VOLUME 27 NUMBER 2 APRIL 1988
Articles and Notes
Management and Husbandry of the Western Tarsier (Tarsius bancanus) at the National Zoological Park, by Miles Roberts...... 1
Environmental Enrichment Program for Caged Macaques: A Review, by Viktor Reinhardt, Steve Eisele, & Dan Houser ...... 5
Ear Tags for Long-Term Identification of Baboons, by Linda L. Taylor, Stephen Phillip Easley, & Anthony M. Coelho, Jr. ...... 8
What We Don't Know About Lab Animals, by Melinda A. Novak & Jerrold S. Meyer ...... 16
News, Information, and Announcements
B Virus (and Other Primate Viruses) Laboratory Support...... 7
AALAS Correspondence Course Offered ...... 7
Request for Information: Identification Systems ...... 10
Audiovisual Services at the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center ...... 11
Animal Regulations: So Far, So Good ...... 12
Request for Applications for Research Grants ...... 15
Dallas Zoo to Host National Workshop ...... 17
Editor's Note ...... 17
News Briefs ...... 18
. . USDA Decides Animal Welfare Act Compliance Case; Orlans Resigns Animal Welfare Post; Congressional Staff Visit Labs; Do Animals Lie? APHIS Regulations
American Society of Primatologists Annual Meeting...... 19
African Green Monkey Blood Needed ...... 19
Conference on Laboratory Animals ...... 30
Mailing List Renewal Notice and Questionnaire ...... insert
Humorous Cartoon, by Rick Connor ...... 20:
Address Changes ...... 20
Recent Books and Articles ...... 21
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There are three species of tarsiers: Tarsius syrichta from Mindanao, T. spectrum from Suluwesi, and T. bancanus from Borneo. Until fairly recent geological times tarsiers were widely distributed throughout the northern hemisphere. While not uncommon, they should be considered "vulnerable" in their restricted and insular distributions.
All three species are found mainly in secondary tropical rain forests where the canopy rarely exceeds 15 meters. They appear to prefer regenerating disturbed areas, possibly because of the high incidence of preferred food items there (Fogden, 1974; Niemitz, 1979b; MacKinnon & MacKinnon, 1980). They are all small, about 130 grams, and arboreal. They are allegedly monogamous and territorial with home ranges up to 3 hectares.
Tarsiers are unique among primates in being exclusively carnivorous. Approximately 90% of the diet consists of large dispersed insects while the rest consists of small vertebrates (Niemitz, 1979a). Tarsiers are also among the few primates that are nocturnal. They have huge eyes that enable them to see small prey items at considerable distances in very little light.
Little is known of the natural history of this small, elusive, nocturnal, rain-forest-dwelling primate. Fieldwork is understandably difficult to conduct and new data has come slowly. There have been few captive studies because of the sheer difficulty of obtaining and establishing these
rather delicate animals in captivity (Cook, 1939; Lewis, 1939; Wharton, 1950; Harrisson, 1963; Ulmer, 1963; Schreiber, 1968). Currently, only the Skansen Zoo in Sweden and the Frankfurt Zoo have tarsiers visible to the public, and there have been none exhibited in the United States for almost 10 years.
Management and Husbandry
In 1983 we had the opportunity to obtain Tarsius bancanus from Sabah, Malaysia, in collaboration with the Duke Primate Center (DPC). Dr. Patricia Wright of DPC mist netted six pairs after a reconnaisance of the trapping area to determine territorial boundaries and movement patterns. Animals were transferred immediately to large wire cages in the field where they were acclimatized for up to two weeks. This provided an opportunity to release a specimen if it appeared not to be adjusting to captivity. Previous ventures of this sort have not included acclimatization and high post-capture mortality has resulted. Animals were hand carried to the U.S. in the passenger cabin of an airliner in small crates designed to permit regular and frequent feeding and watering. The cabins and cargo sections of airliners are so cool and dry that these delicate animals may not have survived without being warmed and regularly rehydrated during the trip.
Upon reaching the U.S. all tarsiers were alive and the shipment was split with three pairs going to DPC and three pairs to the National Zoological Park (NZP). One male in the NZP contingent was extremely dehydrated and died a week after arrival. Its mate became depressed and died a week later. The other two pairs at NZP and the three pairs at DPC settled in well.
The NZP pairs, the subject of this report, are housed in rooms 5 x 4.5 x 5 m. Branch networks, designed to accomodate the animals' acrobatic leaping abilities, consist of tree branches, bamboo poles, and wooden dowels arranged at a variety of angles and heights. There are several cardboard nest boxes that can be entered from the bottom or side.
Two 200 watt white incandescent bulbs provide the "daytime" illumination. From about 1530 to 0330, a 20 watt blue incandescent bulb in each enclosure provides a "moonlit night". No ultraviolet light is provided.
A forced-air heating/ventilating/air conditioning system provides a temperature range of 80-840 and a humidifier, supplemented with thrice daily misting of the cages, maintains the humidity at 60-70%. When the humidity drops below 50% the animals appear uncomfortable, drink frequently, and develop flaky skin. Ad lib water is provided in a number of ways. Small crocks are dispersed around the rooms but are rarely used. A drip system made from a distilled water bottle provides a constant supply of water in small amounts and is used most by the animals. They also lick water adhering to branches from the mistings.
Tarsiers eat only live, moving food. We initially offered a wide variety of food items, but the tarsiers showed an almost exclusive preference for crickets. Crickets are deficient in a number of essential vitamins and trace minerals and it was therefore necessary to devise a method of supplementing the tarsiers' diet with these vital components. The typical method of dusting crickets with a vitamin/mineral powder works well with dead crickets, which the tarsiers won't eat, but live crickets groom most of the supplement off within 30 minutes. The method we employ is to provide the crickets with an ad lib supply of a specially prepared supplement. When the crickets eat the supplement they do not digest it but have it in their guts when the tarsiers eat them. The technique seems to have worked as our tarsiers do not appear to have nutritional problems as reported by other institutions. At any given time there are approximately 300 crickets at liberty in each tarsier enclosure. In a week we use approximately 1000 crickets per animal. The average food cost including crickets, supplements, and lizards is about $2.00 per animal per day.
When the tarsiers arrived they, like most wild animals, had parasites. Worming via injection or tubing was too stressful to consider and application-of the worming medication to crickets was too unreliable. We mix the wormer with a sticky, palatable paste which is then applied with a tongue depressor to the fur on the thigh of each animal just before it awakes. They are fastidious about cleanliness and immediately lick the annoying paste off during grooming. Parasites, which included tapeworms and roundworms, have not been completely eliminated but are kept at an acceptable subclinical level.
We have had four young born here, two to each surviving pair. All were healthy and vigorous when born. We attribute our success to good nutrition and the females' ability to exercise and keep their weight and the weight of the fetus within a range that facilitates trouble-free gestation and parturition.
Both females lost their first infants. The first died from a fall. Female tarsiers carry their young in their mouths from place to place and " park" them on a branch when they go foraging. We suspect that the first infant fell either when dropped by its mother or when making its first unsteady jumps. To prevent this we now place a thick layer of pine shavings on the floor of the enclosure before birth and as long after as seems necessary.
The second infant was killed by its father. This was quite a shock as we expected at least some degree of paternal assistance in this supposedly monogamous species. We observed the male waiting in hiding for the female to park the infant. Then he'd go to it and try to pick it up in his mouth. At first we interpreted his behavior to be normal paternal care ... perhaps the male carried the infant sometimes. But when the infant shrieked and the female took off after him with "blood in her eye," it was clear that males are not a direct part of the infant rearing scheme. In fact, it became clear that the females didn't even want the males around and would chase them as far away as possible. Subsequently we modified the facilities so that each pair had access to two adjoining large enclosures separated by a tall narrow opening that the female can guard. Some weeks before the next birth we began separating one male for longer periods until after birth he was continuously separated except for the 1.5 hours a day when someone was observing. The female, upon seeing the male, would chase him vigorously back into his room, never allowing him close enough to the infant to be a problem. Interestingly, the second male never attacked either infant but was also chased both before and after birth by his female. Because of his good behavior he was never physically separated from her after birth and she reared her second infant with no difficulty.
The female stays with her infant during the first few days, leaving only to feed, drink, and defecate. Then she gradually spends more time foraging as energy demands of lactation skyrocket. At about three weeks the infant shinnies up and down supports, acting like it wants to jump. At 25 days, it makes little frog-hops along a horizontal or 30deg support, often toward small prey items such as crickets or roaches. The mother tries to retrieve it, an increasingly time-consuming activity as the infant becomes more coordinated, active, and headstrong.
The gestation period of tarsiers is approximately 6 months. This is long for animals of this size and may be due to their having an extremely low metabolic rate which drives a slow rate of growth. We compared observed energy intake with that predicted for an animal of their body size by observing tarsiers all night long and counting the number of food items they consumed. We determined the energy content in similar sized food items by bomb calorimetry and derived a rough estimate of total energy ingested. We were able to estimate that active tarsiers were consuming between 60% and 80% of the energy predicted for resting animals of their body mass. We hypothesize tarsiers have either a very low metabolic rate or use energy conservation mechanisms such as low rates of activity or torpor to reduce energy expenditure.
Prey Catching Behavior
Answers about metabolic rate and torpor await physiological study, but we do have evidence that tarsiers use behavioral mechanisms to cut energy expenditures. For example, they do not probe about their enclosures like shrews or tamarins but rather have a "sit and wait" prey capture strategy. If the prey comes close enough the tarsier leaps on it at once, pinning it to a branch with its hands and immobilizing it with a bite from its specially modified first and second incisors. We have observed tarsiers to capture prey in three different ways: 1) about 20% of the time they remain immobile until they can reach out and catch prey as it walks nearby. 2) About 29% of the time, the prey come close enough to be caught by a single jump. 3) The remaining 5 1% of the attacks required a series of 2 or 3 short leaps. Our tarsiers were successful in 88% of 313 observed capture attempts, suggesting a very high catching efficiency.
In the first hour after lights-out approximately 20-45% of the total nightly capture is made. This is followed by 1/2 to 1 hour in which no captures are made as the animals rest and presumably digest. Then follows another burst of foraging at a lower rate, then rest, as the pattern is repeated throughout the night. We are satisfied that the capture hiatuses are not due to a reduction in cricket numbers as a result of foraging.
Activity and Space Use
These tarsiers were completely nocturnal. Our detailed records show that our tarsiers moved a total of less than 30 times during the "day" in the two years we have had them. Most of the activity in the first hour after lights-out was concerned with prey catching and eating, but later activity peaks tended to be non-foraging behaviors such as grooming, scent marking, interactions, and patrolling.
The tarsiers showed a significant preference for vertical or near vertical substrates; the more oblique angles were used significantly less. Anatomically, tarsiers are superbly adapted for leaping. The fingers and toes are long, powerful, and enlarged at the end to provide maximum friction for clinging. the base of the tail, which is bare and transversely ridged underneath, is used as a brace for additional support and the long, powerful hind limbs provide the propulsive force for leaps of well over 10 feet at a time (Hill, 1953; Cartmill, 1974; Niemitz, 1984). Biomechanical evidence suggests that these adaptations work best when the animals are perched on vertical or near vertical substrates.
The leaping mode of locomotion is quite remarkable in itself. It begins with a head turn of up to 180 degrees in the intended direction of travel. Then comes the push-off with the animal essentially leaping backwards. The upper body twists in the direction of travel and the rest of the body follows until aligned in the direction of flight.
the landing is made with the hind feet making contact first (Preuschoft, Fritz, & Niemitz, 1979). These leaps are remarkably quiet and in the dark these aptly named "ghost monkeys" appear and disappear noiselessly as if turned on and off by a switch.
The animals also showed a significant preference for the relatively small diameter bamboo poles. The reason seems to be that these substrates seem to allow the greatest surface area contact for the friction support system employed by the tarsiers, though they are capable of clinging to much larger diameter substrates. Secondly, the smaller diameter substrates seem to provide the fine tuned control for jumping that facilitates better aim for locomotion and prey capture.
