Laboratory Primate Newsletter



Articles and Notes

New Viral Callitrichid Hepatitis ...... 5

Notes on Some Helminth Parasites from Peruvian Monkeys, by M. Tantalean, A. Gozalo, & E. Montoya ...... 6

Environmental Enrichment Program for Caged Stump-tailed Macaques (Macaca arctoides), by V. Reinhardt ...... 10

Xenospecific Enrichment at the Primate Research Institute, by E. J. Struthers, P. Rodriguez, P. Cooper, & J. Rowell ...... 14

Living Continuously with a Compatible Companion is not a Distressing Experience for Rhesus Monkeys, by V. Reinhardt, D. Cowley, J. Scheffler, & R. Vertein ...... 16

News, Information, and Announcements

World Health Organization Ebola Fever Alert ...... 1

Interim Guidelines for Handling Nonhuman Primates during Transit and Quarantine ...... 2

Information Requested and Available ...... 4
. . Education Kit

Grants Available ...... 8
. . Research Training Group Program, MacArthur Foundation, AmFAR, US-USSR Cooperation, NSF Opportunities for Women, Fulbright Scholars, Cognition, Fellowships in India

News Briefs ...... 11
. . Golden Headed Tamarins in Carolina Yakushima Macaques Threatened; NABR 10th Anniversary; Sema, Inc., Fined; PETA Will Sue Magazine; Silver Spring Monkey Euthanized; Poc>do das Antas Fire; Schistosomiasis Alert; John Hearn to Wisconsin

Letter: Stamp Collection for Sale ...... 13

Directory of Graduate Programs: Addendum ...... 13

Conference on Well-being of Nonhuman Primates in Research ...... 18

Research and Education Opportunities ...... 19
. . Lion Tamarins, ASP Summer Internship List,

Workshop Announcement ...... 19

Meeting Announcements ...... 20
. . ASP, Lion-tailed Macaques, Travel to IPS, Animal Care Committees

Fyssen Foundation 1990 International Prize ...... 20

CDC Mandates Guidelines, Considers Import Restrictions ......insert



Recent Books and Articles ...... 21

* * *

World Health Organization Ebola Fever Alert


(1 March 1990, WHO, Geneva) The World Health Organization (WHO) has been notified by the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) that Ebola (EBO) virus has been isolated from at least three shipments of cynomolgus monkeys imported from the Philippines into the USA in February, 1990 (WHO, 1990c). These shipments transited through Tokyo and Taipei. To date, there have been no reports of human illness associated with these infected monkeys. The normal incubation period in humans is only a few days. Thus, there appears to be no immediate danger of still developing illness in those who were exposed to these infected shipments during transport.

Background Information

EBO is an African hemorrhagic fever virus which is classified as biohazardous because of its high mortality rate in humans (55-90%). The virus has never caused human disease outside of Africa. We know little about the natural history (transmission, reservoirs, etc.) of this virus, but it appears related to Marburg virus which, in 1967, caused a small but severe outbreak (25% case fatality rate) in Europe among animal handlers and researchers working with African green monkeys imported from Uganda.

In December 1989, WHO first learned of the isolation and identification of two distinct viruses concomitantly circulating in a group of monkeys recently imported into the USA from the Philippines via Amsterdam and New York (WHO, 1989a; CDC, 1989). Studies at CDC and the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, MD, identified these viruses as EBO and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (a pathogen only for monkeys). By the end of 1989, epidemiological investigations revealed that EBO virus had been isolated from at least two separate shipments of monkeys imported (in October and November, 1989) into Virginia and Pennsylvania from the Philippines (CDC, 1989; WHO, 1989b; WHO, 1990a).

* The source of the infection is still not known. However, the current report of 3 additional contaminated shipments in February, 1990, means that at least 5 separate shipments over the last 6 months have yielded EBO virus. This argues against contact-contamination of the monkeys by separate shipments of African monkeys during transport or US quarantine. Investigations are continuing to attempt to identify potential sources in the Philippines.

Investigations have been underway at CDC and USAMRIID since the initial outbreak of EBO in monkeys in late 1989. These studies reveal that a small percentage of monkeys imported from various countries into the USA have antibodies to EBO. This includes animals from the Philippines, but also from other countries. One interpretation of this is that there are multiple strains of EBO virus circulating in monkey populations around the world. If this is so, the question remaining is whether these strains are as highly communicable and/or pathogenic as the original African strains.

Until now, there have been no reports of human illness associated with any of the EBO contaminated monkeys shipped to the USA (WHO, 1990c; WHO, 1989a; CDC, 1989; WHO, 1989b; WHO, 1990a). However, we think it is prudent to inform anyone working with primates of the theoretical possibility of contamination of monkeys with this virus. Methodical health monitoring should be initiated for any workers who might have come in contact with a potentially infected shipment. Clinical symptoms of EBO infection include fever, progressive sore throat, maculopapular rash, abdominal pain, and bleeding from multiple sites with progression in most patients to death. There are no antiviral drugs available, and no licensed vaccine exists.

Groups working with nonhuman primates should be vigilant for unusual morbidity or mortality in their animals. New US guidelines developed in response to the EBO problem were recently published in the USA (CDC, 1990), and are reprinted below. These were also reprinted by WHO as background, reference information for countries reviewing procedures on handling and transportation of primates (WHO, 1990b). WHO can coordinate investigation of any additional suspect infections. Contact WHO, Communicable Diseases Division, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland [41-22-791-2662; Telefax 41-22-791-0746].


CDC (1989). Ebola virus infection in imported primates--Virginia, 1989. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 38, 831-832, 837-838. Reprinted in Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 1990, 29[1], 1-2.

CDC (1990). Ebola-Related Filovirus Infection in Nonhuman Primates and Interim Guidelines for Handling Nonhuman Primates. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 39, 45-47.

WHO (1989a). Ebola virus. Weekly Epidemiological Record, 64, 383-384.

WHO (1989b). Ebola virus: Update. Weekly Epidemiological Record, 64, 389-390.

WHO (1990a). Ebola virus -- update. Weekly Epidemiological Record, 65, 43-44.

WHO (1990b). Ebola virus. Weekly Epidemiological Record, 65, 45-47.

WHO (1990c). Ebola virus: Update. Weekly Epidemiological Record, 65, 68.

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Interim Guidelines for Handling Nonhuman Primates during Transit and Quarantine

CDC has developed the following interim guidelines that update and modify the procedures used in the transportation and quarantine of nonhuman primates. These guidelines are intended for interim use. A comprehensive set of guidelines will be developed by CDC, with input from organizations and institutions involved in the transport, quarantine, care, and regulation of nonhuman primates.

Interim Guidelines for Handling Nonhuman Primates During Transit and Quarantine

All imported nonhuman primates are quarantined for the first 31 days after arrival, including transit time. Nonhuman primates, particularly those recently captured in the wild, may harbor viruses infectious for humans. Although such viruses are usually present in the animal's blood, they may be detected in urine, feces, or saliva. Those at risk for infection include persons working in temporary or long-term holding facilities and persons who transport animals to these facilities (e.g., cargo handlers and inspectors). Although the risk for human infection from these activities is low, guidelines are useful to minimize such risk in persons exposed to nonhuman primates during transport and quarantine.

General Guidelines for Handling Nonhuman Primates during Transit and Quarantine

1. Management of transportation and quarantine facilities should ensure that personnel are instructed as to the hazards of handling nonhuman primates, that protective apparel is available, and that the need for its use is understood. Management should provide periodic retraining as well as reinforcement of these procedures.

2. Persons working with nonhuman primates should not drink, eat, or smoke while handling animals, cages, crates, or materials from such animals.

3. Access to animal holding areas should be restricted to essential personnel. The number of persons involved in the care, transport, and inspection of nonhuman primates should be the minimum necessary to expedite efficient and humane handling.

4. All staff in direct contact with animals should wear protective clothing (i.e., gloves and surgical masks and gowns) when opening crates, removing foreign materials from crates, feeding the animals, removing dead animals, or handling bedding materials. These persons should remove disposable protective clothing before leaving the animal holding facilities; this clothing should be autoclaved or incinerated. Nondisposable contaminated clothing should be disinfected on site before laundering.

5. Separate nonglass water bottles should be provided for each nonhuman primate during transit and quarantine. Reusable items should be adequately decontaminated between uses.

6. All animal waste, bedding, uneaten food, and other possibly contaminated items should be treated with appropriate disinfectant before removal from the animal holding facilities. All cages, feeding bottles, and other possibly contaminated items should be disinfected between each use or before disposal. Glass items should not be used.

7. A separate disposable needle and syringe (and, if required, infusion equipment) should be used for each animal, then autoclaved or incinerated. A clean needle should be used for any access to multidose vials (e.g., of ketamine) to avoid contamination. After each use on a group of quarantined animals, multidose vials must be autoclaved and discarded. Disposable supplies should be used whenever possible and must not be reused. Nondisposable equipment should be thoroughly disinfected.

8. Caution must be used to prevent infection from potentially contaminated needles, scalpels, or other sharp instruments, particularly during disposal of needles. Used needles should not be recapped by hand; removed from disposable syringes by hand; or bent, broken, or otherwise manipulated. Only one set of disposable syringes, needles, and scalpels should be used per animal. Used disposable syringes and needles, scalpel blades, and other sharp items should be placed in puncture-resistant containers kept as close to the work site as practical.

9. Nonquarantined animals should never be placed in, or permitted access to, areas with quarantined animals. This includes unrestrained pets, feral animals, and animals temporarily boarded for overseas travelers or destined for export.

10. Management should keep records of all serious febrile illnesses (fever greater than 101.3deg F (38.5 deg C) for more than 2 days) in persons having direct contact with nonhuman primates in transit or in quarantine and should promptly notify CDC* if such an illness occurs. Management should ensure that the physician providing care is informed that the patient works with and/or has been exposed to nonhuman primates.

Additional Guidelines for Handling Nonhuman Primates during Transit

1. Persons who handle crates or pallets containing nonhuman primates should be protected with elbow-length reinforced leather gloves, long-sleeved shirts and trousers of sufficient thickness to resist minor tears, and sturdy waterproof shoes or boots. The gloves should be of a thickness that prevents penetration of splinters or other crating debris. During warm weather, garments may be of lightweight materials to minimize discomfort. Disposable coverall suits can be used for added protection.

2. Crates should be free of sharp projections that can cause scratches or wounds to workers. Handles should be present on the sides of crates, and mechanical lifting and transporting devices should be used whenever possible.

3. Crates containing nonhuman primates should be separated by a physical or spatial barrier from all other animals and cargo at all times.

4. Wherever possible, nonhuman primates should not be handled directly. Live animals should be removed from cages only when staff can be supervised by a qualified veterinarian. Procedures that may result in bites or scratches should be avoided.

5. Management of holding facilities should maintain records to document the removal of dead animals; documentation should include the date, shipment number, country of origin, species, importer, and disposition of the removed animal. The carcass must be placed in waterproof double bags and incinerated. The Division of Quarantine, Center for Prevention Services (CPS), CDC, should be notified.

6. Temporary holding facilities should document all injections or parenteral infusions administered to nonhuman primates.

7. If animals are removed from a shipment while in transit, facilities retaining these animals should ensure full compliance with these guidelines and should maintain records on the care and disposition of animals. Temporary facilities holding animals in this way must be registered as importers of nonhuman primates.

Additional Guidelines for Care of Nonhuman Primates during Quarantine

1. Quarantine facilities should be secure, with access limited to authorized, trained, and informed personnel.

2. Quarantine facilities should be designed to be adequately disinfected. Management and staff should refer to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (NIH, 1985) and Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (CDC/NIH, 1988), for information on design and operation of animal holding facilities.

3. Staff should use protective clothing, gloves, and masks at all times when in the animal holding facilities; these items should be disinfected or disposed of properly. Staff should use fresh clothing when going from room to room.

4. Adequate equipment and space should be available for discarding and disinfecting all equipment, clothing, and caging.

5. Care should be taken to avoid scratches and bites of animals. All handling of individual animals should be done while the animals are anesthetized or tranquilized, and animals should be maintained in squeeze-back cages wherever possible.

6. Different lots of primates should not be mixed while in quarantine (minimum 31 days).

7. Management should notify the Division of Quarantine, CPS, CDC, of severe illnesses and deaths in recently imported primates. CDC will advise management on collection of specimens for investigation of cause of death. -- Reprinted from Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports, 1990, 39, 22-24, 29-30.


CDC. (1989). Ebola virus infection in imported primates--Virginia, 1989. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports, 38, 831-832, 837-838.

CDC/National Institutes of Health. (1988). Biosafety in microbiological and biomedical laboratories (2nd ed.). Bethesda, MD: DHHS, PHS. DHHS publication no. (CDC)88-8395.

Martini G.A. & Siegert R.(Eds.). (1971). Marburg virus disease. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

NIH. (1985). Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals. Bethesda, MD: NIH. 43-8; document no. 85-23.


*Program Operations Branch, Division of Quarantine, Center for Prevention Services [404-639-1437]; Special Pathogens Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases (DVRD), Center for Infectious Diseases (CID) [404-639-1115]; Epidemiology Activity Branch, DVRD, CID [404-639-3091]; and the Animal Resources Branch, Scientific Resources Program, CID [404-639-1320].

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Information Requested and Available

Education Kit

The Wildlife Trade Education Kit was updated in 1989 and is again available from World Wildlife Fund, P.O. Box 4866, Hampden Post Office, Baltimore, MD 21211, for $45. In addition to the old kit's 80 colored slides and script, classroom activities, wildlife trade glossary, updated fact sheets, and other features, this revised kit also includes a new elephant poster and bumper sticker.


The Greater Baton Rouge Zoo is interested in locating any Presbytis senex (purple-faced langurs) held in captivity. If you currently hold P. senex or know of others who may, please contact K. C. Lamb, General Curator, Greater Baton Rouge Zoo, P.O. Box 60, Baker, LA 70704 [504-775-3877].

* * *

New Viral Callitrichid Hepatitis

Richard J. Montali National Zoological Park

A new viral hepatitis called callitrichid hepatitis (CH), that has caused fatalities in U.S. zoos for over the past 10 years, has been identified in marmosets and tamarins (Ramsay et al., 1989).

We have characterized the agent thus far as an enveloped RNA virus and experimentally transmitted the disease in marmosets (Montali et al., 1989). However, the source of the CH virus and its mode of transmission under natural conditions remains unknown. In order to learn more about the prevalence and host range of the CH virus we would like to obtain serum, to test for CH antibodies, from any marmosets, tamarins, Goeldi's monkeys, or owl monkeys in your collection. Any amount, from 0.25 ml to 1.0 ml or more would be acceptable. If you have banked serum or can obtain samples from other primate species in your collection, we would like to test those, too. In addition, we would like to test any keepers, animal technicians, veterinarians, or other personnel at your facility from whom serum may be available since positive CH titers have been seen in humans.

