VOLUME 30 NUMBER 1 JANUARY 1991
Articles and Notes
Training a Diabetic Drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) to Accept Insulin Injections and Venipuncture, by G. M. Priest...... 1
Agonistic Behavior Responses of Socially Experienced, Unfamiliar Adult Male Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to pairing, by V. Reinhardt...... 5
Impact of the Recent Filovirus Episode on Nonhuman Primate Supplies, by J. R. Held...... 8
News, Information, and Announcements
Grants Available...... 12
. . Nutrition and Cancer, Database Support, Alcohol Research
Research Opportunities...... 13
. . Fogarty Senior International Fellowships, N.R.C. Research Associateships
Fyssen Foundation 1991-1992 Fellowships and 1991 International Prize...... 14
Meeting Announcements...... 16
. . ASP, Endangered Species, Animal Transportation, Institute of Human Origins
Information Requested and Available...... 17
. . Research Resources Information Center, Gorilla Ethograms, UFAW, Directory of Biotechnology Info Resources, Networking, Travellers' Tips
. . Controversial Project Debated, An Educated Baboon
Research Report: Effect of Lead on Ovarian Disfunction...... 19
Book Review...... 20
News Briefs...... 32
. . AAALAC Celebrates 25th Year, Supreme Court to Consider "Silver Spring" Case
Address Changes...... 12
Positions Available...... 15
. . NSF, Primate Foundation of Arizona, OTA Congressional Fellowship Program, Post-Doctoral Fellowships, Mercer University
Recent Books and Articles...... 21
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Gary M. Priest
Zoological Society of San Diego
The drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus), is an endangered species of baboon. No population estimates exist for the animal in the wild (Oates, 1985), but it is considered one of the most threatened of all the African primates, and one of the most critically endangered primate species in the world (Lee, et al., 1988). A forest dweller and the most arboreal of all the baboons, the drill's range is now restricted to a small area on the west coast of equatorial Africa in Angola and Cameroon. Outside zoos, the only protected population is in the Korup Reserve in Cameroon.
As with nearly all animals inhabiting the tropical forests of the world, loss of habitat due to expanding human populations is placing pressure on drill populations. The forested areas, prime drill habitat, are being cleared for plantations and slash and burn agriculture Additionally, drills are shot as agricultural pests as well as hunted for meat (Gartlan, 1970). These and other factors threaten the drill with extinction in the wild before the end of this century.
Drills have been kept in captivity in European zoos since 1807 The San Diego Zoo maintains four animals (1.3), and there are fewer than 60 in captivity worldwide (Boer, 1987). Because drills have reproduced poorly in captivity, it has been said that the California condor may have a better chance for survival than does the drill.
The San Diego Zoo's only male drill, "Loon," came from the Philadelphia Zoo on 2/18/82. He is now about 11 years old, and with the exception of a noncontagious medical condition, is robust and in prime physical condition. The San Diego Zoo is an active participant in the Species Survival Plan (SSP) for the drill. SSP's are designed with the goal of preserving 90% of the genetic diversity of the founder population for 200 years. Ideally, the plan calls for each founder to be equal in its genetic representation, ensuring the maximum genetic diversity of the species. SSP's are accomplished through cooperative international breeding loans and carefully monitored stud books which detail breeding plans for the species.
Figure 1: Loon. Photo by John Mitchell, ©Zoological Society of San Diego.
In late June, 1989, Loon's weight suddenly dropped dramatically Loon's appetite was voracious, but no matter how much he ate he could not maintain his normal body weight. Loon was immediately transferred to the Zoo's hospital for tests and closer observation. The Zoo's veterinarians determined that Loon had developed diabetes mellitus, which is treated with daily injections of insulin.
Because Loon was a wild, intractable animal, it seemed likely that the remainder of his life would be spent at the Zoo's hospital living within the confines of a small veterinary squeeze cage. But, after several months while the disease was being brought under control, Loon had become dangerously neurotic. He exhibited many stereotypic behaviors. Several times daily he would regurgitate and reingest his food, finger paint with his feces, masturbate, and perform a curious chest rubbing behavior that always culminated with his drawing his hand up to his nose to sniff his fingers. Loon also performed a "head bobbing " threat gesture towards anyone who approached his cage (Cox, 1987; Gorow, 1988). It was becoming apparent that the quality of Loon's existence was being reduced to an intolerable level by the very treatment which was necessary to save his life. Euthanasia was being considered as a humane, if distasteful, option.
The Curator of Mammals believed that Loon might have one option left. He wondered if Loon could be conditioned to accept his daily insulin injection. Similar conditioning for blood collection had been done with several species of marine mammals (Shinder, 1983; Krames, 1984; Keller, 1986), as well as with laboratory macaques (Vertein & Reinhardt, 1989). It was decided that the Zoo's animal trainers would establish an experimental behavior modification program with Loon. Our goal was to train him to accept his daily insulin injections voluntarily and, if possible, to allow us to take periodic samples of his blood for routine analysis.
