all, of strategies of power.

SANTOS, Maria Alice Pereira, The sociology of the political-diplomatic representation in Portugal on the age of D. João I, PhD in History submitted to the Department of Social Sciences and Management of the Universidade Aberta, supervised by Adelaide Millán da Costa, 2015 (

Keywords: Diplomacy; Ambassadors; Foreign relations; Prosopography; João I, King of Portugal, 1357-1433; History of Portugal; Political History; Medieval History

Abstract: Starting from the election of D. João, Master of Avis as king in Coimbra’s Courts in 1385, the sociology of the political-diplomatic representation in Portugal on the age of D. João I begins to reveal the guidelines present in this kingdom, in order to emphasize the political and diplomatic aspects. With Castela, the armed action is highlighted, interspersed with several truces, but that only ends with perpetual peace signed in 1431. With other Christian kingdoms, like England and Flanders, military and commercial alliances are sought, cemented by matrimonial contracts, which are also extended to the kingdom of Aragon. With the Church, diligences are developed to legitimize the monarch, the presence in the councils is set and the Crusade spirit is stated. The content of the different embassies allows understanding not only the reasons that underlies them, but, above it all, to consider the men who were a part of it, with the use of the prosopographical method.

SARDINHA, Carlos Manuel de Morais Seixas Pires, Between Germanism and Romanism: high treason and lèse-majesté in the context of the problems of the history of primitive Visigothic law, PhD in Law: Legal History submitted to the Faculty of Law (Lisbon) of Universidade Católica Portuguesa, supervised by Nuno J. Espinosa Gomes da Silva, 2010 (

Keywords: Not available

Abstract: Not available

SEQUEIRA, Joana Isabel Ribeiro, Textile production in Portugal in the late Middle Ages, PhD in History submitted to the Faculty of Arts and Humanities of the Universidade do Porto, supervised by Luís Miguel Duarte and Mathieu Arnoux, 2012 (

Keywords: Textile; Middle Ages; Production; Industry; Wool; Flax; Hemp; Silk; Cotton; Fabric; Dyeing; Women; Trade

Abstract: This doctoral thesis is about the textile production in late medieval Portugal, examining production, labour, and products. It characterizes the different textile sectors (wool, flax, hemp, silk, and cotton) and it presents its geographical distribution. It also analyses the technical resources and the different production stages in order to put in evidence certain features and phenomenon which contribute to explain the evolution and development of Portuguese textile industry in the Middle Ages. This study gives particular attention to textile work, especially in the areas related to learning, labor specialization, external organization, and the role of women, and it scrutinizes the production methods. It also includes a catalogue, designed as consultation tool, which gathers 23 entries on Portuguese medieval fabrics. Lastly, it discusses the commercial projection of Portuguese textiles in domestic and external markets, seeking to ascertain the importance and significance of the textile industry in the kingdom’s economy.

SERRA, Joaquim António Felisberto Bastos, Governing the City and Serving the King. The Municipal Oligarchy of Évora in Medieval Times (1367-1433), PhD in History submitted to the Institute for Advanced Studies and Research of the Universidade de Évora, supervised by Hermínia Vilar, 2016 (

Keywords: Oligarchy; Medieval Évora; Municipal governance; Aldermen; Prosopography; The 1383-85 crisis

Abstract: This dissertation focuses on the study of a group of individuals and their respective families who controlled the municipal government of the city of Évora in the period corresponding to the reigns of Ferdinand and John I, specifically from 1367 to 1433, and which comprises the dynastic crisis. In this context, the men who were leading the municipality assumed a relevant role in supporting the cause of the Master and, therefore, enhanced their governance role and their social status. By leveraging an exceptional context, and the strong proximity to the crown, these men embarked, through mechanisms that we seek to identify, in ascending processes that have drawn them near to the privileged groups, which is a clear process of aristocratization of the Évora municipal setting.

SILVA, Isabel Maria Botelho de Gusmão Dias Sarreira Cid da, Évora's foral: diplomatic, codicological and paleographic study - notes for an archaeology of the written culture in Portugal at the time of Dom Manuel I, PhD in History submitted to the Institute for Advanced Studies and Research of the Universidade de Évora, supervised by Saul António Gomes, 2010 (

Keywords: Foral Manuelino of Évora; Diplomatic study; Codiological study; Palaeographic study; Archaeology of written culture; Time of D. Manuel I

Abstract: Not available

SILVA, Manuel Fialho, Urban Mutation in Medieval Lisbon: From the Taifas to D. Dinis, PhD in History: Medieval History submitted to the School of Arts and Humanities of the Universidade de Lisboa, supervised by Hermenegildo Nuno Goinhas Fernandes and Maria João Violante Branco, 2017 (

Keywords: History of Urbanism; Urban History; Lisbon; Middle Ages; Islamic Period; Christian Period; City Council; King Dinis; King Afonso III