If you have had any unusual acute fatalities in your callitrichids in the past and have any liver slides or tissue available, we would like to examine those for CH.

In the event of an acute disease outbreak in any callitrichid species in your facility, we are prepared to assist in ruling out CH with the use of radioimmunoassay (RIA) tests developed in our laboratory. This must be performed on fresh liver that has been frozen at -70 deg C and serum sent on dry ice by air express. Liver tissue should also be preserved in a glutaraldehyde fixative for electron microscopy and we would also like a complete set of tissues in 10% buffered formalin for routine histopathology, or a set of slides if processed elsewhere. If we find you are experiencing an epizootic of CH, we may be able to send a member of our team to assist you with the collection of material during the outbreak. Results of our findings will be used to help develop guidelines for CH prevention in the future, so it is important that we obtain information from zoos and primate facilities that have experienced CH as well as from those that have not.

Please send serum for serosurvey or frozen liver and serum from CH suspects on dry ice directly to: Dr. Roland Scott, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Pathology, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814-4799. Please call Dr. Richard J. Montali [202-673-4869] or Dr. Scott [202-295-3456] just prior to shipment of specimens. If you use AirBorne Express, we can give you a charge account number at that time, and answer any further questions about CH.


Ramsay, E. C., Montali, R. J., Worley, M., Stephensen, C. B., & Holmes, K. V. (1989). Callitrichid hepatitis: Epizootiology of a fatal hepatitis in zoo tamarins and marmosets. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 20, 178-183.

Montali, R. J., Ramsay, E. C., Stephensen, C. B., Worley, M., Davis, J. A., & Holmes, K. V. (1989). A new transmissible hepatitis of marmosets and tamarins. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 160, 759-765.


Author's address: Department of Pathology, National Zoological Park, Washington, DC 20008.

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Notes on Some Helminth Parasites from Peruvian Monkeys

Manuel Tantalean, Alfonso Gozalo, and Enrique Montoya Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos


The helmintic fauna from Peruvian nonhuman primates is wide and diverse, but poorly studied. The study of these parasites will provide us with better tools to treat, control, and prevent infections, resulting in great improvements in the health status of captive primate populations. This report presents our results on the identification of a group of parasites that affect nonhuman primates from Peru.

Materials and Methods

Saguinus labiatus, S. mystax, Aotus nancymae, and A. vociferans were captured in the Peruvian Amazon basin to establish captive colonies and for biomedical research. The animals were housed at the Center for Reproduction and Conservation of Nonhuman Primates in Iquitos, Peru. Helminth parasites were collected from necropsies of monkeys that died during quarantine, as well as from two pet monkeys, a Cacajao calvus and a Lagothrix lagothricha. The parasites were fixed in 10% formalin and processed according to routine procedures. The parasite samples are kept in the Helminth Collection at the Daniel A. Carrion Institute of Tropical Medicine of the National University of San Marcos in Lima, Peru.


   Parasite                  Host            Origin

Athesmia heterolecithoides Saguinus labiatus Iberia(Madre de Dios)
                           Saguinus mystax   Loreto (Loreto)
Platynosomum amazonensis   Saguinus mystax*  Iquitos (Loreto)

Mansonella (T.) sp.        Aotus nancymae    Yanayacu (Loreto)
Mansonella (T.) sp.        Aotus vociferans  Napo (Loreto)
Dipetalonema gracile       Saguinus mystax   Loreto (Loreto)
                           Saguinus labiatus Iberia (Madre de Dios)
                           Aotus nancymae    Yanayacu (Loreto)
                           Cacajao calvus    Iquitos (Loreto)
Primasubulura jacchi       Saguinus mystax   Loreto (Loreto)
                           Saguinus labiatus Iberia (Madre de Dios)
                           Aotus nancymae*   Yanayacu (Loreto)
Necator sp.                Cacajao calvus    Iquitos (Loreto)
Ancylostoma sp.            Lagothrix         Iquitos (Loreto)
Trypanoxyuris (T.) microon Aotus nancymae*   Yanayacu (Loreto)
Trypanoxyuris (T.)         Lagothrix         Iquitos (Loreto)
  lagothricis                lagothricha*

Prosthenorchis elegans     Saguinus mystax   Loreto (Loreto)
                           Saguinus labiatus Iberia (Madre de Dios)
                           Aotus nancymae*   Iquitos (Loreto)
* = new host

Table 1: Identified helminth parasites from Peruvian monkeys.

Athesmia heterolecithoides Braun, 1899; Loos, 1899. This parasite from the hepatic bile ducts of Saguinus labiatus is not specific to mammals and has been reported in birds (Lumsden & Zischke, 1963). It is cited in the primate literature as A. foxi, and has been studied by Freitas (1962), who pointed out that it is a species very variable in its characteristics and should be considered as the only one valid for the genus. This observation is supported by Thatcher and Porter (1968), after observing that their samples showed a high range of intraspecific variation. We agree with these authors.

Platynosomum amazonensis (Kingston & Cosgrove, 1967). P. amazonensis has been found as a parasite of Callimico goeldii and Saguinus nigricollis. v We now report a new host, Two other species of Platynosomum in mammals from Loreto, in Peru, P. fastosum Kossack, 1910 and P. minutum (Kifune & Uyema, 1982) have been reported previously. Kingston and Cosgrove (1967) described two species of Platynosomum in monkeys from Amazonia: P. amazonensis and P. marmoseti. Travassos et al. (1969) reported both species as Conspicuum conspicuum Faria, 1912 & Bhalerao, 1936. We prefer to consider our specimens as Platynosomum because their characteristics belong to those described by Yamaguti (1971), who did not consider the synonymy valid.

Mansonella (Tetrapetalonema) spp. Two different parasites were found in subcutaneous tissue from Aotus nancymae and A. vociferans respectively. The first was apparently Mansonella (T.) panamensis McCoy, 1936 & Eberhad & Orihel, 1984 (we had only one female parasite and the morphologic characteristics agree with those described by Esslinger, 1979). The second parasite, also a female, apparently differs from the first but its bad condition prohibited further study.

Dipetalonema gracile Rudolphi, 1809 & Diesing, 1861. This is a common filaria found in the abdominal cavity of New World monkeys. In Peru it has been reported by Dunn and Lambrecht (1963), Tantalean (1976), and Horna and Tantalean (1983).

Primasubulura jacchi Diesing, 1860 & Inglis, 1958. This nematode from the large intestine presents great variability in size but not in morphological characteristics. This variability is also observed in other parasites from the same host. Horna and Tantalean (1983) reported this parasite in Saguinus mystax, but here we report it from Aotus nancymae.

Necator sp. We could not identify the species because only one female parasite was found in the small intestine of a Cacajao calvus kept as a pet. Hookworms are very unusual findings in New World monkeys, so we believe this could be a cross infection with the human hookworm Necator americanus.

Ancylostoma sp. The presence of this parasite is also very unusual in New World monkeys. We found only one female parasite in the cecum of a Lagothrix lagothricha kept as a pet. The anterior end resembles A. braziliense but we prefer to study more individuals, especially males, before assigning the species name. This also seems to be an accidental infection in captivity.

Trypanoxyuris (Trypanoxyuris) microon Linstow, 1907 & Hugot, 1985. This is the first report for it in Aotus nancymae in Peru. This nematode has been reported from the cecum in Aotus trivirgatus. Hugot (1985) did a review of the species of the subgenera that parasitize Cebidae and Atelidae.

Trypanoxyuris (Trypanoxyuris) lagothricis Buckley, 1931. We found this parasite in a Lagothrix lagothricha from Iquitos, Peru, kept as a pet. The females studied showed the same characteristics reported by Inglis and Di>aaz-Ungria (1960), who found it in L. humboldti.

Prosthenorchis elegans Diesing, 1851 & Travassos, 1915. The necropsy of two Aotus nancymae revealed a few immature parasites free and fixed to the intestinal mucosa. Two small cream-colored cysts, measuring 4x3x1 mm were also found fixed to the serosa of the small and large intestines. Detailed examination of the cysts, encapsulated in fibrous tissue, revealed that they contained larvae of P. elegans. The finding of two small P. elegans encysted in the intestinal serosa suggests that A. nancymae does not provide optimal conditions for its larval development and is therefore not a natural host for P. elegans. This thorny-headed worm is one of the more pathogenic and well-known parasites of New World monkeys. It has been reported as naturally affecting Saguinus and Saimiri by several authors (Richardt & Benirschke, 1963; Porter, 1972; Tantalean, 1976; Horna & Tantalean, 1983).


Dunn, F. L. (1963). Acanthocephalans and cestodes of South American monkeys and marmosets. Journal of Parasitology, 49, 717-722.

Dunn, F. L. & Lambrecht, F. L. (1963). On some filarial parasites of South American primates, with a description of Tetrapetalonema tamarinae n. sp. from the Peruvian tamarin marmoset, Tamarinus nigricollis (Spix, 1823). Journal of Helminthology, 37, 261-286.

Esslinger, J. H. (1979). Tetrapetalonema (T.) panamensis (McCoy 1936) comb. n. (Filarioidea: Onchocercidae) in Colombia primates, with a description of the adults. Journal of Parasitology, 65, 924-927.

Freitas, J. F. T. (1962). Notas sobre o gênero Athesmia Loos, 1899 (trematoda, Dicrocoeliidae). Arquivos do Museo Nacional, 52, 85-104.

Horna, M. & Tantalean, V. M. (1983). Parasitos de primates peruanos: Helmintos del "mono fraile" y del "pichico barba blanca". Boletín de Lima, 5, 54-58.

Hugot, J. P. (1985). Sur le genre Trypanoxyuris (Oxyuridae, Nematoda). III. Sous genre Trypanoxyuris parasite de primates Cebidae et Atelidae. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 4e série A, 7, 131-155.

Inglis, W. G. & Díaz-Ungria, C. (1960). Nematodes parasitos de vertebrados venezolanos. I. Una revisión del género Trypanoxyuris (Ascaridata: Oxyuridae). Memorias de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales "La Salle", 19, 176-212.

Kifune, T. & Uyema, N. (1982). Report of Fukuoka University Scientific Expedition to Peru, 1976. Part 3. Taxonomical studies on trematodes from marsupials and rodents with records of two crabs. Medical Bulletin of Fukuoka University, 9, 241-256.

Kingston, N. & Cosgrove, G. E. (1967). Two new species of Platynosomum (Trematoda: Dicrocoeliidae) from South American monkeys. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 34, 147-151.

Lumsden, R. D. & Zischke, J. A. (1963). Studies on the trematodes of Louisiana birds. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde, 22, 316-366.

Porter, J. (1972). Parasites of marmosets. Laboratory Animal Care, 22, 503-506.

Tantalean, V. M. (1976). Contribución al conocimiento de los helmintos de vertebrados del Perú. Biota, 10, 437-443.

Thatcher, V. E. & Porter, J. A., Jr. (1968). Some helminth parasites of Panamanian primates. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 87, 186-196.

Travassos, L., Freitas, J. F. T., & Kohn, A. (1969). Trematodeos do Brasil. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 67, 1-886.

Yamaguti, S. (1971). Synopsis of Digenetic Trematodes of Vertebrates. (2 Vols.) Tokyo: Keigaku Publishing Co.


Senior author's address: Proyecto Peruano de Primatologi>aa-IVITA, Apartado 621, Iquitos, Perú.
This work was done as part of the activities of the Peruvian Primatological Project "Manuel Moro Sommo," supported by the letter of understanding ICF/ZNS/010 between the Peruvian Government and the Pan American Health Organization.

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Grants Available

US-USSR Cooperation

Joint activities between U.S. and Soviet principal investigators who wish to work together in a project of common scientific interest may be funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the USSR Academy of Sciences. Plans are to be developed directly between the investigators, who submit their proposals in parallel to the granting agencies. Proposals for support of travel to, or participation in, international scientific meetings are not eligible for consideration through this program. For more information, contact: US-USSR Cooperative Research Program, Room 1212, Division of International Programs, NSF, Washington, DC 20550 [202-357-7494].


The American Foundation for AIDS Research (AmFAR) offers research grants to provide institutionally affiliated post-doctoral investigators with up to $50,000 in direct costs for one year in support of AIDS related biomedical and social sciences research, as well as short-term travel grants of up to $5000 for study or training at another U.S. institution. For complete information, contact the AmFAR Grants Department, 5900 Wilshire Boul., 2nd Floor, East Satellite, Los Angeles, CA 90036-5032 [213-857-5900].

Fellowships in India

The Indo-U.S. Subcommission on Education and Culture is offering 12 long-term and 9 short-term awards for 1991-92 research in India. These grants will be available in all academic disciplines except clinical medicine. Applicants must be U.S. citizens at the postdoctoral or equivalent professional level. The program seeks to open new channels of communication between academic and professional groups in the U.S. and India, and to encourage a wider range of research activity between the countries than now exists. This program is funded by the USIA, the NSF, the Smithsonian Institution, and the Government of India. The application deadline is June 15, 1990. Application forms and further information are available from Council for International Exchange of Scholars, Attn: Indo-American Fellowship Program, 3400 International Drive, Suite M-500, Washington, DC 20008-3097 [202-686-4013].

MacArthur Foundation

The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation World Environment and Resources Program is dedicated to conserving our renewable natural resources and to enhancing our knowledge of how to use those resources over the long term. The principal focus of the program is on dealing with the problems of endangered tropical systems. Program emphases are 1) Conservation Science and Policy Studies; 2) Conservation Education and Action; 3) Conservation and Sustainable Economic Development. Letters of inquiry (preliminary applications) are accepted at any time. For more information contact: World Environment and Resources Program, The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 140 South Dearborn Street, Chicago, IL 60603 [312-726-8000].

Fulbright Scholars

About 1000 Fulbright grants in research and university lecturing for periods from 3 months to a full year will be available for 1991-92. Fulbright awards are granted in virtually all disciplines, and scholars in all academic ranks, as well as retired faculty and independent scholars, are eligible to apply. The basic elegibility requirements are U.S. citizenship; Ph.D. or comparable professional qualifications; university or college teaching experience; and, for selected assignments, proficiency in a foreign language. Application deadlines vary from June, 1990 to January 1991 for various countries. For more information and applications, contact the Council for International Exchange of Scholars, 3400 International Drive, Suite M-500, Washington, DC 20008-3097 [202-686-7866].

Research Training Group Program

A new program has been created by the National Science Foundation to encourage scientists at Ph.D.-granting institutions to devise new or enhanced multi-disciplinary training programs for the next generation of researchers in the biological, behavioral, and social sciences. Projects might include research opportunities, courses, seminars, and degree programs at the undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral levels.