Most surprisingly, we found that each animal had a very marked and significant preference for staying inside a specific height range, though there is an abundance of the preferred angles and substrate types outside of that range. Similarly, prey were abundantly distributed outside of this range. We concluded that the tarsiers were avoiding other heights. They probably avoided the floor because of the difficulty of locomotion there. The canopy may have been avoided because there were fewer stable substrates there, or because of an innate tendency to avoid exposed areas.
Our experiences at NZP suggest that tarsiers can be maintained successfully in captivity if proper care and attention are given to the few key points outlined here. I think there's enough known about space and substrate requirements, activity regimes, social interactions, and reproduction to be able to create exciting exhibits that will bring this fascinating species to the North American zoo-going public.
Cartmill, M. A. (1974). Pads and claws in arboreal locomotion. In F. A. Jenkins (Ed.), Primate Locomotion (pp. 45-83). New York: Academic Press.
Cook, N. (1939). Notes on captive Tarsius carbonarius. Journal of Mammalology, 20, 173-177.
Fogden, M. P. (1974). A preliminary field study of the western tarsier, Tarsius bancanus Horsfield. In R. D. Martin, G. A. Doyle, & A. C. Walker (Eds.), Prosimian Biology (pp. 151-166). London: Duckworth.
Hill, W. C. 0. (1953). Caudal cutaneous specializations in Tarsius. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 123, 17-29.
Harrison, B. (1963). Trying to breed Tarsius. Malay National Journal, 17, 218-231.
Lewis, G. (1939). Notes on a pair of tarsiers from Mindanao. Journal of Mammalology, 20, 57-61.
MacKinnon, J. & K. MacKinnon (1980). The behavior of wild spectral tarsiers. International Journal of Primatology, 1, 361-379.
Niemitz, C. (1979a). Outline of the behavior of Tarsius bancanus. In R. D. Martin, G. A. Doyle, & A. C. Walker (Eds.), Prosimian Biology (pp. 631-660). London: Duckworth.
Niemitz, C. (1979b). Results of a field study on the western tarsier (Tarsius bancanus borneanus Horsfield, 1921) in Sarawak. Sarawak Museum Journal, 27, 171-228.
Niemitz, C. (1984). Locomotion and posture of Tarsius bancanus. In C. Niemitz (Ed.), Biology of Tarsiers (pp. 191-225). Stuttgart: Fischer Veriag.
Preuschoft, H., M. Fritz, & C. Niemitz (1979). Biomechanics of the trunk in primates and problems of leaping in Tarsius In M. E. Morbeck, H. Preuschoft, & M. Gomberg (Eds.), Environment, Behavior and Morphology: Dynamic Interactions in Primates (pp. 327-345). New York: Fischer Verlag.
Schreiber, G. R. (1968). A note on keeping and breeding the Phillipine tarsier, Tarsius syrichta, at Brookfield Zoo Chicago. International Zoo Yearbook, 8, 114-115.
Ulmer, F. A. (1963). Observations on the tarsier in captivity. Zoological Gardens, 27, 106-121.
Wharton, C. H. (1950). The tarsier in captivity. Journal of Mammalology, 31, 260-268.
Author's address: Department of Zoological Research, National Zoological Park, Washington, DC 20008.
. . This article is condensed from the Proceedings of the 1985 Annual Conference of the American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums, 466-475.
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Investigations aimed at enriching the barren environment of singly caged, sexually mature (>3 years old) macaques were initiated at the Wisconsin Primate Research Center in May 1986. The project was based on the following assumptions: (1) Macaques are social animals inherently adapted to an ever-changing environment. (2) Macaques that are able to express their basic need for social contact and interaction are more species-typical than those that are socially deprived. (3) Singly caged macaques may lack stimulation (be bored) and hence experience a reduction in psychological well-being. (4) The degree of understimulation can be reduced and the psychological well-being promoted by the provision of stimuli that trigger the expression of species-typical activities. (5) Any cage enrichment program should be inexpensive if it is to be implemented in institutions with large numbers of animals.
Pilot studies were conducted with rhesus monkeys in 1986 to evaluate three methods of cage enrichment that were simple, safe, and inexpensive. (1) Singly caged adults were provided with naturally weaned infants, 12-18 months old, that had been removed from breeding troops to avoid overcrowding (Reinhardt et al., 1987a). (2) Singly caged adult females were cautiously paired in double cages (Reinhardt et al., 1987b, 1988). (3) Singly caged adults were provided with deciduous tree branches that were obtained without charge from an animal caretaker and from the local arboretum (Reinhardt et al., 1987c; Reinhardt, 1987).
What were our findings?
(1) Of 29 adult-infant pairs tested, 90% (26/29) proved to be compatible and the partners regularly engaged in socially positive behavior such as huddling, grooming, and food sharing. Compatibility was dependent neither on the adult's origin (born in captivity or in the wild), age, or sex, nor on the sex of the infant. To be initially accepted by the adult, however, the youngster had to be no older than 18 months. Currently the youngsters have reached the ages of 27-33 months and their relationship with the adults is as good as ever (Figure 1).
Figure 1: Rose (17 year old female) and Chimp (10 year old female) have provided companionship to each other for a year.
(2) Of 10 adult female/adult female pairs tested 70% were compatible, with partners sharing food and grooming each other regularly. Compatibility did not depend on the respective age and origin of the animals. After living together for one year, paired partners are presently still providing companionship to each other (Figure 1).
(3) Deciduous tree branches were installed in the cages of 86 adult monkeys. Branches were used for perching, gnawing, holding, manipulating, or displaying (shaking) in 87% (75/86) of cases. Branch usage was not related to sex or age of the subjects. The 75 monkeys that used their branch during the 2-month study were observed 15 months later on 7 consecutive days for 5 minutes at 11 a.m., 1 p.m., and 3 p.m. Without a single exception all animals were seen perching or holding their branch or gnawing at it at least twice a day on each of the 7 days of observation. Singly caged macaques quickly lose interest in play objects such as chains, nylon balls, or nylon bones (Reinhardt, unpublished observations). This apparently is not the case with the branches.
The pilot studies were encouraging. They showed that there are inexpensive ways to upgrade the environment of macaques that had previously been housed in barren cages. Compatible conspecifics and/or tree branches were optimal stimuli because they enabled the animals to expand their range of species-typical activities, thereby counteracting boredom. The three options of cage enrichment were of particular interest to the Primate Center because they made the animals more species-typical and hence more valuable for representative research. Further efforts were therefore made to implement these preliminary findings in a more systematic fashion. A census was taken in December 1987; it revealed the following (Figure 3): (1) Of 523 caged, sexually mature rhesus macaques, 73% lived in an enriched environment. (2) 41% of the animals shared a cage with one (45) or several (8) compatible, 15-33 months old juvenile companions (53, 10%) or with a compatible adult companion (160, 31%). The 80 adult pairs consisted of 66 female-female, 8 male-male, and 6 female-male pairs. (3) Of the resocialized adults, 72% lived in cages that were provided with branches. The remaining 28% were housed in squeeze cages for frequent in-cage venipuncture; hence they had no branch available. (4) 32% of the animals were living alone but their cages had tree branches. (5) None of the three cage enrichments posed any health problems. (6) 27% of the animals were still living in barren cages.
Figure 2: Housing conditions of the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center's adult, caged rhesus macaques in December 1987.
We are currently focusing on these remaining animals. Our ultimate goal is to provide one or several compatible companions plus a branch for all our caged rhesus macaques. We have already reached this goal with our adult stumptailed macaques, but their number is much smaller (25 animals) than that of the rhesus macaques.
Some special research protocols prohibit the provision of a social companion (e.g. metabolic tests, studies requiring tethering equipment, behavioral and/or physiological assessment of social deprivation) or of a branch (e.g. frequent in-cage venipuncture). However, there is no reason for not granting individual animals that are subjected to such investigations an enriched environment once the research project is terminated.
Reinhardt, V. (1987). Improved installation method for branches that are used as cage enrichment for macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 26, 1.
Reinhardt, V., Houser, W. D., Eisele, S. G., & Champoux, M. (1987a). Social enrichment of the environment for singly caged adult rhesus monkeys. Zoo Biology, 6, 365-371.
Reinhardt, V., Cowley, D., Eisele, S., Vertein, R., & Houser, D. (1987b). Preliminary comments on pairing unfamiliar female rhesus monkeys for the purpose of environmental enrichment. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 26, 5-8.
Reinhardt, V., Houser, W. D., Cowley, D., & Champoux, M. (1987c). Preliminary comments on environmental enrichment with branches for individually caged rhesus monkeys. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 26, 1-3.
Reinhardt, V., Houser, W., Eisele, S., Cowley, D., & Vertein. (1988). Behavior responses of unrelated rhesus monkey females paired for the purpose of environmental enrichment. American Journal of Primatology, in press.
Authors' address: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research
Center, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715.
. . The authors very much appreciate the cooperative support by Mr. Steve Brice, Mr. Doug Cowley, Mr. Michael Hempel, Mr. Matthew D. Smith, and Mr. Russell Vertein. Thanks are also due to Mrs. Annie Reinhardt and Mr. John Wolf for critically reading the manuscript. The Environmental Enrichment Program is supported by NIH grant RR-00167 to the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center.
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Confusion has resulted from a report in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (36, 1987, 680-682, reprinted in the Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 36, 1988, 9-12) regarding laboratory assistance for B virus infections. We wish to indicate that the NIH and WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research in Simian Viruses still provides this service and the persons to contact remain the same as in the past, i.e., Drs. S. S. Kalter and/or R. L. Heberling.
In addition to B virus serology and virus isolation studies, the Virus Reference Laboratory provides laboratory assistance for a wide variety of other primate virus diseases: herpesviruses other than B virus, simian AIDS (SIV/STLV-III, SRV-1, SRV-2), hepatitis, measles, respiratory, enteric, central nervous system, etc. (Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 25, 1986, 8-9). In providing laboratory support for the diagnosis of these diseases, battery type testing (rather than use of a single antigen) is performed. This type of testing provides a more comprehensive analysis of the possible etiologic agents.-- S. S. Kalter, NIH and WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research in Simian Viruses, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, P. O. Box 28147, San Antonio, RX 78284.
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A continuing education correspondence course and other self-study materials in laboratory animal science are again being made available through the New York Metropolitan Branch of the American Association of Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS).
The correspondence course is designed primarily for those who are studying for AALAS technologist certification, although it also has been used as an instructor's guide for AALAS training courses. The program is offered nationally and takes one year to complete. Those wishing to use the course materials as the basis of an instructor's course plan can receive a complete set of the latest study guides, supplemental articles, text list, and exams at a reduced rate in a single mailing. Mailings will include up-to-date study materials, study outlines, and examinations. Registration is limited to the first fifty applicants and will close on June 15, 1988. The course will begin in September, 1988.
Two self-testing programs based on the AALAS Manual for Assistant Laboratory Animal Technicians (84-1) and the Manual for Laboratory Animal Technicians (84-2) are also available to instructors or technicians preparing for assistant and technician certification. These sample exams are designed to evaluate your comprehension of 84-1 and 84-2 text materials. Additional study materials and suggestions based on the corrected examinations are also available at any time as part of these self-testing programs.
For more information, interested persons should send a stamped self-addressed envelope to: Dr. D. M. Stark, Box 23A, 500 E. 63rd Street, New York, NY 10021.
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Unambiguous identification of individual animals is important for long-term studies of nonhuman primates. In general, two identification systems are being employed: naturally-occurring traits such as scars, missing digits, or nose whorls, and artificial markers requiring human intervention such as tattoos, collars, or ear notches (Stonehouse, 1968; Giles, 1969; Lehner, 1979; National Research Council, 1981).
Identification systems based on naturallyoccurring traits have some disadvantages for long-term studies. Similar traits may appear in several members of the study group, and some traits may change as an individual ages, while others may not be readily detectable at a distance (Lehner, 1979). It is often difficult to train multiple observers to use the system, and interobserver reliability may be low. Some identification systems require observers to create and maintain individual identification cards for each study animal (e.g., National Research Council, 1981, p. 230). Other systems may be idiosyncratic; identification schemes based on physical appearance or behavioral traits are as varied as the investigators who develop them. Still, if study subjects cannot be captured and sedated, as is required for artificial markers, then naturallyoccurring markers remain the only realistic approach to long-term identification.