Abstract: This doctoral thesis lies within an area shared between the History of Urbanism and Urban History, aiming to study the changes of urban form that took place in Lisbon, in the period between the Taifa kingdoms and the end of King Dinis reign. Through the possible reconstitution of urban form, it is intended to understand the processes that triggered the changes in the image of the city in this period. The use of different methodologies depending on the multiple sources here analyzed made it possible to recover the urban logics that marked the city of Lisbon. Thus, we crossed several sources to obtain a more complete picture of our object of study. Documentary, archeological, cartographical and iconographic sources as well as the current urban property limits were all analyzed and taken together to obtain consistent images of various key points of the medieval city. The size of a city like medieval Lisbon forced the analysis of urban processes to be conducted through a selective focus, where the topography was considered as the main guiding line. This option led to a deliberate fragmentation of the city in different spaces: the Almedina, the Alcáçova, and the three suburbs, Western, Oriental and Moorish. This division allowed us to observe how different dynamics shaped the city's image, without losing sight of these forces in the city as a whole. Thus, the structure of this study reflects its analysis process, a prologue followed by five parts. In the prologue are addressed three issues inserted in two moments of transition: from late antiquity to medieval times and from the time of Muslim rule to the Christian rule. In the first part we study the urban changes occurred in the space included by the urban fence. In the second part we observe the changing of urban form in the city Alcáçova. The Western area was studied in the third part of this work, with a textual dimension comparatively greater in weight than the other parts that reflects the importance of this area. The urban mutation processes of the Eastern area were treated in the fourth part. In the fifth and last part the urban evolution of Arrabalde of the Moors was studied. In the conclusion we observed the city as a whole, identifying the global processes that shaped the city's image. This study, based on various sources of information, noted that the medieval metropolis was not confined to the perimeter comprised by the urban fence because, at least from the time of Islamic rule, their economic and commercial center was on the Western area of City. It was also possible to understand the action of different medieval institutions in shaping the urban form, namely the Crown, the city council and the ecclesiastical institutions. This work revealed the defining role of urban dynamics that occurred in medieval times and how they sustained further developments in modern times.

SILVA, Maria João Oliveira e, Writings in the Cathedral: the Episcopal Chancelaria of Oporto in the Middle Ages (Diplomatic and Paleographical Study), PhD in History submitted to the Faculty of Arts and Humanities of the Universidade do Porto, supervised by Maria Cristina Almeida e Cunha Alegre and Maria José Azevedo Santos, 2010 (

Keywords: Not available

Abstract: Not available

TAVARES, Maria Alice da Silveira, Customs and foros of Riba-Côa: regulations and society, PhD in History: Medieval History submitted to the School of Arts and Humanities of the Universidade de Lisboa, supervised by Manuela Santos Silva, Hermenegildo Fernandes and Ana Maria Martins, 2014 (

Keywords: Customs and foros; Administration; Justice; Economy; Society

Abstract: In this dissertation we present the daily experiences and modus vivendi of the medieval urban population of the villages of Riba-Côa (Alfaiates, Cáceres, Castelo Bom, Castelo Melhor, Castelo Rodrigo, Coria and Usagre), starting with their customs and foros. The aim is to focus on the social, economic, administrative and legal components of the villages of Riba-Côa as suggested by the study of the customary corpus inherited from them. The second part dedicated to urban society aims to unveil the daily experiences of different groups, such as the warriors (knights, pedestrians, miners, adail and crossbowmen), dependents, women, the minorities, Jews and Muslims, and finally the poor. Thirdly, we intend to consider the management of the local economy, especially at the level of the agricultural, livestock, industrial and commercial sectors. The fourth part dedicated to urban administration aims to analyze the organization of municipal assemblies and enumerate the various positions detectable in customary ordinances, making known their functions and privileges. With the study of justice we approach the knowledge of crime and the various forms of judicial action.

VICENTE, Maria da Graça Antunes Silvestre, Between Zêzere and Tagus: property and settlement (12th-14th centuries), PhD in History: Medieval History submitted to the School of Arts and Humanities of the Universidade de Lisboa, supervised by Manuela Mendonça, 2014


Keywords: Middle Ages; Southern Beira Interior; Population; Economy; Property; Society

Abstract: The present dissertation has as main objective to follow the process of occupation and settlement of the geographical space of Southern Beira Interior, through three main vectors: to identify the genesis and evolution of towns and villages in this space; to identify the sharing and exploitation of land and other resources among the various agents, collective or individual, who participated in the movement of occupation of this territory, during the first two centuries of its integration in the new kingdom of Portugal; and to identify the political-juridical, economic, social and religious structures that supported it.

VITÓRIA, André Miguel da Cunha, The Legal Culture in Portugal from the Twelfth to the fourteenth Centuries, PhD in History submitted to the Faculty of Arts and Humanities of the Universidade do Porto, supervised by Luís Miguel Ribeiro de Oliveira Duarte, 2013


Keywords: Not available

Abstract: Not available

Copyright 2020, ISSN 1645-6432
e-JPH, Vol. 17, number 2, December 2019




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