NSF expects to make about 10 RTG awards during the program's first year. Resource commitments by the institution and by other sources will be considered in the review of applications. For more information contact: Division of Instrumentation and Resources, NSF, Room 312, 1800 G Street, NW, Washington, DC 20550 [202-357-9880].

NSF Opportunities for Women

The announcement on p. 40 in the January, 1990, issue of this Newsletter is unfortunately incomplete and badly out of date. Research Opportunities for Women (ROW) at NSF are not limited to the Research Initiation Awards (RIAs) described. The information given about RIAs is correct, except that the deadline dates given were actually target dates, applied to only one NSF Division, and no longer are in effect. RIA proposals are reviewed by all research-supporting programs of NSF; deadlines or target dates should be obtained from the most pertinent NSF program. General information should be obtained from the ROW Coordinator, Lola Rogers, at NSF, 1800 G Street, Washington, DC 20550. New brochures on NSF faculty awards for women and research programs for women at NSF, including ROW, will be available this summer.


The Division of Fundamental Neurosciences of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) has issued an announcement encouraging the submission of applications for research grants dealing with the neurological basis of cognitive processes. Types of investigations envisioned could include neurophysiological and noninvasive neuropsychological research on nonhuman primates engaged in language- or number-relevant communication, and neurophysiological measures obtained from nonhuman primates engaged in repetitive event-related activities. For additional information, contact Dr. Herbert C. Lansdell, Division of Fundamental Neurosciences, NINDS, Federal Building, Room 916, 7550 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-5745].

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Environmental Enrichment Program for Caged Stump-tailed Macaques (Macaca arctoides)

Viktor Reinhardt University of Wisconsin

Numerous cage enrichment options have been published for rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), bonnet macaques (M. radiata), and cynomolgus macaques (M. fascicularis); stump-tailed macaques (M. arctoides) have received no attention so far (Fajzi et al., 1989).

The present report summarizes an environmental enrichment program for caged stump-tailed macaques. Inexpensive enrichment options that are effective in rhesus monkeys (Fajzi et al., 1989) have been applied.

There are 36 adult (6-23 years) caged stump-tailed macaques at the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center. All of them are provided with a PVC pipe for perching and an oak branch segment for gnawing and manipulating (Figure 1). Eighty-nine percent (32/36) of the animals live in pairs of unrelated partners (6 adult female/adult female pairs, 4 adult male/adult male pairs, 3 adult male/adult female pairs, 1 adult female/subadult female pair, 4 adult male/subadult female pairs, and 1 adult male/subadult male pair; eleven percent of the animals (4/36) live alone. Single animals are kept in 85x85x85 cm stainless steel cages. Paired animals share a 85x170x85 cm double cage; a privacy panel (cage partition with small passage hole close to the back of the cage) offers individual partners the opportunity for temporary visual seclusion.

Figure 1: Gnawing the oak branch segment not only provides some distraction but may also be a means of dental health care.

The pairing procedure described for adult male rhesus macaques (Reinhardt, 1988) was used for the formation of adult male/adult male pairs of stumptails. Potential partners were paired only if they had established a clear dominance-subordination relationship (unidirectional yielding and/or fear-grinning) during a 1 to 3 day period of non-contact familiarization. To establish the 4 pairs, 5 dyads were tested in the familiarization situation. One dyad failed to show rank-indicative behavior patterns, and partners had to be tested again with other counterparts. Rank relationships were evident in the other 4 dyads, and partners were therefore paired. Pair formation was associated with brief fighting in 1 case, with unidirectional sham-biting in 2 cases. Partners inflicted no visible injuries or bruises during these initial rank assertions. To avoid aggressive excitement, the 4 adult male pairs are housed in cages that face no other conspecifics. Partner compatibility (no visible injuries, no signs of depression, adequate food sharing) has been ascertained in all 4 pairs over a period of 3 months.

All other pairs were formed without preliminaries, and potential companions were introduced to each other in the home cage of one of the partners. A total of 17 pairs were tested. Pair formation was associated in only one case (adult male/subadult female pair) with physical agonistic activities (chasing, biting). Partner compatibility was ascertained over a period of 3 months in 15 (88%) pairs. Only two pairs (adult female/adult female and adult male/subadult female) were incompatible due to inadequate food sharing; partners were separated several days after pair formation and successfully re-paired with different companions.

The effectiveness of the enrichment options was evaluated in the 10 adult/adult pairs that were kept in upper-row cages. All 20 monkeys were exposed to their companion, the PVC pipe and the oak branch segment for 2 months. Each pair was observed on a different day from 12:00 to 13:00 when it was guaranteed that the animals would not be disturbed by human activities.

Of the 20 animals, 18 (90%) interacted with the companion, 15 (75%) perched on the PVC pipe, and 16 (80%) gnawed and manipulated the oak branch segment during the 1-hour observation. The three environmental options stimulated individuals to perform species-typical behavior patterns an average 31.7% (19.0/60 min.) of the time. Companions interacted with each other 21.8 +/- 18.3% (13.1/60 min.) of the time (grooming 16.9%, huddling 6.4%, other interactions 0.3%). They spent significantly less (Mann-Whitney test: p<0.001) of their time with the two inanimate objects; the PVC pipe was used for perching 4.2 +/- 3.4% (2.5/60 min.) of the time, the oak branch segment was used for gnawing and manipulating 5.7 +/- 5.1% (3.4/60 min.) of the time.


Reinhardt, V. (1988). Preliminary comments on pairing unfamiliar adult male rhesus monkeys for the purpose of environmental enrichment. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 27[3], 4-5.

Fajzi, K., Reinhardt, V., & Smith, M.S. (1989). A review of environmental enrichment strategies for singly caged nonhuman primates. Lab Animal, 18[2], 23-29, 31,33,35.


Author's address: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715.
I am grateful to Mr. John Wolf for editing this manuscript.
The environmental enrichment program is supported by NIH grant RR-00167 to the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center.

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News Briefs

Golden Headed Tamarins in Carolina

Twenty months after initiating efforts to establish a propagation program, Riverbanks Zoological Park, Columbia, SC, reports the importation of three pairs of Golden-headed tamarins, Leontopithecus (rosalia) chrysomelas, from Brazil. This importation was accomplished through the assistance and generosity of the Saõ Paolo Zoological Park, Brazil, and represents the first time in several years that this critically endangered tamarin has been imported to North America. Of equal importance, this importation brings at least eight new founders into the genealogy of the North American population, and expands the number of institutions working with this animal. All six tamarins had been paired well before receipt and possess infant-rearing experience, thus making them excellent candidates for further captive propagation.

Yakushima Macaques Threatened

The monkeys of Yakushima, an island 60 km south of Kyushu, are classified as an endemic sub-species, Macaca fuscata yakui. Destruction of much of their mountain habitat by logging operations has led to the monkeys' becoming an agricultural pest in the lowland orchards of the island. Control methods have so far been limited to hunting and trapping. Scientists at Kyoto University, fearing that the subspecies could soon be faced with extinction, have proposed an organization to census the remaining monkeys and promote methods of crop protection which would also protect the animals. They are urging primatologists to send them postcards, protesting to the national and local government the threat to this endemic subspecies. Send cards to the Yakushima Research Group, Laboratory of Human Evolution Studies, Faculty of Science, Kyoto University, Sakayo, Kyoto, Japan. -- From Australian Primatology, 1989, 4[3/4], 4.

NABR 10th Anniversary

The National Association for Biomedical Research marked its tenth anniversary with a gala awards dinner in Washington, DC, on January 29. Approximately 500 guests attended the ceremony hosted by Senator Lowell P. Weicker, President of Research! America. John F. Sherman, Executive Vice President of the Association of American Medical Colleges, received the NABR Lifetime Achievement Award, and 14 other awardees were recognized for public service to science.

Sema, Inc., Fined

Sema, Inc., a registered research facility in Rockville, MD, was assessed a $2500 civil penalty and was ordered by an administrative law judge to cease and desist from future violations of the Animal Welfare Act and, in particular, from harassing or intimidating in any manner USDA personnel performing their official duties. USDA charged that during a routine compliance inspection, Sema employees withheld information about research animals, prevented APHIS inspectors from taking pictures of cages, and interfered with their departure by blocking their car in the parking lot. Sema has appealed the decision of the administrative law judge. -- From the United States Department of Agriculture News, January 9, 1990.

PETA Will Sue Magazine

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) has said it will sue for libel over an article [see p. 24 in this issue] in the February issue of The Washingtonian that alleges that the organization is financially corrupt and that some of PETA's best-known publicity photographs were staged. PETA founder Alex Pacheco denies the allegation that there was anything "staged" about the photographs, taken in Edward Taub's Silver Spring, MD, laboratory, and notes that during legal proceedings against Taub the authenticity of the pictures was never challenged. Although PETA officials concede that they have several bank accounts, they say that Federal deposit insurance only covers up to $100,000 per account, thereby forcing them to spread their funds over many accounts. "But all contributions were accounted for and reported to the IRS", Pacheco says. -- From an item by G. C. Anderson in Nature, 1990, 343, 580.

Silver Spring Monkey Euthanized

One of the deafferented crab-eating macaques now known as the "Silver Spring" monkeys was euthanized on January 14. A last minute court decision allowed a group of researchers from the NIMH and several universities to carry out a terminal experiment on one of the monkeys that had become very sick. Under anesthesia, electrodes were placed in its brain and hundreds of recordings taken, revealing an unprecented degree of reorganization of the sensory cortex. An 8-10-millimeter wide area that would normally receive input from the hand was found to have completely filled in with input from the face.

Controversy continues over these animals, as researchers plan similar experiments on the remaining monkeys, and animal rights activists insist that the results obtained are predictable and of no great significance. Neal Barnard, president of the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, states that "Science has become secondary to public relations and politics."

Poço das Antas Fire

Readers are aware that the National Zoo, in conjunction with Brazilian and other conservation groups, has been reintroducing captive-born golden-lion tamarins to their native habitat since 1984. Estimates are that at least 28 of the approximately 70 reintroduced tamarins have survived, and at least 20 offspring have been born to them. In February a major fire in Brazil's Poço das Antas Reserve, where some tamarins have been reintroduced, destroyed an experimental reforestation area including a small mammal grid. According to Devra Kleiman of the National Zoo, the fire is mostly limited to pasture land and, thankfully, the reintroduced tamarins appear not to be in immediate danger. Nonetheless, the pasture was regenerating land that was the subject of some scientific investigations. Long-term study of that habitat has been cut short by the fire. -- From the ASP Bulletin, March, 1990, 14[1], 7.

Schistosomiasis Alert

An article in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports (1990, 39, 141-142, 147-148) describes schistosomiasis in members of two groups of travelers who had returned to the U.S. from Botswana and Côte d'Ivoire, respectively, reminding us that this disease is endemic in 74 countries in Africa, South America, the Caribbean, and Asia, and is contracted by exposure to fresh water containing the parasites. Travellers should be aware that wading, swimming, bathing, washing, and even boating may result in exposure.

John Hearn to Wisconsin

The University of Wisconsin-Madison has announced the appointment of Dr. John P. Hearn as Director of the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, succeeding Dr. Robert W. Goy, who had served as Center Director since 1971. Dr. Hearn has a joint appointment as Professor in the Department of Physiology in the UW-Madison Medical School. These appointments are initially for 3 years by mutual agreement and in observance of U.S. immigration procedures.

Dr. Hearn was born in India and educated in England, Kenya (high school), Ireland (B.Sc., M.Sc.), and Australia (Ph.D.) His primary research is in primate biology, concentrating on the molecular biology, biochemistry, and endocrinology of early pregnancy. He has also contributed research papers in wildlife reproductive biology and conservation. He was President of the International Primatological Society for 1984-1988.

* * *

Letter: Stamp Collection for Sale

I can't recall whether I've ever seen 'advertisements' as such in the Laboratory Primate Newsletter, but I have a collection of primates on stamps in which I've long since lost interest. Somebody out there must be interested, and I can't think of a better medium to bring to the attention of the primatological community that this collection is for sale.

Also I'm due to retire in less than two years or, rather, I can exercise the option to retire in two years and I should be giving some thought to getting rid of some things such as books and papers. I have a fair collection of books on primatology and animal behaviour and related topics as well as a large collection of offprints. The former I would offer for sale and I will send a list of the books available to anyone writing to me and expressing interest. The offprints I would prefer to donate.

With very best wishes for 1990. I look forward to hearing from you.

Sincere regards, Gerald A. Doyle, Primate Behaviour Research Group, University of the Witwatersrand, P.O. Wits, 2050 South Africa.

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Directory of Graduate Programs: Addendum


Universities of Edinburgh, St Andrews and Stirling
. . PROGRAM NAME AND DESCRIPTION: Scottish Primate Research Group. Increasing collaboration over recent years has led to the formation of this research group with a core membership of fieldworkers from the 3 universities. Each institution provides funds to facilitate regular attendance at joint research meetings. Field studies are carried out at 3 major African sites, and cotton-top tamarins are studied in a spacious breeding colony at Stirling.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Elizabeth Rogers (Zoology, Edinburgh, Feeding ecology of African apes); William C. McGrew (Psychology, Stirling, Socio-ecology of wild apes and caged tamarins); Richard Byrne (Psychology, St Andrews, Deception in primates, foraging behavior); Andrew Whiten (Psychology, St Andrews, Developmental behavioral ecology, social learning, cognition).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. D. Milner, Postgraduate Admissions, Dept. of Psychology, Univ. of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9JU, Scotland; Dr. W. C. McGrew, Dept. of Psychology, Univ. of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, Scotland.

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Xenospecific Enrichment at the Primate Research Institute

E. J. Struthers, Pilo Rodriguez, Patty Cooper, and Jeff Rowell Primate Research Institute


Raising chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) infants in a nursery setting is a husbandry practice which has come into question in recent years. Nursery rearing may lead to problems in sociality, reproduction, and maternal success in adult chimpanzees. This is especially true in cases where the infant is housed in isolation without the benefit of peer interaction. Techniques for enhancing nursery environments are many.

A shortcoming often cited in nursery-rearing is that animals lack access to constant maternal tactile interaction. Mother-reared infants are seldom far from the mother's lap or reach, especially during the first twelve months of life. Due to nursery scheduling and budget constraints, many facilities find it impossible to make a human caretaker continuously available. One approach to providing greater tactile access and increased social and physical interactions is to introduce companionate species that will be available to infants on a continuous basis.

Clearly there are precedents for xenospecific companionship, and affiliative liaisons are often anecdotally reported in both captivity and the wild. Only recently has this become a research topic. Primate species especially seem to demonstrate a natural affiliative curiosity toward other animals. Adaptive benefits may result from such associations.