Several types of artificial markers are currently available to the primatologist when it is feasible to capture and sedate study animals. The primary advantage of these markers is that they can provide rapid, unambiguous identification information and a high degree of intra- and interobserver reliability. Most marking techniques and materials adapted for use in nonhuman primates were originally designed for other species (e.g., domestic animals). Systems using attached materials like tags have been more readily adopted by primatologists than systems involving permanent physical alteration, e.g., ear notching. Unfortunately, practical marking techniques and materials for identifying nonhuman primates are not widely publicized.
The protocol for our current research on the social behavior of male anubis baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis) required unambiguous identification of individuals. Any marking system used in the project had to meet certain physical criteria: markers had to (1) be readily visible in all postures the animals might assume; (2) be visible at ten meters under artificial lighting; and (3) withstand the considerable dexterity, strength, and persistence of our subjects for a minimum of six months. We sought to develop a simple system that would be easily learned by multiple observers and which would yield a high degree of interobserver reliability,
All baboons at the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research (SFBR) have identification codes tattooed on their abdomens. However, it is extremely difficult to decipher the abdominal tattoos in most postures the animals normally adopt. Tattoos on other locations on the baboons' body were unsuitable for our project because the skin of anubis baboons is dark and limits the number of useable sites. Shaving and other means of altering the pelage were not acceptable techniques because they do not last long and require frequent maintenance. Rigid plastic ear tags, similar to those pictured on the cover of Science (212, 1981) were unsuitable primarily because they were difficult to see in the pelage of our adult male baboon subjects.
Materials and Methods
Subjects: 32 male anubis baboons (P. c. anubis), approximately six years of age when the tags were implanted.
Materials: 1 One social group of 16 males (Group A) was fitted with ear tags which were a combination of Jumbo Rototag backs and AllFlex fronts. A second social group of 16 males (Group B) was fitted with DUFLEX blank sheep/goat ear tags. One male and one female portion are required for each kind of tag set.
Procedures: Two-digit identification numbers were written on each tag 24 hours before the tags were attached to the animals. Sanford's black felt tip marker was used for Group A identification numbers and a Super-Mark felt tip pen was used for those of Group B. The tags were implanted with an applicator tool during routine physical examinations for which the baboons had been sedated. Tags were attached to both the right and left pinnae of all animals.
Group A. Tag Retention: The baboons began grooming out the Rototag/AllFlex tags less than three weeks after initial attachment. About half of these ear tags were removed by the baboons in less than six months. Some individuals were retagged four times and still managed to remove their tags in a matter of hours. Only 2 of the 16 animals in Group A retained tags in both ears without incident for the entire 23-week study.
Infection: During periodic health examinations, 27 of 32 tag sites were reported to be infected. Healing was slow.
Legibility: Some of the numbers drawn with the Sanford marker ran or faded when the tag sites were cleaned and treated for infection. The baboons chewed the rigid backs until many tags were mutilated beyond recognition.
Group B. Tag Retention: All tags are still in place after 15 months. No tags have been groomed out and no animals required retagging.
Infection: The baboons had a normal and uneventful course of recovery after tagging. No infections at the tag site or other complications attributable to the tagging procedure have arisen.
Legibility: The hand-written numbers drawn with the Super-Mark marker are still crisp and legible. No fading or running occurred when the tags were cleaned for examination of the tag sites. No tags were mutilated to the point that they became unrecognizable or had to be replaced.
The combination of hard plastic Jumbo Rototag backs and AllFlex flexible plastic fronts used on social Group A were so heavy that they caused the pinnae to bend. The baboons appeared to be bothered by the movement and, as a consequence, frequently touched and groomed their ears. Infections at the tag sites may have stimulated lengthy grooming around the tags, and this frequent and intense grooming may have contributed to poor tag retention in Group A. We did not encounter any of these problems with the DUFLEX sheep/goat tags used in social Group B. The insertion wounds healed rapidly and no infections were noted during subsequent routine physical examinations. The tags are apparently flexible enough to withstand chewing so that none were badly mutilated, although the baboons did create some minor damage. Little build-up of dirt or other accretions has been observed. The baboons tolerate the tags very well; they do not pull tags during agonistic interactions nor groom tag sites excessively.
The DUFLEX sheep/goat ear tags, in conjunction with the SFBR tattoos, provided permanent, unambiguous identification. The tags are light weight (5 gm) and contain no metal. The size, oblong shape, and bright colors make them easy to see on our subjects. The seven colors (white, yellow, orange, red, blue, green, and purple) are easily distinguished; just a small portion of the tag has to be seen for accurate identification by color. Any confusion which may arise from similarity (e.g., blue/green or red/orange) can be greatly diminished by using male and female halves of contrasting colors for a single tag in conjunction with numerical imprinting.
A slow-release, anti-bacterial chlorhexidine coating incorporated in the DUFLEX tags may have eliminated the infection problems encountered with the Rototag/AllFlex combination tags. The shanks of the DUFLEX tags are longer and slimmer than those of the Rototags and may have resulted in a better fit on the ear and faster healing. The blank DUFLEX sheep/goat ear tags cost about 50 cents per set; imprinted tags in prenumbered sequences of 25, about 65 cents per set. Tags can be inscribed using the Super-Mark felt tip pen, which has been field tested and reported to be fade-resistant for three years. DUFLEX domestic animal ear tags meet USDA standards and have been used for a variety of exotic animals, including llamas, bears, moose, sharks, dolphins, and reindeer. We found this ear tagging system to be appropriate for male anubis baboons and suggest that it may be suitable for other nonhuman primates.
Giles, R. H. (1969). Wildlife Management Techniques. Washington, D.C.: The Wildlife Society.
Lehner, P. N. (1979). Handbook of Ethological Methods. New York: Garland STPM Press.
National Research Council, Subcommittee on Conservation of Natural Populations (1981). Techniques for the Study of Primate Population Ecology. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
Stonehouse, B. (1968). Animal Marking: Recognition Marking of Animals in Research. Baltimore: University Park Press.
. . Authors' address: Behavioral Medicine Laboratory, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, P. 0. Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78284.
. . This work was supported by DOE contract DE-ALOI-80RA5029, NHLBI grants HL28972 and HL35136, and the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research (SFBR). We also thank Dr. Gary Moore and Mr. Sam Tomlinson of the Southwest Research Institute. The SFBR is accredited by the AALAC and is in compliance with the requirements of the Animal Welfare Act.
. . Rototags and AllFlex are available through the NASCO Farm and Ranch Catalog, NASCO, 901 Janesville Ave., Fort Atkinson, WI 53539. DUFLEX tags and equipment are marketed by Fearing Manufacturing Co. Inc., 490 Villauame Ave., St. Paul, MN 55075.
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Data on identification systems are requested for inclusion in a review of practical marking materials and techniques. To date, these systems are not widely publicized despite the considerable benefits derived from unambiguous identification of individual animals. We ask for your input on the following points:
All responses are appreciated; photographs would be extremely helpful. Include a self-addressed mailing label with your contribution for a copy of the results of the survey. Address correspondence to: Linda Taylor, Behavioral Medicine Laboratory, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, P. O. Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78284 [512-674-1410].
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With support from the Division of Research Resources, NIH, the library at the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center (WRPRC) has developed an archive of materials relating to nonhuman primates. WRPRC's Audiovisual Services collects and makes available for loan audiovisual materials which support scientific research, teaching, and conservation. The collection includes a variety of formats, but the primary focus is on videotapes and slides. Within its scope are audiovisual materials on living and fossil primates, primatologists, primate facilities, veterinary and animal husbandry, research methodologies, and zoo design. The long-range goals of the project are to assist in the preservation of the vocal and behavioral repertoire of nonhuman primates and to serve as a repository for archival materials.
In building the collection, which includes 3,500 slides, slide sets, videotapes, posters, and audiotapes, the Center has relied on contributions from primatologists around the United States and abroad. An increase in videotaping by staff at zoos and primate laboratories has provided the Center with the opportunity to acquire a number of interesting studies of some of the rarer species, including, for example, the golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellanae) and bonobos (Pan paniscus). Two videotaped symposia which have been added recently are "The Zoo-University Connection" (1986), a conference co-sponsored by the WRPRC and the Milwaukee County Zoo to address the issue of collaborative research to conserve endangered species; and "Understanding Chimpanzees: A Symposium and International Forum" (1986), sponsored by the Chicago Academy of Sciences to bring together many prominent scientists to discuss their findings on captive and wild chimpanzees.
The Center's collection comprises a range of species, ages, behaviors, and formats, including both commercially produced and unedited materials. Especially valuable are videotapes gathered in conjunction with behavioral research. These materials may be reused for other research applications. The Center is seeking videotapes, films, or slides which show any or all of the following: (1) pelage or other taxonomic features, (2) sexual dimorphism, (3) social and/or family groupings, (4) behaviors, e.g. sex, play, feeding, (5) facial expression, (6) habitat, and (7) aging and growth-related changes.
All contributions are cataloged, indexed, and entered into a computerized database. Items are retrievable by family, genus, species, common name, sex, age, captive or noncaptive status, and subject. In addition to items owned by the Center, the database has been enhanced with citations to audiovisual materials about nonhuman primates from other sources. Searches of the database are available on request. Unless specifically restricted by the contributor, all items in the collection are available for loan. All items should be reserved well in advance of the date needed. Most materials are copyright protected and cannot be duplicated without permission from the contributor. Some searches or loan transactions may be subject to a service fee, but these details are worked out with the user in advance.
To help contributors and borrowers keep abreast of new items coming into the collection, the library publishes the bimonthly Primate Library Report: Print Acquisitions, and the semiannual Primate Library Report: Audiovisual Acquisitions. The audiovisual newsletter is received by members of the American Primatological Society, a number of zoos and libraries, and individuals who have indicated an interest. This publication has approximately 35 abstracted items per issue as well as loan policies and instructions to contributors. The editor welcomes listings of newly produced audiovisual materials, including a description of the piece, as well as price and source, and requests that one copy of the item be deposited with the Center archive.
The viability and usefulness of this collection depend on support from members of the primatological community. The Center welcomes input from those who would like to contribute audiovisual items, ideas, and support to this effort. For a sample copy of Primate Center Library: Audiovisual Acquisitions, or more information, write to Larry Jacobsen, Library Director, WRPRC, University of Wisconsin, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715-1299 [608-263-3512].
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In the spring of 1981, an unprecedented story captured headlines on the network news: animal activists had broken into a laboratory in Silver Spring, MD, and made off with 15 monkeys that had been used in some nerve-severing experiments.
Charles McCarthy, head of the Office of Protection for Research Risks (OPRR) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), who was in California at the time, remembers turning on the television in his hotel room and thinking that this was something "very new." For one thing, it was obviously planned with the media in mind, because TV cameras were already rolling inside the building when the police entered.
Indeed, the Silver Spring heist from the laboratory of investigator Edward Taub heralded the beginning of an era of animal activism unprecedented in this century. The break-in triggered a public response across the country that resulted in thousands of letters to NIH over a period of years. "What we perceived was not a small handful of activists but a nerve in the American public that was touched," says McCarthy. "I expect I will be long retired before we hear the end of the Taub case."
Much has occurred since the hapless Taub found himself in a much publicized trial which resulted in a verdict (later overturned) that some of his monkeys had received improper veterinary care. In 1985 Congress passed long-awaited amendments to the Animal Welfare Act that call for the Department of Agriculture to formulate new regulations on the care of laboratory animals. At the same time, the Public Health Service (PHS) issued new animal guidelines that must be followed by all recipients of PHS money (most of them NIH grantees).
In the world of ethics and science, the 1970s was the decade for overhauling policies on human subjects in research. The 1980s is the decade for animal subjects.
It is still a time of settling in. Scientists must become accustomed to the fact that research with animals is getting far more costly, and that stringent justifications will be required for any procedures involving animals. Nonetheless, judging from a recent conference sponsored by the Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW), held at New York's Rockefeller University in October, institutions are finding the new rules tolerable and many of the required changes even desirable.
Many institutions are discovering to their relief that NIH is being flexible in the interpretation of its guidelines. Much of the credit for this goes to McCarthy, who has been traveling furiously around the country, meeting with scientists and administrators to help them prepare for the changes. "We are seen as being reasonable," he says.