One case reported in the literature tells of an orphaned female baboon (Papio sp.) that adopted a domestic herd of goats on a farm in Namibia. She was observed to ride on the backs of the billies, where she was able to forage tree limbs and shrubbery that were beyond the reach of the goats. Baboons acquire dietary knowledge via social relationships. In this case, edible plant information and foraging behavior appeared to be learned from the goats, much as it might have been learned from conspecifics under different conditions. The researchers also reported that "...she appears to have created a social coherence away from her natural situation and is certainly self-assured and competent in a way that primate orphans often are not" (Henzi & MacDonald, 1986, p. 177).

Other primate facilities have reported success in placing a dog (Canis familiaris) in the nursery setting, but these efforts have not been evaluated methodologically. We chose to use a dog because dogs are relatively easy to maintain, and have naturally playful and companionable personalities. Our study has followed a three-phase approach to introduce the dog ("Ruff"), in order to evaluate the outcome and utility of such xenospecific enrichment. Although our research is still in the pilot stage, we have made several observations that are worth reporting.


Nine chimpanzee subjects were used in the pilot evaluation study. Ages ranged from 4 months to 2 years at the start of the study. The puppy selected was approximately 2 months old at the beginning of the study, and is now 5 months old. The puppy was found in the desert, part of an abandoned litter, and is thought to be a chow-shepherd mixed breed.

The evaluation occurred in three phases: 1) introduction to a singly-housed, 7-month-old chimpanzee; 2) introduction to a socially-housed group of chimpanzees, aged 7 months to 2 years; and 3) introduction to four socially-housed, 4-month-old chimpanzees.

We wished to ascertain two things in the preliminary data. First, did the presence of the dog seem to be most beneficial in a solitary or social setting? Second, at what age level did chimpanzees seem to benefit most from the presence of the dog? We answered these questions in terms of interactive behavior patterns exhibited by the chimpanzees. Diary-recording and a scaled ethogram were used to record various interactions falling under three main categories: 1) aggression, 2) affiliative behavior, and 3) play.

Observations were made by nursery personnel to whom the animals were habituated, and the introductions occurred in two daily sessions of 30 minutes to one hour in duration. Diary records were taken at a rate of one per minute. In addition, a scaled ethogram recorded interactions in one-and five-minute intervals.


Phase 1 occurred in a small room with glass walls and a sliding glass door. The singly-housed chimpanzee and the puppy were introduced with the glass barrier in place for the first four days. Then a baby-gate replaced the sliding glass door, allowing the animals limited access to one another, substantially at their own control and impetus. In the final stage of Phase 1, the dog was allowed in the cubicle with a technician for periods of one-half to one hour.

During the glass-barrier stage, the animals spent much of their time looking at each other through the glass. The chimpanzee made play faces toward the dog on several occasions and often gestured toward it with his hands. By the third day, the dog was actively responding to these initiations by barking, scratching the glass, wagging his tail, and chewing on the door jamb. The baby-gate stage worked well, allowing the animals to sniff and poke at each other. The complete physical introduction initially resulted in tugs-of-war over toys and blankets. The chimpanzee would alternately grimace, whimper-woo, or initiate play toward the dog. Much of the time was spent in solitary play by both animals. When playing, the puppy often intimidated the chimpanzee with its playfulness, but the chimpanzee controlled the encounters through the use of barks, hoots, and occasional aggressive screams, or by running to the lap of the technician.

Phase 2 consisted of introducing the puppy to six group-housed animals. The puppy received a mixed reception. The chimpanzees often rushed to the security of the technician's lap, much as they might rush to their own mothers in a different setting. This phase is still in progress. The puppy prefers to play almost exclusively with the two oldest animals (ages 2 years and 17 months) at this time. These older infants are well-matched in energy to the growing puppy. As the puppy becomes more mature, our study will document whether he prefers to interact with a different, or a wider age range, of chimpanzee.

Play with the older infants can best be described as rough-and-tumble, but rarely is an alarm bark or true aggressive event observed, and in fact the play is remarkably quiet, apparently reflecting contentment. One unforeseen benefit from this liaison between the puppy and the older infants was a reduction in bites and scratches that younger infants had sustained from their more mature peers. Older infants engaged in active play with the puppy, which apparently distracted them from the over-rough play sessions and mild aggression which they had previously displayed toward their younger peers.

Phase 3 is still in the early stages, with only 3 introductions completed. The dog is surprisingly gentle with these very young animals, all less than 6 months old. During these sessions Ruff will generally lie on the floor and chew a toy. The infants crawl over him or curl up quietly in contact with him. Two short incidents of alarm barking have been observed when the puppy became too playful. The result was that the puppy slowed its activity greatly.

Our study continues, and we will have more data available soon. We would like to communicate with other institutions or researchers who are using xenospecific enrichment, and those who are interested in xenospecific relationships involving primates (especially chimpanzees). To date we feel the introduction has been both smooth and beneficial to the young chimpanzees. As the study follows the puppy through maturity we think it will yield additional valuable information. We believe the results of this research will assist primate facilities to adopt practical new approaches to enriching the social environment of nursery-reared infants. Contact the authors at the address on the preceeding page.


Henzi, S. P. & MacDonald, A. (1986). A baboon among goats. African Wildlife, 40, 177.


Authors' address: Primate Research Institute, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 1027, Holloman Air Force Base, NM 88330-1027.

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Living Continuously with a Compatible Companion is not a Distressing Experience for Rhesus Monkeys

Viktor Reinhardt, Doug Cowley, Joan Scheffler, and Russell Vertein University of Wisconsin


Pairing compatible rhesus monkeys is a safe, inexpensive method of environmental enrichment which does not interfere with common research protocols and routine management procedures (Reinhardt, 1989). Living with a companion does not impair an animal's general health status as reflected in body weight (Reinhardt et al., 1988). Sceptics of pair-housing, however, argue that being continuously exposed to a conspecific partner may constitute a distressing experience, particularly for the subordinate animal.

The present investigation addresses this concern. Peripheral cortisol concentrations were taken as parameters for the evaluation of distress (Clarke et al., 1988; Sassenrath, 1970; Selye, 1971; Tapp et al., 1984; Udelsman & Chrousos, 1988). Values for monkeys living in pairs were compared with those of monkeys living in single cages (thereby ruling out the presence of a companion as a potential cause of distress). Dominance-subordination relationships were assessed in paired animals and their cortisol concentrations compared in relation to their relative rank positions.


Subjects of this study were 15 adult, non-pregnant, non-lactating female rhesus monkeys that were trained to cooperate for venipunture in their home cages (Vertein & Reinhardt, 1989). Each animal was bled by the attending caretaker on a different day at 13:15 hr. The actual venipuncture occurred 60-90 seconds after the caretaker entered the animal room. Blood samples were analyzed for serum cortisol with a Clinical Assays Gamma Coat Cortisol Kit (Dade, Baxter Travenol Diagnostics, Cambridge, MA).

Five monkeys lived singly in 70x75x77 cm upper-row cages. Ten monkeys lived in 5 pairs in 85x85x85 cm upper-row cages. Paired companions were not related; their dominance-subordination relationship was known (unidirectional yielding and fear-grinning indicate subordination); they were compatible and had lived together continuously for 2 1/2 years. Each pair was observed by the first author for 1 hour and all agonistic interactions recorded, one day before the first blood drawing.


Single animals had mean serum cortisol concentrations of 20.5 +/- 2.1 microg/dl (range: 17.3-23.8 microg/dl). Paired animals had a mean serum cortisol concentration of 19.5 +/- 2.9 microg/dl (range: 16.7-24.8 microg/dl). The difference was not significant (p>0.1; Figure 1).

Figure 1: Serum cortisol concentrations in adult female rhesus mokeys caged singly or in pairs.

Subordinate partners of pairs had a mean cortisol concentration of 19.4 +/- 2.9 microg/dl; their dominant counterparts had a mean cortisol concentration of 19.5 +/- 3.0. Again, the difference was not significant (p>0.1; Figure 1).

The occurrence of agonistic interactions per pair averaged 2.1 during the 1-hour observation. The following actions were recorded: yielding 15 times, fear-grinning 1 time, pushing 4 times, sham slapping (threat gesture), 1 time.


This study failed to detect differences in serum cortisol concentrations between single and paired rhesus monkeys. Both categories of animals had cortisol levels that were equivalent to subjects bled under strictly undisturbed conditions (Tapp et al., 1984). From this it can be inferred that living with a compatible companion was not more distressing for the animals than living alone. Dominant animals had cortisol concentrations that did not differ from those of their subordinate companions, indicating that neither dominant nor subordinate partners experienced social distress. This assumption is supported by the facts that companions seldom engaged in agonistic interactions and that such interactions only rarely involved physical contact.

It should be emphasized that companions were not randomly paired. Partners were carefully selected after a period of non-contact familiarization (Reinhardt, 1988) and were considered "compatible" only if both secured their appropriate shares of food, neither showed signs of depression, and neither inflicted a serious injury on the other (Reinhardt, 1989). The absence of social distress in such compatible pairs is underscored not only by the infrequent occurrence of mild agonistic interactions (cf. Reinhardt, 1990) but also by the large proportion of time partners engage in affiliative grooming and huddling (Ranheim & Reinhardt, 1989).


Clarke, A.S., Mason, W., & Moberg, G.P. (1988). Differential behavioral and adrenocortical responses to stress among three macaque species. American Journal of Primatology, 14, 37-52.

Ranheim, S. & Reinhardt, V. (1989). Compatible rhesus monkeys provide long-term stimulation for each other. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 28[3], 1-2.

Reinhardt, V. (1988). Preliminary comments on pairing unfamiliar adult male rhesus monkeys for the purpose of environmental enrichment. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 27[4], 1-3.

Reinhardt, V., Cowley, D., Eisele, S., Vertein, R., & Houser, D. (1988). Pairing compatible female rhesus monkeys for cage enrichment has no negative impact on body weight. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 27[1], 13-15.

Reinhardt, V. (1989). Alternatives to single caging of rhesus monkeys. Humane Innovations and Alternatives in Animal Experimentation, 3, 123-125.

Reinhardt, V. (1990). Time budget of caged rhesus monkeys exposed to a companion, a PVC perch, and a piece of wood for an extended time. American Journal of Primatology, in press.

Sassenrath, E.N. (1970). Increased responsiveness related to social stress in rhesus monkeys. Hormones and Behavior, 1, 283-298.

Selye, H. (1971). Hormones and Resistance. New York: Springer Verlag.

Tapp, W. N., Holaday, J. W., & Natelson, B. H. (1984). Ultradian glucocorticoid rhythms in monkeys and rats continue during stress. American Journal of Physiology, 247, R866-R871.

Udelsman, R. & Chrousos, G. P. (1988). Hormonal responses to surgical stress. In G. P. Chrousos, D. L. Loriaux, & P. W. Gold (Eds.), Mechanisms of physical and emotional stress (pp. 265-272). New York: Plenum Press.

Vertein, R. & Reinhardt, V. (1989). Training female rhesus monkeys to cooperate during in-homecage venipuncture. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 28[2], 1-3.


Authors' address: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715.
Thanks are due to Mr. John Wolf for editing this manuscript and to Mr. Robert Dodsworth for preparing Figure 1. This project was supported by NIH grant RR-00167 to the WRPRC.

* * *

Conference on Well-being of Nonhuman Primates in Research

More than 200 participants gathered in Bethesda on June 22-23, 1989, for two conferences prompted by the publication of proposed changes in the Animal Welfare Act concerning standards for canine and primate research. Jeanne Altmann (Brookfield Zoo) and Steven M. Niemi (EG&G Mason Research Institute) chaired the nonhuman primate conference. Speakers and commentators from the audience at both conferences were unanimous in their desire for performance-based standards.

Co-chair Dr. Altmann expressed concern that the proposed regulations are supposed to hold for a whole mammalian order (primates) with the exclusion of humans and perhaps prosimians. The data based on nonhuman primates in research covers less than 20 years of experience and deals mostly with rhesus monkeys. Dr. Miller (OPRR/NIH) later commented that the current PHS view of such things as physical environment for nonhuman primates depends upon whether the nonhuman primate belongs to a social species: for non-social species, group housing would not be done unless scientifically justified.

Tina Widowski (University of Wisconsin) described research approaches for determining well-being of farm animals that are useful in her present position as manager of two primate colonies. She cautioned that health and well-being do not always go hand-in-hand. Determination of appropriate behavioral measures of well-being requires knowledge of normal species specific behavior. Some parameters could be frustration measurements, preference testing, etc. She cautioned that the previous experiences of the animal influence preferences and that human intuition is not a good substitute for actual data.

Charles T. Snowdon (University of Wisconsin) shared with Dr. Altmann and others a concern that the USDA proposed regulations tried to lump together too many diverse species into one set of standards. He discussed the variability in behavior and physiology, even among the small New World monkeys. Some specific problems in the proposed standards include the lack of consideration that arboreal species probably need elevated cages, and that caging tarsiers as specified in Proposed Part 3 standards probably would be deadly: tarsiers need to leap and, therefore, need more space than is stipulated in the proposed regulations.

Robert Sapolsky (Stanford University) described his studies on physiological markers of stress, and also discussed some relationships between primate social status and cortisol levels across individuals and conditions. He pointed out that both physiological and psychological stress yield the same metabolic changes. Not only species-related reactions, but individual reactions are based upon the animals' previous experience. Some species may take 12-15 months to stabilize after being moved into a different type of housing environment. Dr. Sapolsky closed with a good working definition: "Ethology is the process of interviewing an animal using its own language."

Steven Suomi (NIH) reported on individual variability in behavior and physiology within species. He also commented on the effects of stress encountered by monkeys living in the wild in natural habitats. Awareness of typical patterns of stress displayed in the wild may help to determine appropriate, low stress environments for research animals.

Hilton J. Klein (Merck, Sharp & Dohme Research Labs) discussed infectious and traumatic biohazards associated with nonhuman primate research. He cautioned that hazards to both the animals and their human handlers are likely to increase if the proposed regulations are enacted without change. For example:
* increased hazard to handlers would result from increases in required handling during transfer of the animals for exercise, providing human interaction, and capturing animals in group housing situations.
* Increased hazard to the nonhuman primates in terms of stress and fight wounds during the establishment of a social hierarchy in group housing situations.

Michale Keeling (University of Texas) reviewed his experience as a past Chairman of the APHIS advisory group which evaluated proposed regulations. He noted that many of the committee's simpler recommendations were initially ignored by APHIS, including those for flexibility and performance-based standards. He also noted that expensive and unsubstantiated design parameters were adopted.

Primate Conference Recommendations

The following recommendations were summarized by Co-chair J. Altmann from the formal presentations and audience comments:

1. The regulations should be performance-based as well as enforceable.

2. When not all performance criteria can be optimized simultaneously and for all animals, as will often be the case, the choice among the best conditions may be based on research and management constraints.

3. Both institutional and USDA staff should receive training in those areas of primate behavior and primate biology in which they do not currently have expertise. More intensive training in these areas should become a required part of the education of personnel hired for such positions in the future.

4. A graded implementation period should be provided, not with the focus on time needed to buy new cages but rather for development of institutional-compatible, species-appropriate measures that produce satisfactory performance standards and to allow use of transitional conditions and techniques for animals that have a deficient history (e.g., non-socialized, accustomed to invariant routines, etc.).

5. A reporting procedure should be developed that will produce information for a national data base.


Reprinted with permission from the SCAW Newsletter, Summer, 1989, 11[2], 1, 10-12.

* * *

Research and Education Opportunities

Lion Tamarins

The International Management Committees for Golden-lion and Golden-headed Lion Tamarins announce that institutions interested in joining either of these programs should contact Jonathan Ballou at the Dept. of Zoological Research, National Zoological Park, Washington, DC 20008 [202-673-4815]. Interested institutions must be approved by the Management Committee to receive animals. Researchers must submit a research protocol with the application; behavioral research is preferred.

ASP Summer Internship List

The Education Committee of the American Society of Primatologists (ASP) has again compiled a list of opportunities for students to become involved in primate research and husbandry. For copies of the list, information about its preparation, or to submit additional listings, contact Reinhold J. Hutz, Chair of the Education Committee of ASP, Dept. of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201.

* * *

Workshop Announcement

The National Institutes of Health, Office for Protection from Research Risks, is continuing to sponsor a series of workshops on implementing the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. The workshops are open to institutional administrators, members of animal care and use committees, laboratory animal veterinarians, investigators, and other institutional staff who have responsibility for high-quality management of sound institutional animal care and use programs. A program will be held April 19-20, 1990, at Madison, WI, and another May 8-9, 1990, at San Juan, PR. For information on the former, contact Mary Ruedinger, Assistant Director for Animal Use Compliance, University of Wisconsin, 119 Veterinary Science, 1655 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706 [608-262-0400]. For the latter, Susan Schwartz, Assistant Professor, Caribbean Primate Research Center, University of Puerto Rico, Medical Science Campus, P.O. Box 1053, Sabana Seca, PR 000749 [809-784-6619, 809-784-0322].

* * *

Meeting Announcements


The 13th meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, hosted by the University of California, Davis, will be held July 11-14, 1990. Paper sessions, symposia, posters, exhibits, and business meetings will take place on the Davis campus. Committee meetings, including the Executive Committee meeting, are scheduled for Wednesday afternoon, July 11. An evening reception for all registrants will follow. Scientific paper presentations will begin Thursday morning, July 12, with the final session ending Saturday, July 14. Dormitory rooms on the Davis campus and rooms in the Davis Ramada Inn have been reserved. For a registration form or further information, contact Dr. Sally Mendoza, Chair, Local Arrangements Committee, California Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 [916-752-1988].

Travel to IPS

Educational Travel Coordinators have planned several tours around the IPS meetings in Nagoya and Kyoto this summer. ETC is not officially connected to either IPS or ASP, but one of the partners, Dr. Frank Poirier, is a member of both societies. Round-trip prices to Nagoya from Chicago (Los Angeles) start at $950 ($863). There are also packages including Tokyo and/or Hong Kong. For information or reservations contact Educational Travel Coordinators, 2151 E. Dublin-Granville Rd., Columbus, OH 43229 [800-843-4978].

Lion-tailed Macaques

The third international symposium on lion-tailed macaques will be held at the San Diego Zoo May 23-25, 1990. The keynote speaker will be David Chivers (England), and other invited speakers will include Ajith Kumar and Ullas Karanth (India), Werner Kaumanns (Germany), and Don Melnick and Frans deWaal (U.S.). There will also be paper sessions, tours of the Zoo and the Wild Animal Park, and social events, as well as the lion-tailed macaque Species Survival Plan midyear meeting. For more information and registration, contact Macaque Symposium (CRES), San Diego Zoo, P.O. Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112 [619-557-3959].

Animal Care Committees

The Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW) and the Division of Health Affairs, University of Southern California (USC), will sponsor a meeting on "Effective Animal Care and Use Committees" on Friday, June 1, 1990, at USC, Los Angeles. The program will include: Compliance with regulations and policy, protocol review; Responsibilities of the ACUC veterinarian; Relations with the public; Perspectives of community members. Afternoon workshops will be held on Animal well-being: The pain issue; Special problems in industry; Computerized programs; and Case studies and problem protocols. For more information, contact: SCAW Conferences, 4805 St. Elmo Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20814 [301-654-6390].

* * *

Fyssen Foundation 1990 International Prize

The Fyssen Foundation's general aim is "to encourage all forms of scientific enquiry into cognitive mechanisms, including thought and reasoning, underlying animal and human behavior, into their biological and cultural bases, and into their phylogenetic and ontogenetic development." For this purpose, a substantial International Scientific Prize shall be given for a major contribution to the progress of knowledge in the fields of research supported by the Foundation. It was awarded to Professors A. Leroi-Gourhan (1980), W. H. Thorpe (1981), V. B. Mountcastle (1982), H. C. Conklin (1983), R. W. Brown (1984), P. Buser (1985), D. Pilbeam (1986), D. Premack (1987), J. C. Gardin (1988), and P. Goldman-Rakic (1989). The discipline considered for the 1990 prize is Anthropology and Cognition. Nominations should include a curriculum vitae of the nominee; a list of his publications; a summary (4 pages maximum) of the research upon which the nomination is based. 15 copies of the nomination should be sent to the Secretariat of the Foundation, 194 rue de Rivoli, 75001 Paris, France. Deadline for receipt of nominations is September 1, 1990.

* * *

Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors)


* Human Evolution: An Illustrated Guide. Peter Andrews & Chris Stringer. Paintings by Maurice Wilson. London: British Museum (Natural History), 1989. 47 pp. [Price: 7.95 Pounds]
. . This book depicts the sequence of early apes and hominids, from Aegyptopithecus to Cro-Magnon Man. "The paintings show the different primates in their natural settings, reconstructed from evidence of fossil plants and animals; the texts give a brief description of each primate, its main adaptations to its environment, how it lived, and particular points of interest especially those relating to differences between groups."

* Cognitive Structure and Development in Nonhuman Primates. F. Antinucci (Ed.). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1989. 266 pp. [Price: $19.95]
. . Using a longitudinal approach, Antinucci and his colleagues F. Natale, P. Poti>a, and G. Spinozzi of the Ist. di Psicologia, C.N.R., Rome, attempt to establish the time of onset and extent of development of sensorimotor coordination, physical cognition, and logical cognition in macaques, cebus monkeys, and a gorilla. In the penultimate chapter J. Langer of U.C. Berkeley compares their data with his own and others' data for human children, and offers some interesting hypotheses about the evolution of human intelligence.


* Gorilla Bibliography. M. D. Keiter. (1200 listings from 1800 to 1986. Supplement: 170 listings) [Price: $25, Supplement: $5. Order from Mary D. Keiter, 5635 40th Ave. West, Seattle, WA 98199]

* Laboratory Animal Welfare, 1979 - April 1989. C. N. Bebee. Bibliographies and Literature of Agriculture Number 91. (817 references, author index) Beltsville, MD: National Agricultural Library, 1989. [Free. Order from Animal Welfare Information Center, National Agricultural Library, Room 301, Beltsville, MD 20705.]

* Reference Material for Non-Affiliated Members of Animal Care and Use Committees. Special Reference Briefs NAL SRB 89-08. K. P. Engler. (101 citations) Beltsville, MD: National Agricultural Library, 1989. [Ordering information same as above.]

* Laboratory Animal Facilities and Management, January 1979 - March 1989. Quick Bibliography Series NAL-BIBL. QB 89-66. K. Clingerman. (328 citations, author index) Beltsville, MD: National Agricultural Library, 1989. [Ordering information same as above.]

* Welfare of Experimental Animals, January 1979 - August 1989. Quick Bibliography Series QB 90-10. J. Larson & K. Clingerman. (394 citations, author index) Beltsville, MD: National Agricultural Library, 1989. [Ordering information same as above.]


* ICLAS Bulletin, Number 65, Autumn, 1989. International Council for Laboratory Animal Science. [Price: 2.50 Pounds. Order from UFAW, 8 Hamilton Close, North Mimms, Potters Bar, Herts., EN6 3QD UK]
. . This issue contains articles on laboratory animal science in Greece and Australia.


* Audiovisual Resources in Primatology: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center (1989). R. Hamel & N. Curtis. [Price: $8.50 (U.S.), $18.50 (foreign), including postage. Order from Larry Jacobsen, Primate Center Library, 1220 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715-1299]
. . An annotated list, in a binder for easy updating, of audiotapes, videotapes, slide sets, and films which may be borrowed from the WRPRC Library.


* The Debt-for-Nature Exchange: A Tool for International Conservation. 50 pp. [Order from Conservation International, 1015 18th St. NW, Washington, DC 20036]

* Asian Compliance with CITES: Problems and Perspectives.
* CITES: The Future of International Wildlife Trade.

. . These papers are available for $6 each from William C. Burns, Director, Pacific Center for International Studies, 33 University Sq., Suite 184, Madison, WI 53715.


* Animal Care and Use in Behavioral Research: Regulations, Issues, and Applications. J. W. Driscoll (Ed.). Beltsville, MD: National Agricultural Library, 1989. 120 pp. [Free. Order from Animal Welfare Information Center, National Agricultural Library, Room 301, Beltsville, MD 20705.]
. . Papers from an invited session presented at the 1988 meeting of the Animal Behavior Society. Contents: I. Regulations. Oversight of the care and use of animals in animal behavior research in the United States, by M. L. Stephens. Surveillance of animal care and use in Canada, by G. R. Michener. Institutional animal care and use committees: Making them responsible and responsive, by J. A. Mench. Establishing an institutional animal care and use committee at a small institution, by J. W. Driscoll & T. C. Rambo. II. Issues and Problems. Animal research: The impact of federal regulations on science and education in small colleges, by J. Demarest. Ethical issues in the use of wild animals in behavioral and ecological studies, G. R. Michener. The development of guidelines for the care and use of agricultural animals, by W. R. Stricklin. Ethical treatment of invertebrates: How do we define an animal, by J. A. Mather. III. Procedures and Improvements. An interdisciplinary approach to animal medical problems, by E. F. Gibbons, Jr. & M. K. Stoskopf. Applied ethology as a tool for improving animal care in zoos, by F. W. Koontz & P. R. Thomas. Psychological well-being: Applications to social groups of nonhuman primates, by M. A. Novak. Environmental enrichment alternatives for laboratory nonhuman primates, by K. A. L. Bayne. Evaluation of attempts to enrich the environment of singly-caged non-human primates, by S. W. Line, H. Markowitz, K. N. Morgan, & S. Strong.

Special Journal Issues

* Galago Symposium. International Journal of Primatology, 1988, 9[6] and 1989, 10[1].
. . Proceedings of a symposium entitled "Variability within Galagos," held at the XIth Congress of the I.P.S., Göttingen, FRG, July, 1986.

* New quantitative developments in primatology and anthropology: 1. Schultz-Biegert Symposium in Kartause Ittingen, September 11-15, 1989. Folia Primatologica, 1989, 53[1-4].


* Primates, 1989, Supplement to Volume 30. Cumulative Contents and Author Index for Vols. 26-30 (1985-89).


* Vasopressin and oxytocin systems in the brain and upper spinal cord of Macaca fascicularis. Caffé, A. R., van Ryen, P. C., vand der Woude, T. P., & van Leeuwen, F. W. (Netherlands Inst. for Brain Research, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands). The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 1989, 287, 302-325.
. . Immunocytochemistry displayed VP neurons in the diagonal band of Broca (DBB), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), medial amygdaloid nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, area of the locus coeruleus (LC), solitary tract nuclei (NTS), and the dorsal horn of the cervical spinal cord in addition to those known to exist in the paraventricular, supraoptic, and suprachiasmatic hypothalamic nuclei. A dense accumulation of VP fibers was observed in areas such as the DBB, medial septum, BST, amygdala, hippocampus, ventral tegmental area, periaquaductal gray, dorsal, and ventral raphe, area of Forel, LC region, parabrachial nuclei, and NTS. No extrahypothalamic OXT neurons were found in the brain. The distribution of the central VP and OXT systems in this primate is quite different from that in the rat, but similar to the human's. -- Editor's note: F. W. van Leeuwen writes that a number of sections and parts of brain tissue from control and colchicine treated animals are still available at the Institute for immunocytochemical research.

* Photoreceptor topography of the retina in the adult pigtail macaque (Macaca nemestrina). Packer, O., Hendrickson, A. E., & Curcio, C. A. (Dept. of Psychology, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195). Journal of Comparative Neurology, 1989, 288, 165-183.
. . The spatial density and inner segment areas of cones and rods were measured across the whole mounted retinas of 3 adult pigtail macaques, and maps were constructed of photoreceptor density and inner segment diameter. The photoreceptor topography of the pigtail macaque is qualitatively similar to that of other macaques and to humans.

Animal Models

* Responses of pallidal neurons to striatal stimulation in monkeys with MPTP-induced parkinsonism. Tremblay, L., Filion, M., & Bédard, P. J. (M. Filion, Lab. de Neurobiologie, Ho>cpital de l'Enfant-Jésus, 1401, 18e Rue, Québec, P.Q., Canada G1J 1Z4). Brain Research, 1989, 498, 17-33.
. . Recordings on 2 treated cynomolgus monkeys showed at least 90% of the nigral neurons of the compacta-type were degenerated. Both the temporal and spatial magnitudes of inhibitions and excitations are abnormal at the output of the basal ganglia in parkinsonism. The dopamine agonist apomorphine normalized responses in these animals.

* Effect of antiprogestin ZK 98.734 on the ovarian cycle, early pregnancy, and on its binding to progesterone receptors in the myometrium of marmoset Callithrix jacchus. Puri, C. P., Kholkute, S. D., Pongubala, J. M. R., Patil, R. K., Elger, W. A. G., & Jayaraman, S. (Inst. for Research in Reproduction (ICMR), Parel, Bombay-400012, India). Biology of Reproduction, 1988, 38, 528-535.
. . Administration of ZK 98.734 during early pregnancy caused a significant drop in progesterone levels, and all pregnancies were terminated. Post-treatment cycles in pregnant animals and non-pregnant controls were ovulatory and of normal duration.