Basically, the new rules call for every research institution to set up an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC, pronounced as in "I, a cook"). Each committee has to have a scientist, a veterinarian, and a person otherwise unaffiliated with the institution. Duties are numerous, including inspections, semiannual reports, and review of the animal portions of proposed research protocols. The rules also contain detailed injunctions about personnel training, the conduct of painful procedures on animals, and specifications for living quarters. An immense amount of paperwork is required to demonstrate everything is in order. In the old days, the "assurances" that had to be submitted to NIH had little more than a signature on them. Now they must contain detailed information about the animal care program.
But McCarthy says that "it doesn't seem to me that an institution in compliance with the old policy should have trouble with the new one." Many institutions that saw which way the wind was blowing have made extensive changes in facilities and procedures since 1981. On the whole, undoubtedly spurred by fear of the activists, change has been remarkably fast. For example, only about half of the approximately 800 PHS-funded institutions had animal committees, and those that existed were not very effective. Now everyone has one---the average size is 11 members---and the OPRR receives several hundred calls a day from people seeking advice on compliance. "There is an atmosphere of good will," says McCarthy.
According to McCarthy, the new responsibility to review animal protocols "may be the most difficult and controversial obligation imposed" on animal committees. These reviews require the committee to judge whether the experimental design is sufficient to yield important new knowledge, whether the animal model selected is appropriate (or whether nonanimal alternatives exist); the adequacy of procedures for pain control and euthanasia, environmental conditions, and qualifications for personnel.
Some people at the animal welfare conference thought this was going to be a problem. Sherman Bloom of the George Washington University Medical Center, for example, complained, "we are not constituted to do peer review. Can you judge a proposal from the department of obstetrics?" Another consideration raised by protocol review is confidentiality. This is largely the concern of those who use animals to test toxicity of industrial products. Richard A. Murphy of the University of Virginia School of Medicine observed: "Protocol review has created an enormous paper trail... It has fundamentally changed the available information on every aspect of what you are doing."
But as time goes on, people seem to be developing their own solutions. Participants at the conference, for example, reported that protocol review can be expedited by calling in outside consultants or having the principal investigator present at the review. Some companies guard confidentiality by discussing each project under a coded number.
On the whole, it appears that institutions feel they can live with the new rules as interpreted by the NIH. At present, they are more concerned about threats from two other directions: The Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), which administers the Animal Welfare Act, and the animal activists.
APHIS has to put out regulations governing virtually all of the country's animal labs. They were supposed to be out by the end of 1986. Last April, it published a preliminary set of regulations in the Federal Register that appalled many institutions and inspired a record 8000 responses. McCarthy reported at the SCAW conference that the proposed regulations were inconsistent with the PHS guidelines "in at least 135 ways." For example, he said APHIS had "misinterpreted" the animal welfare amendments to require committee inspections not just of animal facilities but of every lab and work area. This, he said, would make the committees "totally unworkable."
APHIS has now gone back to the drawing board (its administrator Bert Hawkins has been reassigned to the agriculture secretary's office). But according to Frederick A. King, director of the Yerkes Primate Center in Atlanta, there is a great deal of concern that if the new regulations are not substantially modified, they could result in almost doubling of the cost of animal care and facilities modifications---a cost which, using data from the Association for Biomedical Research, he estimates at about $500 million nationwide.
APHIS is supposed to be cooperating with NIH in creating the regulations but negotiations have been very difficult. APHIS reportedly has kind of a chip on its shoulder because animal research is not its main line of work, and it has suffered severe drubbings from critics who say its inspections are terrible. The agency is still short on money (the Administration wants to eliminate its laboratory inspection role altogether), and critics say its inspectors are poorly trained. They have been causing considerable distress by rigid adherence to the letter of the regulations. For example at Yerkes, animals are kept in a large corral and obtain water by licking a valve which sometimes dribbles to form a puddle 1 or 2 feet in diameter. Regulations prohibit standing water in animal facilities. King says APHIS inspectors demanded that a costly and totally unnecessary new watering system be installed. "We want fair, equitable inspections," says King---not people "looking for a speck of dust to protect their ass."
King adds that APHIS has inadvertently been supplying fodder for use by such groups as People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), which has been implicated in a number of laboratory break-ins. For example, he says PETA, which has made a special target of NIH primate centers, last year issued a list of APHIS-identified violations at Yerkes extending back to the 1970s. All the problems were old, trivial, and had been immediately corrected, says King. But since inspectors are only required to list negative criticisms, there were no indications in the report that conditions had improved.
So far, APHIS has not published proposed regulations on the most controversial aspect of its duties: specifying the proper conditions to further what the Animal Welfare Act calls the "psychological well-being of primates." King says a draft proposal, reviewed by a panel he is on, recommended that all primates housed individually must be taken out for 2 hours of exercise a day, 5 days a week. The panel found the proposal "unsatisfactory in the extreme" because in fact no one, least of all APHIS, knows what really promotes primate happiness.
Even if APHIS finally comes up with regulations compatible with NIH guidelines, institutions still have the animal activists to contend with. Institutions do not like to discuss how much they are spending on new security arrangements, but it is a lot. And, points out King, "money that should be going into scientific research is going into security systems."
McCarthy says the level of alarm is particularly high in New England and on the West Coast. "They are being nickled and dimed to death on the West Coast by these groups," he says, explaining that Stanford University and the University of California at Berkeley are both planning major new vivaria for their animals, but that activists are filing lawsuits to obstruct them.
Many people are also concerned that state laws mandating open meetings for policy-making bodies will be seized upon by activists to disrupt animal committee meetings, particularly when it comes to review of protocols. Frederick Cornhill of Ohio State University believes this would "significantly impair" the effectiveness of the review process and cause committees to be excessively cautious. Jean Dodds, a SCAW board member and chief of the New York State Health Department hematology laboratory, says "confidentiality is a major loophole in the system." According to Martin Stephens of the Humane Society of the United States, animal advocates have won court cases to gain access to state university meetings in Washington and Florida, are seeking to do so in California, and may launch a challenge in New York.
McCarthy acknowledges that sunshine laws could pose problems, but the only ones he knows of so far have been at the University of Florida, where last year protests helped squelch some research using dogs to test the Heimlich maneuver for drowning victims. Florida's solution, he says, is "committee members don't discuss anything any more."
In the long run, King and others believe that the threat posed by activists is enhanced by the complacency of scientists. "There are still too many scientists sitting in their labs saying it can't happen here," says King. "We still have a great need for scientists to be more forthcoming" in confronting critics and explaining their research.
That was also the theme of a speech by psychologist Neal Miller at the SCAW conference. Miller warned that even previously moderate animal organizations are getting more radical and that "terrorism" is on the increase. He said the tendency of researchers is to "lie low" when what they ought to be doing is inviting concerned citizens and members of the press into their laboratories to show how science works.
But investigators understandably do not want to become lightning rods for protesters. McCarthy relates that after one prominent scientist published some editorials criticizing animal rightists, his office received a batch of material containing photographs and allegations of noncompliance at the scientist's institution.
King says the covert activities are a good deal more extensive than is suggested by the sporadic news coverage of illegal activities. At Yerkes, for example, there have been offers to purchase information from employees. "We also have good reason to believe there is infiltration by activists" going on not only at primate centers but at universities and pharmaceutical companies, says King.
McCarthy notes that all the major break-ins to date have been "inside jobs." He says investigation showed that the recent seizure of cats from a Department of Agriculture laboratory was done with the help of insiders because the fences had been cut from the inside. "The best security is training your own people," he told the SCAW audience.
The animal activism of the 1980s appears to be a major historical phenomenon. McCarthy, a former Catholic priest who taught philosophy and political science, sees it as the successor to the antiwar and human rights crusades of the 60s and 70s. He also notes that modern animal rightists come from a quite different philosophical strain than the old-line antivivisectionists, even though the goal of both groups is the total elimination of animal use in research. Whereas the antivivisectionists operate from principles of humaneness and the idea that doing harm to an animal degrades a person's humanity, the rightists embrace the idea of animal equality---a philosophy that contains a strain from Eastern religions and carries "cultural relativism" to its ultimate extreme.
Noting that the rightists tend to be young, McCarthy thinks they are largely urban types who have never known any animals other than family pets. This, he thinks, has led them to anthropomorphize animals, with help from television programs that show them acting like people. This view gets some support from the fact that McCarthy says the one group he has not seen much protesting from are those who know animals most intimately---the farm community.
The movement has not yet plateaued, but McCarthy says he does not expect Congress will be passing any major new legislation. Rather, he says, policies will be worked out at state and local levels. Some localities, for example, have passed laws prohibiting the use of pound animals for research. And Cambridge, MA, which has already passed ordinances against the Draize test and the LD&s'50 for toxicity testing (a move analagous to making a town a "nuclear free zone"), is now considering a law that would establish a city commission that would be empowered to review painful experiments, inspect research facilities, and even close laboratories. John M. Moses of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, who described the proposed measure at the SCAW conference, said "no issue has attracted more letter writing in years."--- [A reprint of an article by Constance Holden in the November 13, 1987 issue of Science. Reprinted with permission.]
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The International Life Sciences Institute-Nutrition Foundation is accepting proposals to develop methods for producing and studying maternal phenylketonuria (PKU) in laboratory animals. The long-term goal is to improve our understanding of the effects of maternal hyperphenylalaninemia on fetal and neonatal physical and behavioral development as well as to gain general information on PKU.
Although a three-phase study is envisioned, applications currently are being solicited for Phase 1 studies only, to develop methods of maintaining plasma phenylalanine concentrations in a laboratory animal in the range of untreated classical PKU in humans, 1200 to 4000 microM or higher, 24 hours per day on a chronic basis. The species of choice will likely be a subhuman primate, but the possibility that another non-rodent species may have special advantages is not excluded. The ability to make detailed, quantitative objective assessments of behavior in the species is essential.
If production of adequate hyperphenylalaninemia proves possible, Phase 2 will comprise the maintenance of such levels in pregnant subjects throughout gestation and the demonstration of PKU-type defects in the offspring. Phase 3 would then consist of a detailed quantitative assessment of maternal plasma phenylalanine levels where central nervous system damage in the offspring becomes demonstrable. Such dose-effect studies will require sensitive and reliable behavioral assessments on the offspring.
Grants will be awarded for one year, and multiple grants may be awarded under this announcement. Proposals received by May 1, 1988, will be reviewed by July 1. Please send a letter of intent and address any requests for information to Ms. Gretchen Bretsch, International Life Sciences Institute-Nutrition Foundation, 1126 Sixteenth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036 [Telephone: 202-659-0074].
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Melinda A. Novak and Jerrold S. Meyer
University of Massachusetts
Scientists and members of the public have been drawn increasingly into a serious debate over the use of animals in research and teaching. At the core of this interchange is the moral justification for animal use, as well as the quality of life for animals in laboratory environments.
The latter point, quality of life, is important to all scientists--for practical as well as humane reasons. Animals in distress can confound research outcomes. Primatologists are particularly concerned with this issue in light of new federal regulations requiring researchers to address the "psychological well-being" of captively housed primates. While the overall intent of the new regulations is laudable--we must perceive our subjects as living organisms and not as mere research tools--their implementation at present is fraught with difficulty.
After all, what is quality of life? How do we define and measure psychological well-being in nonhuman primates, particularly when psychologists and psychiatrists have not yet arrived at universal agreement on this topic for our own species? It is tempting to conclude that human wants and needs are the same as those of nonhuman primates. But this view is presumptuous at the least, and flies in the face of scientific empiricism. We must not make assumptions about what environmental conditions are optimal for any species of captive primate without rigorous, controlled testing of our hypotheses.
The task before us is to understand how primates respond to various environmental factors, and then to specify the range of laboratory conditions that might be suitable for housing a given species. This requires first defining and operationalizing typical catch-phrases: "well- being," "optimal environment," "quality of life." Then we must establish effective procedures for evaluating the responses of our animals to environmental change.