* Progesterone antagonist lilopristone: A potent abortifacient in the common marmoset. Puri, C. P., Patil, R. K., Kholkute, S. D., Elger, W. A. G., & Swamy, X. R. (Address same as above). American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1989, 161, 248-253.
. . Doses of 4 mg/day intramuscularly for 3 consecutive days resulted, depending on the date after midcycle peak in estradiol levels in mated animals, in drops in progesterone levels, shortened ovarian cycle length, vaginal bleeding, and expulsion of fetuses. Clinical trials for postcoital contraception, induction of menstruation, and early abortifacient effects are warranted.

* Gonadal and pituitary responses to progesterone antagonist ZK 98.299 during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle in bonnet monkeys. Puri, C. P., Patil, R. K., Elger, W. A. G., Vadigoppoula, A. D., & Jagan, M. R. P. (Address same as above). Contraception, 1989, 39, 277-243.
. . Administration of ZK 98.299 during the follicular phase blocks estradiol and bioactive LH release and terminates the follicular phase in most animals. The follicular phase is reinitiated after treatment is stopped.

* Gastric campylobacter-like organisms: Their role in gastric disease of laboratory animals. Fox, J. G. & Lee, A. (Div. of Comparative Medicine, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139). Laboratory Animal Science, 1989, 39, 543-553.
. . An overview of the ecological and pathological role of gastric spiral bacteria in domestic and laboratory animals, an essential first step when considering the role and proper selection of animal models in the study of C. pylori gastroduodenal disease.

* Macular disease in related rhesus monkeys. Dawson, W. W., Ulshafer, R. J., Engel, H. M., Hope, G. M., & Kessler, M. J. (Dept. of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611). Documenta Ophthalmologica, 1989, 71, 253-263.
. . The eyes of 136 rhesus monkeys were examined. No eyes less than 10 years of age had confluent drusen or disciform-like lesions. The incidence of drusen was much higher in samples of some social groups than in those of others.

* Peripheral neuropathy in diabetic monkeys. Cornblath, D. R., Hillman, M. A., Striffler, J. S., Herman, C. N., & Hansen, B. C. (Meyer 2-147, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21205). Diabetes, 1989, 38, 1365-1370.
. . Nerve conduction was studied in both motor (peroneal, median, and ulnar) and sensory (median and ulnar) nerves in 13 adult male rhesus monkeys, 4 overtly diabetic and 9 nondiabetic. The diabetic animals had significantly reduced motor conduction velocities and prolonged F-wave latencies, and nerve conduction times were increased in their motor fibers, which could be identified as early as 2 years after the onset of hyperglycemia. These abnormalities are similar to those seen in humans and suggest further study of these animals as a primate model of human diabetic neuropathy.

* Spectrum of disease in macaque monkeys chronically infected with SIV/SMM. McClure, H. M., Anderson, D. C., Fultz, P. N., Ansari, A. A., Lockwood, E., & Brodie, A. (Div. of Pathobiology & Immunobiology, Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322). Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 1989, 21, 13-24.
. . 12 rhesus and 1 pig-tailed macaque have been monitored for 28-41 months following experimental treatment with 10&S'4 TCID of SIV/SMM. 12 of the 13 animals became virus positive and seroconverted within 6 weeks of exposure; the remaining animal seroconverted at 6 months, but has remained virus negative. 6 animals died between 14 and 28 months post-infection, following prolonged clinical disease characterized by chronic diarrhea and weight loss, peripheral lymphadenopathy and hemogram abnormalities. Histologic findings ranged from prominent follicular hyperplasia to severe lymphoid depletion, with lymphoid tissues often showing an infiltrate of syncytial giant cells. 1 animal had intestinal cryptosporidiosis and 2 had brain lesions comparable to those seen in AIDS encephalopathy in humans. 3 of the remaining 7 animals have an ARC-like disease and are showing gradual deterioration of their clinical conditions. These animals, as well as animals that died, had progressive decreases in CD4+ cells and CD4+/CD8+ cell ratios. These observations further document the marked clinical, pathologic, and immunologic similarities between AIDS and the SIV-infected macaque model.

* 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("Ecsta- sy") selectively destroys brain serotonin terminals in rhesus monkeys. Insel, T. R., Battaglia, G., Johannessen, J. N., Marra, S., & De Souza, E. B. (E. B. De Souza, Lab. of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Branch, NIDAA Research Center, P.O. Box 5180, Baltimore, MD 21224). Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1989, 249, 713-720.
. . The potential neurotoxic hazard of MDMA in humans was assessed by examining the effects of repeated systemic administration on selected neurochemical and behavioral measures in rhesus monkeys. Potent and selective effects on various brain serotonin parameters appear.

* Chronic exposure of primates to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields: I. Exposure system and measurements of general health and performance. Wolpaw, J. R., Seegal, R. F., & Dowman, R. (CNS Studies Section, Wadsworth Labs, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201). Bioelectromagnetics, 1989, 10, 277-288.
. . Exposure of pigtailed macaques to electric and magnetic fields at strengths of 3 kV/m and 0.1 G, 10 kV/m and 0.3 G, and 30 kV/m and 0.9 G for 3 21-day periods had no apparent effects on general health or performance. Reliable and consistent results were obtained measuring weight, blood chemistry, blood cell counts, performance on a simple motor task, and postmortem examinations.

Animal Welfare

* Beyond cruelty. McCabe, K. The Washingtonian, 1990, 25[5], 72-77, 185-195. [Copies available from Washingtonian Magazine, 1828 L Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036]
. . A defense of animal research and review of PETA activities.

* Physiological perspectives on nonhuman primate well-being. Sapolsky, R. (Dept. of Biological Sciences, Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA 94305). SCAW Newsletter, 1989, 11[3], 4-8.
. . Part of a presentation at a SCAW conference, "Well-being of Nonhuman Primates in Research." The author concludes that human intuition is not a good guide to what is ideal for an animal, and that proposed USDA regulations fail to take that into account.


* Allogrooming, partner choice, and dominance in male anubis baboons. Easley, S. P., Coelho, A. M. Jr., & Taylor, L. L. (Behavioral Medicine Lab., Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, TX 78284). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 1989, 80, 353-368.
. . Behavioral measures obtained by focal animal sampling techniques indicate that unrelated male baboons establish well-defined linear dominance hierarchies, form allogrooming relationships with one another, and exhibit a nonrandom distribution of allogrooming. When age, kinship, and group tenure are controlled, however, performance and reception of allogrooming are not strongly associated with dominance in single-gender social groups of male anubis baboons.

* A ten-month study of endogenous testosterone levels and behaviour in outdoor-living female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Turner, J. J., Herndon, J. G., Ruiz de Elvira, M.-C., & Collins, D. C. (Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322). Primates, 1989, 30, 523-530.
. . Several behaviors were significantly positively correlated with testosterone in from one to five of 11 females, but no trends were strong enough across all females to suggest that any of these correlations have species-wide significance.

* Variability in the development of mother-infant relationships among free-ranging Japanese macaques. Tanaka, I. (Dept. of Anthropology, Faculty of Science, Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113 Japan). Primates, 1989, 30, 477-491.
. . Three possible factors controlling the mother-infant relationship were examined using multivariate analysis. Parity was determined to exert the strongest influence. Maternal rank was a less important factor, and infant gender appeared to have no effect.

* Prior experience of risk and individual differences in enterprise shown by rhesus monkey infants in the second half of their first year. Simpson, M. J. A., Gore, M. A., Janus, M., & Rayment, R. D. G. (M.R.C. Unit on the Development and Integration of Behaviour, Cambridge Univ., High Street, Madingley, Cambridge CB3 8AA, England). Primates, 1989, 30, 493-509.
. . Infants of 37 to 44 weeks were attracted to a sawdust, grain, and raisin mixture placed out of their mothers' reach. Enterprise was measured in terms of the number of raisins taken. Infants of non-top-ranking mothers took more raisins than infants of top-ranking mothers, while infants receiving high levels of aggression from their mothers or the adult males in their groups took more raisins than the others. The problems of assessing "risk" faced by socially living animals, and the mechanisms whereby experience of risk could enhance enterprise, are discussed.

* A twenty-year study of long-term and temporary dominance relations among stumptailed macaques (Macaca arctoides). Rhine, R. J., Cox, R. L., & Costello, M. B. (Dept. of Psychology, Univ. of California, Riverside, CA 92521). American Journal of Primatology, 1989, 19, 69-82.
. . Stumptails displayed the matrilineal dominance organization found for several other cercopithecine species. No animal maintained the same dominance rank over the entire period of the research or over the last 16 years, but there was considerable consistency over long periods. Variation in dominance ranks was greatest among members of mid-ranking matrilines and least for the lowest ranking. The same female or her son were the lowest ranking animals of their groups in all samples taken over the entire 20 years.

* Gender differences in visual habit formation in 3-month-old rhesus monkeys. Bachevalier, J., Hagger, C., & Bercu, B. B. (Lab. of Neuropsychology, NIMH, Bldg. 9, Room 1N107, Bethesda, MD 20892). Developmental Psychobiology, 1989, 22, 585-599.
. . The rate of learning concurrent visual discriminations with 24-hour intertrial intervals, a measure of habit formation, was assessed in infant monkeys of both sexes and compared with the rate of learning in adults. 3-month-old male monkeys learned an initial set of discriminations (but not later sets) more slowly than 3-month-old females, but the gender difference was absent in 6-month-old and adult monkeys. There was a significant negative correlation between testosterone levels and learning scores on the initial set in the 3-month-old male monkeys, which suggest that high testosterone levels found perinatally in male monkeys temporarily slows maturation of the neural system underlying visual habit formation.


* Management of individual body weight growth of infant squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) in indoor breeding colony. Hamano, M., Yoshida, T., Cho, F., & Goto, N. (Corporation for Production and Research of Laboratory Primates, Hachimandai, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305, Japan). Experimental Animals, 1990, 39, 43-48. (Japanese, with English abstract)
. . Body weight data for squirrel monkeys from birth through 12 weeks of age was analyzed to see if there was a difference in the growth rate calculated at weekly and less frequent intervals. For monkeys whose body weight was above a calculated lower control limit during the first 3 weeks after birth, no significant difference was detected between rates calculated from 13 measurements, and those from 7 measurements. Labor saving changes in laboratory practices have resulted. Several charts and graphs are included.

* A perch for primate squeeze cages. Schmidt, E. M., Dold, G. M., & McIntosh, J. S. (Laboratory of Neural Control, NINCDS, Bethesda, MD 20205). Laboratory Animal Science, 1989, 39, 166-167.
* Correspondence. Contel, N. R. (E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Experimental Station, E400/2702, Wilmington, DE 19880-0400). Laboratory Animal Science, 1989, 39, 537.
. . Descriptions of 2 perches.

* Evaluation of the long-term effectiveness of two environmental enrichment objects for singly caged rhesus macaques. Reinhardt, V. (Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715). Lab Animal, 1989, 18[6], 31-33.
. . 25 monkeys spent on average 28% of observation time interacting with suspended PVC pipes, but only 3% with loose branch segments, when both were available simultaneously.


* Translocation as a strategy for preserving endangered species. Tasse, J. (School of Natural Resources, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109). Endangered Species UPDATE, 1989, 6[11-12], 6.

* Reintroduction of captive mammals for conservation: Guidelines for reintroducing endangered species into the wild. Kleiman, D. G. (Dept. of Zoological Research, National Zoological Park, Washington, DC 20008). BioScience, 1989, 39, 152-161.
. . Description of the conditions likely to lead to success, with examples from recent reintroduction efforts, including chimpanzees, orangutans, and, especially, golden lion tamarins.


* Neonatal nutrition and longitudinal growth in baboons: Adiposity measured by skinfold thickness. Coelho, A. M. Jr. & Rutenberg, G. W. (Behavioral Medicine Lab., Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, TX 78284). American Journal of Human Biology, 1989, 1, 429-442.
. . 48 clinically normal Papio cynocephalus anubis were assigned to 3 groups, which were underfed, overfed, or fed normally from birth to 16 weeks. Growth and development of adiposity were assessed weekly from birth to 16 weeks, and at 13 week intervals until 5 years of age. During the first 16 weeks, growth was strongly influenced by food shortages but not by excesses. When the dietary treatment ceased, growth returned to a more normal pattern within 26 weeks.


* Clinical aspects of African viral hemorrhagic fevers. Gear, J. H. S. (National Inst. for Virology, Private Bag X4, Sandringham 2131, South Africa). Reviews of Infectious Diseases, 1989, 11[Suppl. 4], S777-S782.
. . Salient clinical aspects of the 3 hemorrhagic fevers that have occurred in the southern African region: Rift Valley fever, Marburg hemorrhagic fever, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Case histories are described. Ebola hemorrhagic fever has not been identified in southern Africa.

* Immunogenicity and efficacy testing in chimpanzees of an oral hepatitis B vaccine based on live recombinant adenovirus. Lubeck, M. D., Davis, A. R., Chengalvala, M., Natuk, R. J., Morin, J. E., Molnar-Kimber, K., Mason, B. B., Bhat, B. M., Mizutani, S., Hung, P. P., & Purcell, R. H. (Wyeth-Ayerst Research, Biotechnology & Microbiology Div., P.O. Box 8299, Philadelphia, PA 19101). Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA, 1989, 86, 6763-6767.
. . The data demonstrate the feasibility of using orally administered recombinant adenoviruses as a general approach to vaccination.

* Malaria research -- What next? Marshall, E. Science, 1990, 247, 399-402.
* High-tech and low-tech: Control strategies today. Cherfas, J. Science, 1990, 247, 400-401.
* Malaria vaccines: The failed promise. Cherfas, J. Science, 1990, 247, 402-403.
. . Today 100 million people have malaria, and the parasites are becoming resistant to quinine-based drugs that have helped to keep the disease in check. Attempts to control the disease by many strategies have so far failed.

* Amyloidosis in pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina): Epidemiologic aspects. Slattum, M. M., Rosenkranz, S. L., DiGiacomo, R. F., Tsai, C.-C., & Giddens, W. E., Jr. (Div. of Animal Medicine, School of Medicine, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195). Laboratory Animal Science, 1989, 39, 560-566.
* Amyloidosis in pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina): Pathologic aspects. Slattum, M. M., Tsai, C.-C., DiGiacomo, R. F., & Giddens, W. E., Jr. (Address same as above). Laboratory Animal Science, 1989, 39, 567-570.
. . A retrospective study of 1952 necropsies over 15 years revealed 13% amyloidosis. Monkeys were at greater risk of developing amyloidosis if they had a history of episodes of diarrhea, respiratory disease, or trauma. Amyloid was present in the spleen, liver, and gastrointestinal tract in nearly 75% of the affected monkeys.