The importance of assessing proposed environmental alterations can be demonstrated by our own observations of how several groups of rhesus monkeys responded to two environmental manipulations that we thought at first would promote "psychological well-being." The first of these manipulations involved increasing the pen space of two similarly reared, socially housed groups of monkeys. Each group of four or five adult animals, which included both males and females, was maintained in a floor-to-ceiling pen containing resting shelves and a variety of small manipulable objects. The experiment simply involved adding another unit of exactly the same size to each original pen, thus doubling effective cage space.
We had assumed, of course, that more space would be better, and would result in more active, less tense, less aggressive animals. To our surprise, that did not happen. Although the animals did show a reduction in repetitive stereotypic behaviors such as pacing, we also recorded heightened levels of threat and aggressive behavior. In one group, increased aggression was only temporary and returned to previous levels after a month. The other group, however, did not show a decline in aggressive behavior until their cage was returned to its original size three months later.
Two similar groups of rhesus monkeys thus reacted quite differently to cage enlargement. It might seem paradoxical that captive animals could become more aggressive when provided with more space, but other published reports confirm that this can indeed occur. On the other hand, increasing cage size can also reduce levels of aggression. It's clear that we must evaluate each species and experimental setting independently in order to provide the best conditions for experimental animals.
We tested another kind of environmental enrichment on our monkeys. A set of broad-spectrum fluorescent lamps (Vita-Lites) that had previously been used by another researcher in our department for a human study gave us the chance. We decided to install these lights (which, like the sun, emit ultraviolet as well as visible wavelengths) in one of our colony rooms. The result was an increase in reproductive behavior, which would be a beneficial outcome in some kinds of research. Unfortunately, it was accompanied once again by more aggression, and by increased stress responsivity (measured by urinary cortisol excretion). The latter two effects may well have resulted from the increase in reproductive behavior; the breeding season in rhesus monkeys is often associated with heightened tension and aggressiveness.
Although these two manipulations were quite different from one another, we have drawn a few general conclusions. First, similar subjects can respond differently to the same environmental change. Although such variation is not surprising to primatologists, it does complicate the problem of determining optimal housing conditions for a given species. Second, a given manipulation may produce complex consequences that can be viewed by researchers as positive, negative, or both, depending on individual research goals. Finally, the effects of environmental alteration can vary over time, pointing up the need for long-term assessment.
In view of these findings and the conclusions we have drawn from them, are scientists and/or legislators properly prepared to develop a comprehensive set of regulations for ensuring psychological well-being in captive primates? We think not. Our best hope is that the new regulations will lead to accelerated research efforts in this heretofore neglected area.
. . Authors' address: Dept of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003.
. . Reprinted from The Scientist, 1, 1986, 13.
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The Dallas Zoo will host this year's national workshop on "Applying Behavioral Research to Zoo Animal Management," May 7 to 14, 1988. Participants will learn how to develop and participate in behavioral research projects and apply the results to specific management problems. This year's workshop will include topics and projects in mammalian, avian, and reptilian behavior. A nationally recognized behavioral scientist will provide a keynote lecture and many additional activities are planned. Enrollment will be limited to 40 participants, with priority given to zoo staff from AAZPA accredited institutions. Registration fee for the workshop is $100 if paid after April 1. For further information and a registration form, write to Ron Kagan, General Curator, Dallas Zoo, 621 East Clarendon Drive, Dallas, TX 75203-2996.
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In January I travelled to the West Coast, and was pleased to visit some primate facilities and personalities. A. Susan Clarke and Don Lindburg are studying the potential for re-socialization of the "Silver Spring" control animals at the San Diego Zoo. (The experimental animals are still being cared for at Delta Regional Primate Research Center (RPRC)). Gerry Ruppenthal showed me the primate nurseries at the University of Washington, where infants from the Washington RPRC are cared for and studied.
Clara Harlow is living in Phoenix, AZ, now, with her and Harry's son, Rick Potter. I spent an evening with the family. Clara is in generally good physical health, and is as charming and witty as ever, but her memory unfortunately fails her at times. She welcomes correspondence (see Address Changes, p. 20).
I was also delighted to meet Jo and Paul Fritz of the Primate Foundation of Arizona, Tempe, AZ. Their work of saving and resocializing chimpanzees is now supported by a National Institutes of Health grant (see October, 1986 issue of this Newsletter, p. 8). They are planning a new, spacious building, but in the meanwhile they report that the animals are comfortable enough that every adult is breeding.
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The University of Texas Health Science Center, in San Antonio, TX, agreed to the issuance of a cease-and-desist order and to pay a $15,000 civil penalty without admitting or denying U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) allegations that from at least August 1978 to August 6, 1986, it housed research animals outside of the center and, on at least seven occasions, failed to make those animals and records pertaining to them available for USDA inspection.
Also, USDA charged that the center filed annual reports with false and inaccurate information. Allegedly, it underreported the number of animals on which surgical procedures were performed, stated that there was a program of veterinary care for all of its animals and certified that the type and amount of anesthetics and other drugs used on research animals were appropriate to relieve pain and distress. In fact, the attending veterinarian did not have access to any of the animals housed outside of the center's department of laboratory resources and, therefore, could not have known whether professionally acceptable standards were being followed.
The university agreed to establish an ongoing training-information program to ensure that its employees are aware of animal welfare requirements, distribute copies of the administrative decision to all of its personnel responsible for research animals and maintenance, consult with a veterinarian on the proper use of anesthetics and other drugs for pain when caring for surgical animals, implement and maintain a program of veterinary care for all regulated animals, and disclose the location of all animals and make those animals and records available for inspection by the attending veterinarian as well as USDA officials.
Orlans Resigns Animal Welfare Post
The Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, a nonprofit educational organization, announced that F. Barbara Orlans has resigned as Director in order to pursue her own research interests in animal welfare. She will remain on the staff as a Research Fellow and will assist in the administration of the Center pending the hiring of a successor. Dr. Orlans was the founding president of the organization in 1978.
Dr. Sherman Bloom, a cardiovascular pathologist at the George Washington University Medical Center, has been named the third president of the Center, succeeding Dr. W. Jean Dodds, who has been president since 1984. At the same time, Drs. Dodds and Orlans were elected Fellows of the Center.
Congressional Staff Visit Labs
The Science Directorate of the American Psychological Association has initiated a new site visit program to put key congressional staff and members of Congress directly in touch with scientific psychology. The Yerkes Primate Research Center of Emory University in Atlanta served as the site of a December 11-12, l987, pilot visit. Staff from the House Science, Space, and Technology Committee and from the offices of Senator Wyche Fowler (D-GA) and Representative John Lewis (D-GA) joined Science Directorate staff on a comprehensive tour of Yerkes' three primary facilities.
The tour, led by psychologist Fred King of Yerkes, focused on issues affecting the conduct of animal research. Other scientists stressed the need for funding for new construction and facility renovation to enhance humane care and housing of animals and to allow research programs to flourish.
Researchers discussed the impact of regulations and the need for quality inspections by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. The visitors met with scientists involved in a broad spectrum of research areas--AIDS, breeding of endangered species, drug abuse, vision, and hormonal control of social behavior. The Language Research Center, a collaborative endeavor of Yerkes and Georgia State University, served as an excellent site to illustrate the applicability of research conducted with primates to serious human problems--in this case, the development of communication skills by severely mentally retarded children.
In recent months, the Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has made significant administrative overhauls that, hopefully, will have a positive impact on future iterations of the regulations proposed last spring to implement the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act. Under the direction of Donald Houston, APHIS has shifted responsibility for the development of the proposed regulations to James Glosser, APHIS' acting deputy administrator of veterinary services. Glosser has charged the legislative staff, rather than the veterinary staff, with the actual drafting of rules. APHIS has indicated that the rules released in 1988 will respond, in one document, to all requirements of the 1985 amendments. At present, APHIS also is overseeing the conduct of an economic impact study.
Do Animals Lie?
Richard Byrne and Andrew Whiten of the University of St. Andrews, Scotland, recently sent questionnaires to some 115 primatologists, asking for observations on what they call "tactical deception" among apes, monkeys, and prosimians. Their results read like a catalogue of low cunning, animals seemingly outsmarting each other in pursuit of food, sex, and power---or simply avoiding being beaten up. Incidents reported included a youngster screaming as if attacked, thereby causing his mother to chase another female which had just dug up a choice tidbit, leaving the tidbit for the screamer, and a female grooming a male until he lost interest in the food he had been eating, whereupon she rushed off with the food. The survey raises more questions than it answers, on self-awareness and how "behavioral scientists should approach phenomena that are so elusive yet critical to our understanding of the evolution of social cognition." --[From a Research News item by Roger Lewin, Science, 1987, 238, 1350-1351.]
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Plans for the eleventh meeting of the American Society of Primatologists are well underway. The meeting, jointly sponsored by Tulane and Loyola Universities, will be held June 2-5, 1988, in New Orleans. The program will include a symposium on psychological well-being (W. A. Mason and W. R. Dukelow, chairs) with a distinguished panel of scientists, which will be held in three sessions: 1) current and pending legislation; 2) implications of current and pending legislation for various research and management programs in primatology; and 3) ameliorative efforts in progress. In addition to the symposium, Michael W. Fox will speak as a representative of the Humane Society of the United States, an organization which has been actively involved in developing more restrictive legislation governing research with animals. While highly organized national efforts to curtail research with animals is a relatively new phenomenon in the United States, restrictive legislation has been in place in Europe for some time. Robert Dantzer of the Laboratoire de Neurobiology, Bordeaux, France, will present a plenary address on his research program dealing with the psychological well-being of domestic animals. W. Richard Dukelow, Matt Kessler, and Frans de Waal will be featured speakers. The program also includes a sympo- sium organized in honor of the late Allan M. Schrier (K. Swartz and C. R. Thompson, chairs).
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Blood samples from green monkeys inhabiting or derived from west, central, or southern Africa are needed for virology research at the New England Regional Primate Research Center (NERPRC). Anyone with access to blood samples or to green monkeys in captivity or in the wild should contact Dr. R. C. Desrosiers or Dr. A. J. Petto at NERPRC, 1 Pine Hill Drive, Southborough, MA 01772. Telephone: 617-481-0400; via BITNET: [email protected]; via Compuserve and MCIMail: 73537,3066.
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Thomas Albright, Salk Institute, Vision Center Lab., P.O. Box 85800, San Diego, CA 92138-9216.
Alfonso Escajadillo, Dept. of Veterinary Medicine, US NAMRID, APO Miami 34031-0008.
John W. Fanton, Chief, Research Support USAFSAM/VSR, Brooks AFB, TX 78235.
Clara Harlow, c/o Potter, 2936 West Keim Drive, Phoenix, AZ 85017.
J. Stephen Heisel, 29 Linden Place, Brookline, MA 02146.
Denice Helwig, Dept. of Neurology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029.
Thomas Mayer, 2731 SR 235, Xenia, OH 45385.
Stephen P. Schiffer, Research Resources Facility, Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, 3950 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, D.C. 20007.
Carole Schoepflin, P.O. Box 111, Lomita, CA 90717. .hi off;
* * *
* Fossils, Teeth, and Sex: New Perspectives on Human Evolution.
Charles E. Oxnard. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1987. 296
pp. [Price: $35]
. . Equal numbers and anatomical similarities between the human sexes may be much older phenomena than generally believed. This book provides new population studies of fossils ranging from the present to as far back as eight million years ago. Such studies must be based on teeth, the only anatomical parts that are available in large samples. Using teeth means losing the functional inferences that can be derived from postcranial bones, but gaining from the marked improvement in the sample sizes. Populations can be better known through averages and variations, and less dependent upon the vagaries of single, possibly far-from-average, specimens. Large sexual differences and ratios of two or three females to each male, such as are found in apes alive today, do indeed characterize many of the fossils from Africa. But small differences between the sexes and equal numbers of each sex are found in other African fossils as old as two or three million years, and in some Asian fossils eight million years old. Sexual differences are far more complex than previously envisaged.
* Behavior of Captive Guenons and Vervets (Cercopithecus): A Bibliography. J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1987. (152 citations, species index) [Price: $6.50. Send order to Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Ctr., SF-50, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.]
* Behavior of Captive Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta): A Bibliography, 1980-1987. J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1987. (217 citations) [Price: $6.50. Ordering information same as above.]
* Behavior of Captive Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca nemestrina): A Bibliography. J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1987. (169 citations) [Price: $6.50. Ordering information same as above.]
* Prenatal Development (Excluding Brain) of Nonhuman Primates: A Bibliography, 1970-1987. B. Caminiti. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1987. (401 citations, primate & subject indices) [Price: $10. Ordering information same as above.]
Newsletters and Reports
* Primate Report, No. 18, December, 1987. [Published
in cooperation with the German Primate Center (DPZ).] [Price: $8]
. . This issue includes some of the Proceedings of the XIth Congress of the International Primate Society, 20-25 July, 1986, Göttingen, FRG. The papers published here are: Social attentional processes in human and non-human primate infants, by M. L. Bossia & J. J. Campos. Influences of early history and current circumstances on social attention and knowledge in macaques, by J. P. Capitanio. The social structure of attention: 1967-1987, by M. R. A. Chance. Helpers at the nest box, or, Are cotton-top tamarins really Florida scrub jays? by M. C. McGrew. Variables affecting symmetric interactions in a new-formed group of pigtail macaques, by P. Messeri & C. Giacoma. Use of a bone fragment as a step towards secondary tool use in captive champanzee, by J. Kitahara-Frisch, K. Norikoshi, & K. Hara. Fusion: The means to self-sustinance, by I. Malik. Hand-rearing and reintegration of cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus), by B. Rohrhuber. Urinary proteins in different primate species: A quantative and qualitative study, by E. Fuchs, M. Böer, & M. H. Weber.
* Kyoto University Overseas Research Report of Studies on Asian
Non-Human Primates, No. 5. Kyoto: Kyoto University Primate Research
. . A volume of nine articles on the distribution, ecology, behavior, sociality, and adaptation to disturbed environments, of non-human primates living in Asia.
Special Journal Issues
* Genetic research with nonhuman primates: serving the needs of
Genetica, 1987, 73[1-2].
. . The proceedings of an International Symposium held in San Antonio, TX, March 2-5, 1986, edited by J. L. VandeBerg and S. S. Kalter.
* Development of a nonhuman primate model for spontaneous
hypertension: Blood pressures in first-generation offspring.
Kraft-Schreyer, N., Kushner, H., & Angelakos, E. T. (E. T. Angelakos,
Dept. of Physiology & Biophysics, Hahnemann Univ., MS 409, Broad & Vine,
Philadelphia, PA 19102-1192).
Hypertension, 1987, 9[suppl. III],
III-57 - III-63.
. . A breeding colony of two subspecies of African green monkeys has been established in an attempt to develop a strain of nonhuman primates with inherited spontaneous hypertension. Results indicate that elevated blood pressures can be detected in offspring from as early as 1 year of age and that the tendency to develop elevated blood pressure is transmitted from parent to offspring in this species, thereby providing a strong indication that a hypertensive strain of monkeys can be developed through selective breeding.
* The primate as a model for hazard assessment of teratogens in
humans. Korte, R., Voget, F., & Osterburg, I. (Hazleton Laboratories
Deutschland GmbH, Kesselfeld 29, D-4400 Münster, FRG).
Mechanisms and Models in Toxicology, Archives of Toxicology,
1987, Suppl. 11, 115-121.
. . The authors find the cynomolgous monkey to be an animal of choice for teratogenicity studies because they breed all year with a stable cycle; are small, for easy handling and low effective dosages; are available; and have low natural rates of malformation and retardation.
* Genetic significance of some common primate models in biomedical
research. Stone, W. H., Treichel, R. C. S., & VandeBerg, J. L. (Dept. of
Biology, Trinity University, San Antonio, TX 78284).
In Animal Models: Assessing the Scope of Their Use in Biomedical
Research. New York: Alan R. Liss, 1987. Pp. 73-93.
. . Two types of human diseases for which nonhuman primates are paramount animal models are discussed. One type includes diseases with defined, single agent etiologies and to which all members of the species are genetically susceptible (e.g. leprosy, AIDS, hepatitis, and Parkinson's disease). A second type represents diseases that have a substantial genetic component, but are multifactorial and are greatly influenced by the environment (e.g. diabetes, lymphoma, atherosclerosis, alcoholic cirrhosis, and anxiety disorders). Nonhuman primates are also ideally suited to the role of animal models in the new area of human gene therapy.
* Strabismus. Kiorpes, L. (Dept. of Psychology, New York University,
New York, NY 10003).
Comparative Pathology Bulletin, 1988, 22, 2, 4.
. . Strabismus is a condition of misalignment of the visual axes which occurs naturally or as a result of trauma in humans. Two macaque species and one baboon species have been shown to develop natural strabismus. Paralytic strabismus can be modeled experimentally by surgical alteration of the extraocular muscles or by injection of Botulinum A neurotoxin into the extraocular muscles. The natural model is useful for establishing the similarity of the nonhuman primate to the human in terms of visual system function and vulnerability to abnormal visual input during development. Moreover, quantitative prospective studies can be conducted with this model that cannot be conducted in humans. The experimental models are also useful for studying the effects of strabismus on the development of visual system structure and function.
* Humoral factors in primate endotoxin shock. May, M., Pohlson, E.
C., Siri, F., & McNamara, J. J. (J. J. McNamara,
Dept. of Surgery, Queen's Medical
Center, 1301 Punchbowl St., Honolulu, HI 96813).
Circulatory Shock, 1987, 22, 127-139.
. . The release during shock of toxins which incite organ damage distant to the original site of trauma or infection has been theorized by numerous investigators. The present experiment with rhesus monkeys demonstrates the presence of shock toxins capable of producing tissue injury and death independent of endotoxins. This model may prove useful for isolation of these factors.
* Implantation of
Bacteroides gingivalis in nonhuman primates initiates progression
of periodontitis. Holt, S. C., Ebersole, J., Felton, J., Brunsvold, M.,
& Kornman, K. S. (Dept. of Periodontics, Univ. of Texas Health Science
Center, San Antonio, TX 78284).
Science, 1988, 239, 55-57.
. . Successful implantation of a rifampin-resistant strain of the putative periodontal pathogen Bacteroides gingivalis into the periodontal microbiota of Macaca fascicularis resulted in an increase in the systemic levels of antibody to the microorganism and rapid and significant bone loss.
* Ventilatory management of infant baboons with hyaline membrane
disease: The use of high frequency ventilation. deLemos, R. A., Coalson,
J. J., Gerstmann, D. R., Null, D. M. Jr., Ackerman, N. B., Escobedo, M.
B., Robotham, J. L., & Kuehl, T. J. (Southwest Foundation for Biomedical
Research, Dept. of Physiology and Medicine, P.O. Box 28147, San Antonio,
Pediatric Research, 1987, 21, 594-602.
. . The authors tested the hypothesis that high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) would result in decreased pulmonary barotrauma in infants with hyaline membrane disease by comparing HFOV at 10 Hz to conventional positive pressure ventilation with continual distending airway pressure in premature baboons with hyaline membrane disease. HFOV resulted in more uniform saccular expansion, higher arterial to alveolar oxygen ratio, less oxygen exposure, and decreased acute barotrauma.
* Promotion and regression of atherosclerosis in vervet monkeys by
diets realistic for westernised people. Fincham, J. E., Woodroof, C. W.,
van Wyk, M. J., Capatos, D., Weight, M. J., Kritchevsky, D., & Rossouw,
J. E. (Research Inst. for Nutritional Diseases, South African Medical
Research Council, P.O. Box 70, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa).
Atherosclerosis, 1987, 66, 205-213.
. . A 'Western' diet (WD), known to induce hypercholesterolaemia, was found to be atherogenic in aortas and some arteries of adult female vervet monkeys. A more 'prudent' diet induced much less lipid infiltration into aortic intimas and was not associated with serious atherosclerotic changes. There was no significant coronary artery or myocardial disease in these adult females after 47 months of feeding on the WD whereas males do develop coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial fibrosis. The authors believe this is the first time the pathology of atherosclerosis promoted by realistic diets has been modelled in adult females of this species.
* Morphological changes of an inflammatory myopathy in rhesus monkeys
with simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Dalakas, M. C., Gravell,
M., London, W. T., Cunningham, G., & Sever, J. L. (Infectious Diseases
Branch, NINCDS, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892).
Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine,
1987, 185, 368-376.
. . Eleven of 25 rhesus monkeys which died of simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (SAIDS) caused by infection with a type D retrovirus related to Mason-Pfizer monkey virus showed evidence of muscle weakness and atrophy and had elevated levels of muscle enzymes. Biopsies of affected muscle studied with enzyme histochemistry showed the characteristic features of polymyositis. The retrovirus was isolated from affected muscles. The clinical and historical features of polymyositis in rhesus monkeys with SAIDS are very similar to those of human polymyositis. The polymyositis in SAIDS induced by this monkey virus is an excellent primate model to study the mechanism and morphological changes of viral-induced muscle damage.
* Primate research: Relevance to human learning and development.
Rice, D. C. (Toxicology Research Div., Health Protection Branch, Health
& Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Ont.).
Developmental Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 1987, 10, 314-327.
. . Like humans, monkeys have a long period of gestation, infancy, and sexual immaturity during which they continue to develop, allowing investigation of critical variables concerning sensitive periods of exposure to neurotoxic agents such as lead. Monkeys were exposed from birth to doses of lead that resulted in blood lead concentrations observed routinely in the population of children, and which are presently considered safe. Behavioral impairment was observed consistently on measures of activity, attention and memory, distractibility, adaptability and learning ability. Impairment persisted into adulthood.
* Lack of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus from infected
to uninfected chimpanzees. Fultz, P. N., Greene, C., Switzer, W.,
Swenson, B., Anderson, D., & McClure, H. M. (Yerkes Primate Research
Center, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1987, 16, 341-347.
. . Four uninfected chimpanzees were each housed in a separate cage with an HIV-infected chimpanzee for six to twenty-nine months. Despite close daily contact, all uninoculated chimpanzees remained seronegative for HIV, and virus was never isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the uninfected chimpanzees. These data indicate that the probability of transmission from infected animals to humans is extremely low and also provide supportive evidence for lack of transmission of HIV by casual contact.
* Psychosocial influences on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis
among nonhuman primates. Clarkson, T. B., Kaplan, J. R., Adams, M. R., &
Manuck, S. B. (Arteriosclerosis Research Center, Bowman Gray School of
Med., Winston-Salem, NC 27103).
Circulation, 1987, 76, I29-I40.
. . A review of a relatively large series of studies of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), indicates that, among male animals, individual behavior characteristics (social status and aggressiveness), physiologic responsiveness to psychological challenge, and stability of the social environment all interact to affect atherogenesis. Among female animals, individual patterns of aggressiveness appear to influence ovarian function, which in turn affects atherosclerosis.
* The social organization of forest hanuman langurs
(Presbytis entellus). Newton, P. N. (Animal Ecology Research Group,
Dept. of Zoology, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PS, U.K.).
International Journal of Primatology, 1987, 8, 199-232.
. . The social organization of hanuman langurs was studied for 2300 hours in a mosaic of moist deciduous forest and anthropogenic meadow. The langur population density was 46.15/km&S'2 and the mean troop and band sizes were 21.7 and 14.0, respectively. Of 14 troops, 13 were one-male and one was tri-male. The population adult sex ratio was 1:2.5. The majority of female sexual solicitations was directed toward the harem male. The birth season was December to May, with an estimated gestation of 171-224 days. A review of langur reproductive seasonality suggests that breeding throughout the year is confined to those populations able to exploit human food sources. Mortality during the first year of life was 40%, including infanticide. A significant positive correlation was found between the age of infant at death or disappearance and the mother's subsequent interbirth interval. Five cases of social change are described, including female transfer, one-male to multimale change, troop formation, and gradual and rapid replacement of troop males. Takeover-associated infant killing by band males, in an undisturbed moderate-density population, supported the sexual-selection/infanticide hypothesis but not the social-pathology hypothesis. However, it could not be directly confirmed that an invading infanticidal male gains a reproductive advantage. The male tenure of harems was estimated to be 45 months.