* Tuberculosis in newly imported Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetans). Janssen, D. L., Anderson, M. P., Abildgaard, S., & Silverman, S. (Dept. of Veterinary Services, San Diego Zoo, San Diego, CA 92112). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 1989, 20, 315-321.
. . Six Tibetan macaques arrived from a zoo in Asia for quarantine. One animal had a positive reaction to an intradermal palpebral tuberculin test using mammalian old tuberculin, and a second animal in the group converted 30 days after arrival. Comparative abdominal tuberculin tests showed minimal reactions. Thoracic radiographs were normal. Mycobacterial cultures taken from feces, gastric lavages, and tracheal washes were negative. While awaiting culture results, the two reactors were isolated from the other animals in quarantine. These two animals developed disseminated tuberculosis 5 months after their arrival. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from one animal, and M. bovis from the other. One animal was euthanized because of suspicious masses seen on the thoracic radiographs. This animal did not have tuberculosis. The remaining three animals were isolated for 11 months and treated with isoniazid for 4 months. None of the 3 converted to positive tuberculin status. In these cases, tuberculin testing with mammalian old tuberculin at the palpebral site appeared to be the most sensitive indicator of early infection. In contrast, antemortem diagnostic techniques (i.e. comparative tuberculin testing, thoracic radiographs, and mycobacterial cultures) were ineffective in diagnosing tuberculosis prior to the presence of clinical disease. -- Associate Editor's note: The standard National Academy of Science recommendation of five negative intrapalpebral tests at two week intervals with full strength USDA mammalian old tuberculin was not followed in this setting. This report tends to confirm the validity of the combination entry and exit thoracic x-rays and 5 negative TB tests. Also, triple antimicrobial therapy for 12 months has been shown to be more effective than 4 months of isoniazid (Wolf, et al., Lab Animal Science, 1988, 38, 25-33).

* Focal ulcerative ileocolitis with terminal thrombocytopenic purpura in juvenile cotton top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Snook, S. S., Canfield, D. R., Sehgal, P. K., & King, N. W., Jr. (Dept. of Comparative Pathology, Harvard Medical School, New England Regional Primate Research Center, Southborough, MA 01772). Laboratory Animal Science, 1989, 39, 109-114.
. . A newly recognized syndrome characterized by an acute focal ulcerative ileocolitis, anemia, and thrombocytopenic purpura in 5 juvenile cotton-top tamarins is described. Traditional etiologies are not considered likely etiologic agents, and nontraditional etiologies such as anaerobes or pathologic strains of Escherichia coli are now being considered. This syndrome is of potential significance to ongoing research into the etiology of idiopathic tamarin colitis.

* Dental pathologies in ten free-ranging chimpanzees from Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Kilgore, L. (Dept. of Anthropology, San Jose State Univ., San Jose, CA 95192). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 1989, 30, 219-227.
. . The dental remains of ten adult chimpanzees were examined for enamel attrition, caries, abscesses, periodontal disease, and tooth loss. Age was the underlying factor in the development of dental pathology.

* Reappearance of hepatitis D virus (HDV) replication in chronic hepatitis B virus carrier chimpanzees rechallanged with HDV. Negro, F., Shapiro, M., Satterfield, W. C., Gerin, J. L., & Purcell, R. H. (J. L. Gerin, Div. of Molecular Virology & Immunology, Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, 5640 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20852). Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1989, 160, 567-571.
. . Four chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier chimpanzees, which had apparently cleared hepatitis D virus (HDV) after a first experimental challenge with HDV, were reinoculated with a homologous strain of HDV. All animals had reappearance of low levels of serum HDV RNA and transient, mild alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations, in two cases correlated with HDV RNA positivity. Plasmas from 2 chimpanzees after rechallenge were inoculated into two other chronic HBV carrier animals that had recovered from a previous HDV infection. A similar reappearance of HDV RNA in serum (without ALT elevation) was noticed. These same plasmas, however, when inoculated into a chronic HBV carrier never exposed to HDV caused a severe acute hepatitis D. Rechallenge with HDV in chimpanzees apparently recovered from a first HDV infection resulted in the reappearance of HDV replication, sometimes associated with hepatitis. This can be interpreted as reinfection with HDV. Superinfection with the defective pathogen HDV leads to the establishment of chronic HDV infection in chronic HBV carrier chimpanzees.

* Asymptomatic infection of the central nervous system by the macaque immunosuppressive type D retrovirus, SRV-1. Lackner, A. A., Marx, P. A., Lerche, N. W., Gardner, M. B., Kluge, J. D., Spinner, A., Kwang, H.-S., & Lowenstine, L. J. (California Primate Research Center, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616). Journal of General Virology, 1989, 70, 1641-1651.
. . SRV-1 infection of the central nervous system (CNS) has been demonstrated in 13 out of 19 rhesus monkeys without histological or clinical evidence of neurological dysfunction. Infectious virus in the CNS was limited to the cerebrospinal fluid and was not detected in the brain parenchyma by culture or immunohistochemistry, suggesting a restricted cellular distribution of SRV-1 in the CNS.

* Studies on tanapox virus. Knight, J. C., Novembre, F. J., Brown, D. R., Goldsmith, C. S., & Esposito, J. J. (J. J. Esposito, Div. of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30333). Virology, 1989, 172, 116-124.
. . Virus characterization studies were performed to meliorate the taxonomic status of 3 currently unclassified, serologically related viruses: Tanapox virus, Yaba-like disease virus, and Yaba monkey tumor virus (YMTV). These studies, along with published viral characteristics, support the formation of a new poxvirus genus: the suggested name is Yatapoxvirus, and the genus currently comprises two species, Tanapox virus and YMTV.

* Streptococcus zooepidemicus infections of possible horsemeat source in red-bellied tamarins and Goeldi's monkeys. Schiller, C. A., Wolff, M. J., Munson, L., & Montali, R. J. (Dept. of Pathology, National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institutions, Washington, DC 20008). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 1989, 20, 322-327.
. . When uncooked horsemeat is to be fed to exotic species, the products should be routinely cultured for S. zooepidemicus, and strict sanitation practices carried out to prevent inadvertent streptococcal infection in susceptible species. -- Associate Editor's note: Susceptible species include humans.

* Interactions between simian immunodeficiency virus and Mycobacterium leprae in experimentally inoculated rhesus monkeys. Gormus, B. J., Murphey-Corb, M., Martin, L. N., Zhang, J.-y., Baskin, G. B., Trygg, C. B., Walsh, G. P., & Meyers, W. M. (Delta Regional Primate Research Center, Tulane Univ., Three Rivers Road, Covington, LA 70433). Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1989, 160, 405-413.
. . 34 rhesus monkeys were inoculated with M. leprae inoculum isolated from sooty mangabey monkeys with leprosy. Later it was learned that 1 of the donor mangabeys was asymptomatically infected with SIV, so that 5 of the rhesus were coinoculated with M. leprae and SIV. 3 of the 5 (60%) became SIV-positive and developed signs of leprosy and an AIDS-like illness, despite serologic response patterns to M. leprae antigens that usually indicate leprosy resistance. Only 21% of the animals who received SIV-free M. leprae developed leprosy. Diminished lepromin skin test responses and decreasing T-helper cell percentages were observed in SIV-coinoculated rhesus with leprosy. These observations suggest that SIV increases the susceptibility of rhesus monkeys to leprosy, possibly related to loss of T-helper cell function.

Instruments & Techniques

* Antigen capture assay for detection of simian type D retroviruses in cell cultures and plasma samples. Tsai, C.-C., Yarnall, M., Follis, K. E., & Benveniste, R. E. (Regional Primate Research Center, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195). Laboratory Animal Science, 1989, 39, 554-559.
. . A rapid, sensitive, and specific antigen capture (AC) assay has been established for the detection of p27 core protein of SIADS type-D retrovirus. Results of the AC assay were highly correlated with those of reverse transcriptase, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting assays, and the AC assay was faster and more sensitive.

* Video-task assessment of learning and memory in macaques (Macaca mulatta): Effects of stimulus movement on performance. Washburn, D. A., Hopkins, W. D., & Rumbaugh, D. M. (Dept. of Psychology, Georgia State Univ., Atlanta, GA 30303). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 1989, 15, 393-400.
. . Performance on tests of learning set, transfer index, matching to sample, and delayed matching to sample using a video-task paradigm, in which the animals responded to computer-generated images by manipulating a joystick, was comparable to that obtained using the WGTA. Performance was reliably and significantly better when the stimuli or discriminanda moved than when they were stationary. These findings have implications for the investigation of learning in other populations, as well as for the application of the video-task paradigm to comparative study.

* Gorilla radiotelemetry: A cautionary note. Cooper, R. W. & Evans, S. (1043 W. Orange Rd., Santa Ana, CA 92706). Gorilla Gazette, 1989, 3[3], 3, 16.
. . An AVM radiocollar mockup, and a bracelet made of excess strap material from the collar, were placed on gorillas. The animals did not tolerate either, and efforts to remove the bracelet caused serious swelling of the hand.

* Systems for collection of urine in the captive common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus. Lunn, S. F. (MRC Reproductive Biology Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, 37 Chalmers Street, Edinburgh EH3 9EW, UK). Laboratory Animals, 1989, 23, 353-356.
. . Two systems are described for the collection of 24 hour urine samples.

* Magnetic resonance imaging and peripheral blood abnormalities in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Rose, L. M., Richards, T. L., & Alvord, E. C., Jr. (Dept. of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195). Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 1989, 43, 347-353.
. . Using magnetic resonance imaging (NMI), 12 cynomolgous macaques in which experimental allergic encephalomyelitis had been induced were monitored twice weekly for the development of CNS lesions. Results suggest that frequent analysis of T-cell subsets may provide a more accurate means of predicting episodes of disease activity than clinical or MRI evaluation.


* Consumption of cyanogenic bamboo by a newly discovered species of bamboo lemur. Glander, K. E., Wright, P. C., Seigler, D. S., Nasolo, V. R., & Randrianasolo, B. (Dept. of Biological Anthropology & Anatomy, Wheeler Building, 3705B Erwin Rd., Duke Univ., Durham, NC 27705). American Journal of Primatology, 1989, 19, 119-124.
. . Individual golden bamboo lemurs (Hapalemur aureus) each day eat about 500 g of the growing tips of Cephalostachyum cf viguieri, which contain 15 mg of cyanide per 100 g, thus daily ingesting about 12 times the lethal dose of cyanide. The mechanism by which this small primate avoids the acute and chronic symptoms of cyanide poisoning is unknown.

* Exudate-eating by wild golden lion tamarins Leontopithecus rosalia. Peres, C. (Dept. of Wildlife & Range Sciences, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611). Biotropica, 1989, 21, 287-288.
. . Exudates supplement the diet of several species of tamarins and Goeldi's monkeys. During times of low fruit availability, exudates and gums may comprise an important source of complex sugars, micronutrients, and protein, particularly because exudates tend to be less seasonal than other plant food items.

* The feeding ecology of lowland gorillas in Gabon. Rogers, E. (Dept. of Zoology, Univ. of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9YL, Scotland). Anthroquest, 1989, 39, 12-14.
. . Data on the nutritional quality of fruits eaten over one annual cycle, and partial data on other foods such as leaves and stems.

* Experimental maternal and neonatal folate status relationships in nonhuman primates. Blocker, D. E., Ausman, L. M., Meadows, C. A., & Thenen, S. W. (S. W. Thenen, Dept. of Food Science & Nutrition, Univ. of Minnesota, 1334 Eckles Ave., St. Paul, MN 55108). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1989, 50, 120-128.
. . The influence of maternal dietary folic acid intake on folate status was studied in Cebus albifronsmonkeys by feeding 10 or 250 microg/100 kcal dietary folic acid during pregnancy and for 4 weeks postpartum. Maternal, infant, and nonpregnant hematologic indices; blood and liver folate concentrations; and urinary formiminoglutamic acid excretion all varied with dietary folate intake and pregnancy status as did milk folate concentration in lactating dams. Neonatal folate status was related significantly to the dietary folate intake and folate status of the mother during pregnancy and lactation.

Pharmacology & Anesthesia

* Benzodiazepines and appetite: recent pre-clinical advances and their clinical implications. Cooper, S. J. (School of Psychology, Univ. of Birmingham, Birmingham B14 2TT, UK). Human Psychopharmacology, 1989, 4, 81-89.
. . The hyperphagic effect of benzodiazepines can be dissociated from sedative and muscle-relaxant effects, and appears to be due to a direct effect on appetite mechanisms. Recent research shows that benzodiazepines enhance the hedonic quality of taste stimuli, and indicates that this may determine their effects on food preferences and food consumption.

* Treatment of acute postoperative anemia with recombinant human erythropoietin. Levine, E. A., Rosen, A. L., Sehgal, L. R., Gould, S. A., Egrie, J. C., Sehgal, H. L., & Moss, G. S. (A. L. Rosen, Dept. of Surgery, Michael Reese Hospital, Lake Shore Drive at 31st Street, Chicago, IL 60616). The Journal of Trauma, 1989, 29, 1134-1139.
. . A study to evaluate the effect of rHuEPO, administered postoperatively, on a model of acute blood loss. The data show that rHuEPO accelerates the recovery from anemia in the postoperative setting. Treatment of acute blood loss with recombinant human erythropoietin may significantly reduce requirements for homologous blood.

* Analgesic effects of phencyclidine-like drugs in rhesus monkeys. France, C. P., Snyder, A. M., & Woods, J. H. (Dept. of Pharmacology, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109). Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1989, 250, 197-201.
. . Results support the notion that PCP-like drugs (ketamine, dextrorphan, (+)-N-allyl-nor- metazocine [(+)-SKF 10,047], and (+)-5-methyl- 10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo(a,d) cyclohepten-5,10- amine maleate (MK-801)) produce analgesic effects at subanesthetic doses. Moreover, the analgesic effects of PCP and related drugs in rhesus monkeys were not mediated by actions at the opioid receptors known to be associated with analgesia.

* Effects of xylazine on cerebrospinal fluid catecholamines in the rhesus monkey. Mefford, I. N. & Garrick, N. A. (Bldg. 10, Room 2D46, NIMH, Bethesda, MD 20892). Brain Research, 1989, 492, 377-380.
. . The i.v. administration of xylazine, a potent, selective alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonist, resulted in a 76% decrease in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) norepinephrine in chair-adapted rhesus monkeys. A significant decrease was observed within 1.5 hours of administration and continued through the 3 hour course of sampling. Dopamine was maximally decreased by 24% at 1.5 hours. Epinephrine was not significantly decreased following xylazine administration. These data suggest that norepinephrine release into monkey CSF, as an index of central or peripheral norepinephrine turnover, is more sensitive to alpha2-adrenergic agonists than is CSF dopamine or epinephrine.