* Dominance rank in juvenile olive baboons,
Papio anubis: The influence of gender, size, maternal rank and
orphaning. Johnson, J. A. (Dept. of Zoology, West Mains Road, Edinburgh
EH9 3JT, Scotland, U.K.).
Animal Behaviour, 1987, 35, 1694-1708.
. . Juvenile olive baboons were arranged in three single-sex rank orders according to: direction of approach-withdraw interactions; dominance ranks of the juveniles' mothers; and relative juvenile size. Juvenile female rank as assessed from interactions closely approximated maternal rank, whereas juvenile male rank closely approximated size rank. Direction of interactions between juveniles and adult females agreed with maternal rank, although older juvenile males began to defeat adult females of all ranks. Juvenile males defeated juvenile females in almost all interactions, regardless of relative size or maternal rank. The effect on juvenile rank of the death of the mother or her loss of rank varied with the age and sex of the juvenile.
* Object manipulation in a captive troop of Japanese monkeys
(Macaca fuscata): A developmental analysis. Torigoe, T. (Dept. of
Psychology, Fac. of Education, Hiroshima Univ., 1-1-89
Higashisenda-machi, Naka-ku, Hiroshima, 730 Japan).
Primates, 1987, 28, 497-506.
. . A captive troop of Japanese monkeys was presented with a nylon rope, a wooden cube, and an iron tube, and their subsequent manipulations were observed in detail. 202 manipulation patterns were distinguished on the basis of three components: the actions performed, body-parts used, and relations to other objects. The developmental changes in these modes of manipulation were analyzed cross-sectionally.
* The integration of an adult female gelada baboon
(Theropithecus gelada). Moos, R. & Immelmann, K. (Markt 9, 4440
Rheine, D. F. R.).
Primates, 1987, 28, 403-409.
. . An adult female gelada baboon was integrated into an old-established group in a zoo, in three steps: sight-contact, hourly meetings, and continuous stay. Agonistic and social-positive behavior were both observed during the difficult, six-month long integration. The female was not really accepted until she finally presented to the most dominant female of the one-male unit. In contrast, the integration of juveniles occurred very quickly and with few problems.
* Nonhuman primates and the practitioner. Satterfield, W. C. & Voss,
W. R. (Univ. of Texas System Cancer Center, Route 2, Box 151-B1,
Bastrop, TX 78602).
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, 1987,
. . Practical information intended for veterinarians who occasionally treat primate pets. This concise overview of nutrition, health, and techniques may also be useful to laboratory veterinarians.
* Long-term data on the reproduction and maintenance of a colony of
(Callithrix jacchus jacchus) 1972-1983. Box, H. O. & Hubrecht, R.
C. (Dept. of Psychology, Univ. of Reading, Reading, Berks RG6 2AL, UK).
Laboratory Animals, 1987, 21, 249-260.
. . Laboratory records were used to compare data on the reproduction and maintenance of common marmosets in different colonies and to provide additional information on the species in captivity. Data on longevity, mortality, aggression, and incest are presented for 12 years.
* Decision making in genetic management of primate breeding colonies.
Dyke, B., Gage, T. B., VandeBerg, J. L. King, R. H., Mamelka, P. M.,
Cheng, M.-L., & Goodwin, W. J. (Dept. of Genetics, Southwest Foundation
for Biomedical Research, P.O. Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78284).
Genetica, 1987, 73, 137-144.
. . A method is described by which systematic decisions about future membership in a breeding colony of baboons are made on the basis of rarity of known genetic marker phenotypes, and reproductive performance.
* The need for using chimpanzees in research. Johnsen, D. O. (Dept.
of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Bldg. 31, Room
5B55, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892).
Lab Animal, 1987, 16, 19-23.
. . A description of the rationale for and the implementation of the National Chimpanzee Management Plan.
* Effect of outbreeding on weight and growth rate of captive infant
rhesus macaques. Smith, D. G., Lorey, F. W., Suzuki, J., & Abe, M.
(Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616).
Zoo Biology, 1987, 6, 201-212.
. . A study of potentially adverse effects of cross-breeding between regionally isolated populations of rhesus macaques to assess the maximum advantage or disadvantage to be expected for cross-breeding such populations of other cercopithecoid primates. The infant weights and rates of growth of hybrid Chinese/Indian rhesus macaques were compared to those of their nonhybrid Indian peers and to those of consanguineously inbred Indian rhesus macaques from several other captive breeding groups. Neither adverse nor advantageous effects were detected, suggesting that outcrossing between isolates of other cercopithecoid primates with a similar social structure and mating pattern should not affect the fitness of resulting offspring. Since levels of inbreeding are roughly inversely proportional to levels of genetic diversity within populations, such outcrossing should be intensified by zoos and other captive breeding centers to ensure the continued survival of captive species, especially those that are endangered or otherwise irreplaceable.
* Poliomyelitis prevention: Enhanced-potency inactivated
poliomyelitis vaccine--Supplementary statement.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1988, 36, 795-798.
. . Information on and recommendations for the use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine of enhanced potency.
* Hepatitis in vervet monkeys caused by
Fusarium moniliforme. Jaskiewicz, K., Marasas, W. F. O., &
Taljaard, J. J. F. (National Research Inst. for Nutritional Diseases,
South African Medical Research Council, P.O. Box 70, Tygerberg 7505,
Journal of Comparative Pathology, 1987, 97, 281-291.
. . Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, one of the most prevalent seed-borne fungi associated with maize, is a common contaminant of maize used as a staple human foodstuff in many countries, including southern Africa. Culture material of F. moniliforme strain MRC 826, isolated from home-grown maize in a high risk area of human oesophageal cancer in Transkei, southern Africa, is highly toxic to a variety of experimental animals. The main target organ in most species is the liver. In baboons, cirrhosis of the liver is induced. The chemical nature of the hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic metabolite(s) produced by this fungus is unknown. A long-term systematic study on the toxicity and carcinogenicity of this fungus is reported in this paper.
* Survey of nonhuman primates for antibodies reactive with
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antigens and susceptibility of their
lymphocytes for immortalization with EBV. Ishida, T. & Yamamoto, K.
(Primate Research Inst., Kyoto Univ., Inuyama, Aichi, 484 Japan).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1987, 16, 359-371.
. . The susceptibility to transformation with EBV and the prevalence of antibodies reactive to EBV were examined in 43 primate species. In vitro EBV infection was revealed in lymphocytes from Old World monkeys, including patas monkeys and the colobines, as well as in lymphocytes from the apes. Antibodies reactive to EBV-early antigen/viral capsid antigen (EA/VCA) were detected in all the species of Old World monkeys and apes examined and in two out of seven species of New World monkeys.
*Pneumocystis infection in macaque monkeys:
Macaca fuscata fuscata and Macaca fascicularis. Matsumoto, Y.,
Yamada, M., Tegoshi, T., Yoshida, Y., Gotoh, S., Suzuki, J., &
Matsubayashi, K. (Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve Univ.,
2085 Adelbert Rd, Cleveland, OH 44106).
Parasitology Research, 1987, 73, 324-327.
. . Retrospective examination of lungs from 128 monkey necropsies was attempted for Pneumocystis infection using special stains, including toluidine blue-O and Gomori's methenamine silver nitrate. Four Japanese monkeys (7.7%), Macaca fuscata fuscata, and one crab-eating monkey (7.7%), M. fascicularis, were found to have Pneumocystis infection. The organism was found in young and infant animals. At the time of death, one infant and two young monkeys were debilitated and/or emaciated. Pneumocystis infection was considered an important lesion which could have caused reduced respiratory function in two of the Japanese monkeys, but constituted only an incidental finding in the others.
* Epidemiology and etiology of diarrhea in colony-born
Macaca nemestrina. Russell, R. G., Rosenkranz, S. L., Lee, L. A.,
Howard, H., DiGiacomo, R. F., Bronsdon, M. A., Blakley, G. A., Tsai,
C.-C., & Morton, W. R. (Div. of Animal Medicine WB-42, Univ. of
Washington, Seattle, WA 98195).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1987, 37, 309-316.
. . Computerized medical records of individual animals over a 5-year period were analyzed to determine the incidence of diarrhea; age, duration and number of episodes; mortality and etiology. Infectious agents diagnosed were Shigella, Campylobacter, and Cryptosporidium. Many infants had multiple episodes, all episodes were less than 10 days in duration, and mortality was low. Further studies are needed to determine the pathogenesis of chronic diarrhea, the etiologic significance of Campylobacter, and the causes of diarrhea when no pathogens are isolated.
* Spontaneous hydrocephalus in baboons. Butler, T. M., Rosenberg, D.
P., Gleiser, C. A., & Goodwin, W. J. (Southwest Foundation for Medical
Research, P.O. Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78284).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1987, 37, 492-493.
. . A report of nine cases of hydrocephalus in a colony of approximately 400 baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis) housed in a 6 acre corral. All nine animals were conceived during an 8 to 9 week period. During this same period, there was a total of 49 conceptions in the corral that resulted in live births, thus giving an incidence of approximately 20% hydrocephalic baboons. The most likely etiology of this cluster of cases appears to be viral infection.
* Pentastomiasis in captive monkeys. Lok, J. B. & Kirkpatrick, C. E.
(Dept. of Pathobiology, Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary
Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1987, 37, 494-496.
. . The Pentastomids are an aberrant group of endoparasites. Adults dwell in the respiratory tracts of carnivores, chiefly snakes, and the immature stages (nymphs and larvae) in a variety of animals, most frequently mammals. Since pentastomes remain encysted in the tissues of their intermediate hosts and are seldom associated with an identifiable clinical syndrome, the majority of nymphal infections have been encountered at necropsy or as incidental findings during abdominal or thoracic surgery. Such findings are reported in two cynomolgus macaques and a capuchin monkey.
* Seasonal behavior in a confined troop of Japanese macaques
(Macaca fuscata). Eaton, G. G., Rostal, D. C., Glick, B. B., &
Senner, J. W. (Oregon Regional Primate Research Center, Beaverton, OR
Seasonal Effects on Reproduction, Infection and Psychoses: Progress
in Biometeorology, Vol. 5.
The Hague: SPB Academic Publishing, 1987. Pp. 29-40.
. . Seasonal patterns of mating (ejaculations), births, aggression, and displays were documented in a naturally occurring troop of Japanese macaques that had been transplanted from Hiroshima prefecture in Japan to the state of Oregon. The troop was housed in a grassy two-acre outdoor corral and fed a commercial biscuit. All of the observed seasonal behaviors varied in direct relation to the annual reproductive cycle of the macaques, and sexually dimorphic patterns of aggression, displays, and deaths were observed. Both photoperiod and social stimuli are presumed to control the timing of these various reproductive events, but the relative importance and potential interactions of specific factors remain unknown.
* Distribution of the species and subspecies of cebids in Venezuela.
Bodini, R. & Pérez-Hernàndez, R. (Instituto de Zoología Tropical,
Univ. Central de Venequela, Apartado 47058, Los Chaguaramos, Caracas
Fieldiana: Zoology, 1987, NS39 (Studies in Neotropical Mammalogy:
Essays in Honor of Philip Hershkovitz, edited by B. D.
Patterson & R. M. Timm. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History.
[Price: $35]), 231-244.
. . Thirteen species of Primates representing nine genera in the family Cebidae are found in Venezuela. Distribution maps for these species are presented with exact localities of specimens. The geographic distribution of the species exhibits four main patterns.
Instruments and Techniques
* A dot-immunobinding assay on nitrocellulose with psoralen
Herpesvirus simiae (B virus). Heberline, R. L. & Kalter, S. S.
(Southwestern Foundation for Biomedical Research, P. O. Box 28147, San
Antonio, TX 78284).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1987, 37, 304-308.
. . An enzyme-immunoassay performed with Herpesvirus simiae (B virus) and H. simplex antigens inactivated with a psoralen derivative and long-wavelength ultraviolet light irradiation is described. Although B virus is a known human pathogen requiring extreme care in its handling, the use of inactivated antigens in the test allows its performance without biosafety containment.
* A simple technique for sampling the uterine cavity of the baboon.
Fazleabas, A. T. & Verhage, H. G. (Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology,
Univ. of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60612).
Theriogenology, 1987, 27, 645-653.