* Perinephritis hypertension in Macaca fascicularis (cynomolgus monkey): Studies of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis and renal hemodynamic function. DeForrest, J. M., Scalese, R. J., Oehl, R. S., Waldron, T. L., Mitch, S., Brittain, R. J., Free, C. A., Asaad, M., & Burkett, D. (Dept. of Pharmacology, Squibb Inst. for Medical Research, P.O. Box 4000, Princeton, NJ 08543-4000). Journal of Hypertension, 1989, 7, 763-767.
. . Hypertension was induced in female cynomolgus monkeys by wrapping both kidneys. Mean arterial pressure increased progressively during the first 6 weeks, then remained at the elevated level; plasma renin activity was elevated 2- to 5-fold for up to 10 weeks after the hypertension; and plasma aldosterone concentration was elevated; all of these remained elevated for up to 40 weeks after wrapping both kidneys. Para-aminohippurate clearance and glomerular filtration rate were significantly reduced during the first week, but returned to control values by the second. Apparently bilateral perinephritis hypertension in the monkey is dependent on increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis. The ACE inhibitor captopril normalized blood pressure regardless of the severity or duration of the hypertension.

* A comparison of hematological and serum biochemical values between two groups of female cynomolgus monkeys reared under different conditions. Yoshida, T., Ohtoh, K., Cho, F., & Goto, N. (Tsukuba Primate Center for Medical Science, National Inst. of Health, Hachimandai 1, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305, Japan). Experimental Animals, 1990, 39, 21-26. (Japanese, with English abstract)
. . After weaning, animals were kept either alone in a small cage, or in a medium-sized colony cage. Charts of body weights and hematological and serum biochemical values are given for each group for the first 5 years of life, as well as results of canonical discriminant analysis.

* A longitudinal study of the effect of different social rearing conditions on cerebrospinal fluid norepinephrine and biogenic amine metabolites in rhesus monkeys. Kraemer, G. W., Ebert, M. H., Schmidt, D. E., & McKinney, W. T. (Harlow Primate Laboratory, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53715). Neuropsychopharmacology, 1989, 2, 175-189.
. . Male rhesus monkey infants were deprived of maternal interaction, peer interaction, or both, during the first 22 months of life. Mother-deprived infants failed to develop the same pattern of intercorrelations between compounds and month-to-month stability in levels of neurotransmitter and metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid as the mother-reared infants.

* Free-ranging Cayo Santiago rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): I. Body size, proportion, and allometry. Turnquist, J. E. & Kessler, M. J. (Dept. of Anatomy, Univ. of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, GPO Box 5067, San Juan, PR 00936). American Journal of Primatology, 1989, 19, 1-13.
. . Comprehensive baseline data on body size and proportions of 661 rhesus monkeys ranging in age from 24 hours to 25 years. Results show a distinct intraspecific pattern for body proportions throughout the life cycle.

* Free-ranging Cayo Santiago rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): II. Passive joint mobility. Turnquist, J. E. & Kessler, M. J. (Address same as above). American Journal of Primatology, 1989, 19, 15-23.
. . Normative data on the passive mobility of the major joints of 661 free-ranging rhesus monkeys. Passive joint mobility changes in a nonlinear fashion throughout the life cycle. The apparent rapid decline in mobility from birth through puberty parallels rapid changes in body size and proportions in young animals. Joint mobility is relatively stable in prime-age adults, more restricted in older monkeys.

* Hormonal effects of early rearing conditions in the infant rhesus monkey. Champoux, M., Coe, C. L., Schanberg, S. M., Kuhn, C. M., & Suomi, S. J. (Primate Facility 7-930T, Dept. of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305-5095). American Journal of Primatology, 1989, 19, 111-117.
. . Plasma cortisol and growth hormone (GH) levels were measured in the first month of life 1) basal and 2) 30 minutes following removal from either the mother or the nursery. Nursery-reared infants had lower basal GH levels and higher cortisol levels than did mother-reared infants. Both GH and cortisol levels rose significantly following separation and reached similar levels in the mother-reared and nursery-reared infants. Nursery rearing of primate infants significantly affected the baseline secretion of two important endocrine systems, but did not appear to alter markedly the acute endocrine response to a psychological stressor.

* Hematologic and serum chemistry values in Callicebus moloch cupreus. Roberts, J. & Mendoza, S. P. (California Primate Research Center, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616). Laboratory Animal Science, 1989, 39, 163-165.
. . Values obtained from 16 clinically healthy, adult titi monkeys, further evaluated by comparing them with serial samples collected from 4 healthy individuals over a period of a year.

* Body temperature of newborn cynomolgus monkeys. Ono, T., Suzuki, M. T., Narita, H., & Cho, F. (Corporation for Production & Research of Laboratory Primates, Hachimandai, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305, Japan). Experimental Animals, 1989, 38, 293-296. (Japanese, with English summary)
. . The body temperatures (rectal) of 183 newborn babies which were well cared for by their mothers was 33.0 to 37.7deg C about 10 hours after birth. The body temperatures of 21 newborn babies which were not well cared for ranged from 24.1 to 34.8 deg C. There are graphs of the body temperatures at short intervals of 9 newborns for the first two or five hours of life.

* Decreased insulin- and glucagon-pulse amplitude accompanying beta-cell deficiency induced by streptozocin in baboons. Goodner, C. J., Koerker, D. J., Weigle, D. S., & McCulloch, D. K. (Div. of Endocrinology, Harborview Medical Center, 325 9th Ave., Seattle, WA 98104). Diabetes, 1989, 38, 925-931.
. . The effect of beta-cell deficiency on the spontaneous pulsatile secretory pattern of the islets of Langerhans was studied in the baboon. Measures of beta-cell function were correlated with the secretory pattern before and at intervals after streptozocin administration. The strong correlation of reduction in insulin-pulse amplitude with increasing fasting glucose and decreasing glucose disappearance lends support to growing evidence that the pattern of insulin secretion is an important determinant of normal glucose homeostasis.


* Ovarian cyclicity, hormones, and behavior as markers of aging in female pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Short, R., England, N., Bridson, W. E., & Bowden, D. M. (Univ. of Washington, Primate Field Station, Medical Lake, WA 99022). Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences, 1989, 44, B131-138.
. . Mount, present, and activity were found to be lower in old than in young females. Ovarian cyclicity was less regular, estradiol was lower, and FSH and LH were higher in old than in young females. Correlations suggested two dimensions of reporductive function, a behavioral dimension and a physiological dimension.

* Patas monkey copulations: One mount, repeat if necessary. Loy, J. (Dept. of Sociology & Anthropology, Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881). American Journal of Primatology, 1989, 18, 57-62.
. . Quantitative data on the copulatory behavior of two adult males. Both usually gave pelvic thrusts to intravaginal ejaculation once they had mounted a female and gained intromission. Mounts without ejaculation were clearly failed attempts at copulation, rather than segments of a stereotyped series-mount pattern. Apparently the species-typical mating pattern for patas monkeys is copulation in a single mount.

* Dynamics of steroid biosynthesis during the luteal-placental shift in rhesus monkeys. Ellinwood, W. E., Stanczyk, F. Z., Lazur, J. J., & Novy, M. J. (M. J. Novy, Oregon Regional Primate Research Center, 505 NW 185th Ave., Beaverton, OR 97006). Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1989, 69, 348-355.
. . It is concluded that during the luteal-placental shift 1) the corpus luteus (CL) loses most of its ability to secrete progesterone (P), but develops a greater capacity for estrogen biosynthesis; 2) increased estrogen production is a result of increased CL androgen secretion secondary to elevated 17-hydroxylase and 17-20 lyase activity unaccompanied by an increase in aromatase activity; 3) Estradiol (E&s'2.) is the major estrogen secreted by the CL of the cycle, while estrone is primarily secreted by the CL of early pregnancy; 4) the elevated serum E&s'2 and androstenedione levels originate from the CL, but testosterone and a substantial portion of the E&s'2 are formed at an extraluteal site(s), and 5) the placenta synthesizes large amounts of P as early as day 23 after conception, but does not gain substantial aromatase activity until the 6th week of pregnancy.

* Suckling behaviour and fertility in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Gomendio, M. (MRC Unit on the Development and Integration of Behaviour, Univ. of Cambridge, Madingley, Cambridge, CB3 8AA, UK). Journal of the Zoological Society of London, 1989, 217, 449-467.
. . Data collected for a year among 6 captive social groups, along with supplementary data from 3 more years, indicate that infants whose mothers became pregnant during the following season sucked less frequently than those whose mothers did not conceive. Suckling frequencies seemed to have to drop considerably for a successful conception to take place. After the breeding season, mothers who had become pregnant continued to decrease their investment in the current infant, presumably as a result of the allocation of resources to the unborn offspring. The number of nipple contacts an infant makes within a bout may also have physiological consequences that might affect the likelihood of conception.

* Suppression of male rhesus testicular function and sexual behavior by a gonadotropin-releasing-hormone agonist. Davis-DaSilva, M. & Wallen, K. (Dept. of Psychology, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322). Physiology & Behavior, 1989, 45, 963-968.
. . The sexual behavior of 4 adult rhesus males tested singly with a group of 9 intact adult females was examined during short-term, counterbalanced, gonadotropin-releasing-hormone (GnRH)-agonist-induced testicular suppression and control treatment. Males differed in the extent that testicular suppression reduced their sexual behavior, but the frequency of sexual behavior was, overall, reduced more markedly than previously reported in pair-tested castrates during a similar time-period.

* * *


In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest. In most cases, abstracts are those of the authors.

* * *

CDC Mandates Guidelines, Considers Import Restrictions

CDC Letter of March 15

Dr. William L. Roper, Director of the Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA, sent a letter to all U.S. primate importers on March 15, 1990, with copies to the Regional Primate Centers, major airline carriers, and some other interested parties. Here are some excerpts which are of interest to all persons who work with nonhuman primates. They should be read in connection with the article from WHO on pages 1-2 of this issue, and the handling guidelines on pages 2-4.

Serologic study of different species of monkeys from different countries reveals that approximately 10 percent have evidence of prior infection with filoviruses (the family to which Ebola and Marburg viruses belong).

At the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases, experimental inoculation of three cynomolgus monkeys with virus recovered from the November-December episode led to the development of typical Ebola hemorrhagic manifestations with death in two.

At least 173 persons in the United States have been in contact with monkeys (or their blood or tissues) from infected lots since the virus was First identified. None has developed illness suggestive of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. However, one person has been found to have antibodies to Ebola virus. In addition, specimens have been examined from 45 monkey handlers in the Philippines; one was positive for antibodies to Ebola virus.

On-site inspections of several importers' facilities during February and early March indicates uneven adherence to the interim guidelines and recommendations.

Consequently, CDC officials believe that additional disease control measures are necessary at this time to reduce further the risk of human disease. In accordance with the 'authority of Sections 361 and 362 of the Public Health Service Act (41 U.S.C. 264 and 265), and regulations contained in 42 CFR Part 71, the following actions are being implemented immediately:

1. Isolation and quarantine of all arriving nonhuman primates shall be carried out in accordance with the standards contained in the Interim Guidelines for Handling Nonhuman Primates during Transit and Quarantine [reproduced on pages 2-4 of this issue]. Compliance with these isolation and quarantine standards is hereby made a mandatory condition for, continued registration as an importer of nonhuman primates under 42 CFR Part 71.

2. Unannounced on-site inspection by CDC personnel of currently registered importers to determine compliance will begin immediately.

3. Importers found not to be appropriately isolating and.quarantining nonhuman primates will be subject to revocation of their registration in accordance with 42 CFR 71.53(h).

You should know that CDC is considering imposing a temporary ban on the importation into the United States of cynomolgus monkeys.

In this regard, CDC is working with other government agencies, the private sector, and foreign governments to gather more information to assess definitively the risk of Ebola infection in humans exposed to infected monkeys or their blood or tissues. This will include assessment of the extent of Filovirus infection in wild monkeys in each of the countries of origin; assessment of the extent and severity of filovirus infection in persons handling monkeys in countries of origin and in import, quarantine, and research facilities in the United States; more detailed information on the uses of cynomolgus monkeys; and retrospective assessment of the extent of previous importation of filoviruses into the United States.

NABR Alert of March 26

On March 22, CDC revoked the import registrations of three of the largest dealers of research primates -- Charles River Primates, Hazleton Research Products, and Worldwide Primates of Miami. Based on CDC site visits last week, these three dealers, which account for at least threequarters of all imports, did not meet new isolation and quarantine rules (pages 2-4 of this issue) in all respects. These dealers are implementing the necessary corrective actions and are working closely with CDC to achieve complete compliance with new requirements. It is expected that their importer registrations can be reinstated very soon. However, until reinstatement, the three importers may not accept nonhuman primate shipments.

Effective March 23, New York State Commissioner of Health David Axelrod ordered that no cynomolgus, African green, or rhesus monkeys will be allowed into New York unless they are accompanied by written documentation showing that they have been quarantined for at least 60 days immediately prior to shipment and that they have tested negative for antibodies to filovirus. Once inside New York, the monkeys also must undergo a second 60 day quarantine and retesting. Presently, about 80% of the primates imported here enter at New York's Kennedy Airport. Currently in this country, and perhaps the world, only CDC and the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases are able to do filovirus and antibody testing. CDC cannot predict when antigen necessary for testing can be provided to other laboratories and CDC cannot handle testing of screen samples at this time.

To obtain input from individuals, organizations, and institutions involved in the transport, quarantine, care, use, and regulation of nonhuman primates, CDC held an open meeting in Atlanta on Friday, March 23. The agenda was 1) actions taken to date to prevent the importation of filoviruses into the U.S. and their transmission to animal handlers, 2) potential impact of imposing a temporary ban on importation of cynomolgus monkeys, and 3) additional disease control measures. Representatives of regional primate research centers, other research facilities, and pharmaceutical companies reported that cynomolgus are an extremely important species for drug development and testing, vaccine potency and safety testing, and biomedical research. It was estimated that one-quarter of all neuroscience research depends on the cynomolgus, and about three-fourths of all drug testing in nonhuman primates is done with cynomolgus.

CDC asked for comments and suggestions concerning the items above, and will be makin 9 decisions about them. [For up-to-date, official information, contact the CDC Press Office at 404-639-3286.] -- From the NABR Alert, 1990, 12[l].

* * *

All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. (Phone: 401-863-2511)


The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
Service Grant RR-00419 from the Animal Resources Program,
Division of Research Resources, N.I.H.

Cover drawing of a mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla berengei) by Dr. Robert M. George, Department of Anatomy, University of South Carolina

Copyright @1990 by Brown University

Editor: Judith E. Schrier, M. Sc.
Associate Editor: James S. Harper, D.V.M.
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar, D.V.M.
Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen, B. A.
Founding Editor: Allan M. Schrier, Ph.D.