. . This study was undertaken both to develop a technique by which the uterine lumen could be sampled simply and efficiently and to analyze the proteins present in these uterine flushings throughout the menstrual cycle. The instrument described consists primarily of a double lumen cannula which permits simultaneous injection and aspiration. Volume recoveries usually exceeded 75% and the concentration of protein did not change significantly throughout the menstrual cycle. The technique described here provides a rapid method by which baboon uterine secretions can be frequently collected in the lightly sedated animal.
* Nutritional and metabolic factors in the regulation of reproductive
hormone secretion in the primate. Steiner, R. A. (Dept. of Obstetrics
and Gynecology (RH-20), Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle,
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 1987, 46, 159-175.
. . A study of the effects of restricted food intake on plasma levels of LH and FSH and selected metabolic hormones and substrates in castrated adult rhesus monkeys. Evidence is presented to support the concept that the onset of puberty reflects an amplification of GnRH secretion from a population of neurons present and active long before puberty, that metabolic transition from the fed to the fasted state occurs more rapidly in juvenile compared with adult primates, and that a sustained increase in the availability of plasma amino acids and glucose can amplify GnRH secretion in a prepubertal primate, an animal that would not otherwise show such an increase until the normal time of puberty.
* Serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites in Cayo Santiago
rhesus macaques. Vieth, R., Kessler, M. J., & Pritzker, K. P. H. (M. J.
Kessler, Caribbean Primate Research Center, P. O. Box 1053, Sabana Seca,
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1987, 16, 349-357.
. . Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), an index of vitamin D nutrition, and the calcium-regulating hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) were measured in rhesus macaques of various ages. Both metabolites were much higher in monkeys than in man. For 25(OH)D there was no sex difference, and this metabolite increased with age. The 1,25(OH)2D fell with age for males, but not for females. Pregnant or lactating females had significantly elevated 1,25(OH)2D levels.
Pharmacology and Anesthesia
* Effects of phencyclidine and ketamine on cardiovascular activity
and temperature in the squirrel monkey. Byrd, L. D. (Yerkes Regional
Primate Research Center, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322).
Life Sciences, 1987, 41, 7-13.
. . Heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, and core temperature were recorded from chair-restrained squirrel monkeys surgically prepared with chronically indwelling arterial and venous catheters to determine the effects of acute intravenous injections of phencyclidine and ketamine and intramuscular injections of ketamine. The data show that these two dissociative anesthetics differ in duration of action and in magnitude of effect on cardiovascular activity and core temperature in the squirrel monkey, and that phencyclidine is approximately ten times as potent as ketamine.
* Polymorphism of photopigments in the squirrel monkey: A sixth
phenotype. Bowmaker, J. K., Jacobs, G. H., & Mollon, J. D. (School of
Biological Sciences, Queen Mary College, Univ. of London, Mile End Road,
London E1 4NS, UK).
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 1987, B231, 383-390.
. . A tricromatic type of squirrel monkey that resembles Old World monkeys in having two well-separated photopigments in the red-green part of the spectrum is described. The existence of such animals is predicted by a genetic model that postulates three alleles for a single locus on the X-chromosome of the squirrel monkey.
* Prevalence of glucose intolerance in free-ranging
Macaca fascicularis of Mauritius. Dunaif, A. & Tattersall, I.
(Dept. of Medicine, Annenberg 23-70, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Fifth
Avenue at 100th St., New York, NY 10024).
American Journal of Primatology, 1987, 13, 435-442.
. . Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were carried out on 30 free-ranging long-tailed macaques on the island of Mauritius, following the suggestion that severe glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus might be prevalent in this macaque population. OGTTs revealed no evidence of frank diabetes mellitus in the sample. However, 13% of individuals showed impaired glucose tolerance, with preserved insulin secretion, suggesting the presence of the target tissue resistance to insulin characteristic of human noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The macaques with impaired glucose tolerance were neither obese nor aged. Glucose levels at all time points of the OGTT in normal macaques in our free-ranging sample were lower than reported in captive populations, perhaps due to greater physical activity. Our observations demonstrate that a genetic predisposition to glucose intolerance does exist in M. fascicularis, and that this condition, well documented in laboratory macaques, is not simply an artifact of captivity.
* Hematocrits of free-ranging baboons: Variation within and among
populations. Phillips-Conroy, J. E., Jolly, C. J., & Rogers, J. (C. J.
Jolly, Dept. of Anthropology, New York Univ., New York, NY 10012).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1987, 16, 389-402.
. . Hematocrits among free-ranging baboons (Papio hamadryas subsp.), from Awash in Ethiopia and Mikumi in Tanzania, varied by region, sex, age, and season of collection. Tanzanian animals had higher mean values than Ethiopian, and hematocrits were higher in the dry season. The comparability of field and laboratory data and possible reasons for the observed variation are discussed.
* Keratoconus in a rhesus monkey. Peiffer, R. L. Jr., Werblin, T. P.
& Patel, A. S. (Dept. of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Univ. of
North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514.
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1987, 16, 403-406.
. . A 15-year-old female rhesus monkey was observed to have bilaterally thinned and prominently curved corneas. Slit lamp observations, pachymetry, keratometry, and corneoscopy were consistent with a diagnosis of keratoconus, a relatively common corneal dystrophy in humans heretofore not described in a nonhuman primate.
* Reproductive success in male savanna baboons. Bercovitch, F. B.
(Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1223 Capitol Court,
Madison, WI 53715).
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 1987, 21, 163-172.
. . A 19 month field study of the reproductive behavior of savanna baboons in Kenya revealed a high degree of concordance among five different measures of male baboon reproductive success. It is suggested that mate selectivity, longevity, and stochastic factors are important components influencing male baboon reproductive success.
* Social and environmental determinants of reproductive cycles in
patas monkeys. Johnston, P. G. & Rowell, T. E. (Dept. of Zoology, Univ.
of California, Berkeley, CA 94720).
International Journal of Primatology, 1987, 8, 233-243.
. . Menstrual cycles of a captive group of patas monkeys were followed for 15 months by taking vaginal smears and lavages three times a week. Without an adult male in the group, menstrual cycles still showed the expected qualitative changes previously associated with the onset and with the end of a mating period. The addition of an adult male to the female group, once mating season cycles were evident, did not result in further changes in erythrocytes or sediment levels in vaginal samples or cycle regularity. Menstrual-cycle onsets for related females were significantly more synchronized than onsets for unrelated females. Preliminary observations on adult male patas housed separately from the females indicate that they, too, undergo seasonal changes in physiology and behavior.
* Factors affecting social behavior and reproductive success
of male rhesus monkeys. Vessey, S. H. & Meikle, D. B. (Dept. of
Biological Sciences, Bowling Green State Univ., Bowling Green, OH 43403).
International Journal of Primatology, 1987, 8, 281-292.
. . A review article on aspects of life history that influence reproductive success of male rhesus monkeys.
* Birth-season interaction of adult female Japanese macaques
(Macaca fuscata) without newborn infants. Ehardt, C. L. (Dept. of
Anthropology, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602).
International Journal of Primatology, 1987, 8, 245-259.
. . The affiliative interactions of 11 adult female Japanese macaques that did not deliver an infant during the 1981 birth season of the Arashiyama West troop were examined. Patterns demonstrate that the structure of social relationships is influenced by the particular dynamics of troop contexts such as birth seasons, as well as by enduring, broad-based affinities which are less affected by cyclic changes in troop context.
* 1986 International Studbook: Golden Lion Tamarin: Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia. Ballou, J. D. Washington, D.C.: National Zoological Park, 1987. 144pp.
* Social relationships between adult male and female rhesus macaques:
1. Sexual consortships. Hill, D. A. (c/o Center for African Area
Studies, Kyoto Univ., Simoadachi-cho, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606,
Primates, 1987, 28, 439-456.
. . The sexual relationships of 15 adult male rhesus macaques of one social group in the Cayo Santiago colony, PR, were studied during the 1981 mating season. The distribution and duration of all consortships, and the distribution of those consortships that coincided with the estimated time of conception, were positively correlated with male dominance rank and length of tenure. Consortship did not give exclusive access to receptive females although they may do so in feral situations.
* Silent ovulation in rhesus monkeys
(M. mulatta): Dissociation of hormonal and behavioral states.
Herndon, J. G., Turner, J. J., Ruiz de Elvira, M. C., & Collins, D. C.
(Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA
Physiology and Behavior, 1987, 40, 665-672.
. . Ovulation (as inferred from progesterone levels in blood serum in excess of 1.5 ng/ml) in rhesus monkeys was most frequent in the breeding season but was absent only during the month of August. Summer (non-breeding season) ovulations were more frequently "silent," or without heterosexual behavior, than were winter ovulations. To test the hypothesis that estradiol stimulation may cause different behavioral responses at different times of the year, ovariectomized females were treated with subcutaneously implanted estradiol capsules at different times within and outside the normal breeding season. In either season, this treatment resulted in increased female-to-female sexual behavior. Only during the breeding season, however, did the estradiol-treated ovariectomized females interact sexually with males. Although males copulated with both treated and gonadally intact, untreated females during the breeding season, their rate of copulation with the intact females was higher.
* Post-partum amenorrhoea, birth intervals and reproductive potential
in captive chimpanzees. Courtenay, J. (Dept. of Zoology, Australian
National Univ., P. O. Box 4, Canberra City, ACT 2601, Australia).
Primates, 1987, 28, 543-546.
. . Aspects of reproductive history and performance in captive female chimpanzees were examined from the records of Taronga Zoo, Sydney. All females had raised their own infants. Average duration of post-partum amenorrhea in Taronga females was 28 months, shorter than that in free-living females at Gombe National Park. Nevertheless, the average age difference between surviving offspring of the captive females is similar to that observed in the free-living population. As a result, the "completed family sizes" of females at Taronga have been similar to those observed in free-living populations.
* Sexual swelling, receptivity, and grouping of wild pygmy chimpanzee
females at Wamba, Zaïre. Furuichi, T. (Lab. of Human Evolutionary
Studies, Faculty of Science, Kyoto Univ., Kyoto, 606 Japan).
Primates, 1987, 28, 309-318.
. . Sexual swelling and copulatory behavior of ten pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) females in a wild group were studied. Sexual swelling was measured according to its firmness, which periodically fluctuated in all age classes. Duration of maximum swelling and cycle length were longer in P. paniscus than in P. troglodytes. Although pregnant females and those with newborn infants were sexually inactive, females with infants older than 3 years copulated as frequently as those without dependent infants. Copulation was mostly restricted to the maximum swelling phase.
. . In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or general interest. In most cases, abstracts are those of the authors.
* * *
A conference on current issues regarding the well-being of laboratory animals, sponsored by the Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, will be held June 22-25, 1988, in Washington, D.C. All meetings and workshops will take place at the Vista International Hotel.
Topics to be discussed include: national policies and regulations governing the use of animals in research, testing, wildlife research, and agriculture; functions of Animal Care and Use Committees (ACUCs); criteria for recognition of animal well-being; and criteria for determining degrees of procedural invasiveness. The focus for one day of the conference will be industrial issues, including updates in toxicity and safety testing; regulatory controls; operation of industrial ACUCs; and environmental factors affecting specific aspects of laboratory animal well-being. On Saturday, June 25, the focus will be on the role of lay members of ACUC's.
The Conference Director is Richard C. Simmonds, D.V.M., M.S. For more information, contact Lee Krulisch, Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, 4805 St. Elmo Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20814-4805 [301-654-6390].
* * *
In addition, we need your help in determining the future course of the Newsletter. The Newsletter was first published in 1962 and much has happened in the primate research area since then. Is there still a need for the Newsletter? If so, what aspects of the Newsletter do you find most useful and would like to see continued or expanded? What features should be discontinued or deemphasized?
Please check the appropriate column for each question:
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Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. (Phone: 401-863-2511)
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We are grateful to the Duke News Service/Jim Wallace for providing the cover photograph of Mandarin, a female infant Philipine tarsier, Tarsius syrichta.
Copyright @1991 by Brown University
Editor: Judith E. Schrier, M. Sc.
Associate Editor: James S. Harper, D.V.M.
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar, D.V.M.
Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen, B. A.
Managing Editor: Janice Viticonte
Founding Editor: Allan M. Schrier, Ph.D.