The project presented several challenges. Loon was a wild animal with 3-inch long canine teeth and strength to match. The procedure he would be trained to allow required very close proximity with the trainer. Loon's recent medical history of being poked, prodded, squeezed, and tested, had left him a very dangerous animal. The reward regimen was another problem. Because he was diabetic, Loon's diet had to be strictly controlled. A behavior modification plan using operant conditioning depends very heavily on food rewards. But Loon had to receive all his food, every day, whether he chose to work for it or not. Finally, although stable, Loon was not healthy by normal standards.
Because of Loon's medical condition, our first training priority was to condition him to accept his insulin injections voluntarily This was begun in July, 1989, at the Zoo's veterinary hospital by hospital technicians. Necessary daily injections were being administered using a squeeze cage.
By simply pairing a food reward with his daily injection, we began to establish the medical procedure as a positive event. In the early stages of conditioning, it was necessary to continue to use the squeeze cage to immobilize him. However, Loon quickly learned to recognize the injection as a precursor to food. By pairing his afternoon meal with an injection, while at the same time fading the use of the squeeze cage, the need for immobilization quickly became unnecessary Within a few days, Loon learned to offer his back for the injection in anticipation of the reward. In addition to the food reward, Loon was being positively reinforced by the physical freedom made possible by his compliance. A simple technique had accomplished an immediate reduction of the stress which had been imposed on the animal by daily squeezing in the cage.
Encouraged by our preliminary success, we built a special cage for the project. The new cage was several times the size of Loon's hospital quarters and featured a built-in squeeze cage in a central corridor which divided the two halves of the enclosure space. Slide gates could be drawn across the doorways to either side of the corridor Most of his food would be given him while he was in this corridor This would help insure that he would always be willing to enter this space if a medical procedure for which he was not trained became necessary.
Loon was moved into his new cage in January, 1990. Once we were confident that his cooperation with insulin injections had transferred to the new facility, we began further husbandry training. Our priority now was to train him to allow venipuncture for blood sampling.
Loon was trained to reach into a stainless steel tube, cut to the exact length of his arm, and to grasp a steel rod positioned crosswise at the end of the tube (Figure 2). As long as the drill was grasping the rod, he could not easily grab the trainer.
Figure 2: Grasping the rod earns a reward. Photo by John Mitchell, ©Zoological Society of San Diego.
Within three days of his exposure to a formal program of operant conditioning, Loon was grasping the rod and holding this position until a bridging stimulus (a clicker) was sounded, signaling termination of the behavior and presentation of a food reward. Through an ellipse cut in the tube, I began to desensitize the drill to touch on his shaved forearm while he grasped the rod at the end of the tube. I began by reinforcing his allowing me to groom his arm and, on a separate command, his back. Baboons enjoy social contact (Desmond, et al., 1987). In addition to the social rewards baboons attach to grooming, Loon was also being rewarded with food items. As training progressed I would occasionally drag different items over the bare skin of his forearm. This procedure desensitized him to a variety of stimuli, and simultaneously provided an occasion to reward him for grasping the rod.
During the first several weeks of training, Loon was very aggressive. He would snatch the food reward and, if I were not quick enough in removing my hand, take a swipe at me. On several occasions he succeeded in tearing the surgical glove off my hand. To reduce his aggression, we rewarded him with additional treats when he took the reward gently.
About six weeks into his training, Loon's medical condition required a blood sample. He was given the command to place his arm in the tube and grasp the rod. Within moments, a veterinarian had withdrawn the blood sample. Loon continued to wait patiently for the bridging stimulus to terminate rod-holding. The blood withdrawal had apparently been of no concern to him as he focused on holding the rod.
Baboons walk on their hands and so have evolved tough protective pads with blood vessels deep under the skin. Pricking his finger for a blood sample was not effective. As a result of the need to test Loon's blood frequently, the veins in both of Loon's forearms have become heavily scarred. Loon has tolerated up to six failed attempts to draw blood from these battered vessels, without ever once pulling his arm away from the tube and rod. We responded to this new problem by training Loon to offer the vessels on the ventral side of both of his legs for venipuncture. Now venipuncture sites are rotated to help reduce damage to any single vessel site. In nearly one year of training, Loon has never failed to voluntarily accept his insulin injection or to allow the veterinarians access to blood vessels in exchange for a good back scratch and a food reward.
Although Loon was given several toys in his new enclosure, he confined his activity to eating his food and sitting. Searching for something that would interest him and occupy his time between training sessions, I spread out a flake of oat hay on the floor of his enclosure. Once he was allowed access to the hay, he immediately got down off his usual perch and began to pick through the leafy debris looking for morsels of food. This was the same foraging behavior normally exhibited in the wild and, in retrospect, represented the first step toward his return to normal drill behavior.
Early in the training program, we used this foraging activity as a "bonus" reinforcer for a particularly good session. Meal worms were a special treat food, and Loon never seemed to tire of searching for them amid the straw. At the conclusion of a session, meal worms were hidden in the oat straw litter for Loon to find and eat. We now do this on a daily basis. Providing opportunities for natural foraging encouraged Loon to fill the behavioral vacuum which had been caused by his medical confinement and isolation. In his activity-rich environment, there is little time for the aberrant behaviors which were usual just a few months earlier.
Work is being done with Loon on semen collection, for cryogenic preservation at our Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species "Frozen Zoo." Someday, his semen may be used for artificial insemination. There is no test available to determine if his diabetes will be transmitted genetically, but with a critically limited gene pool, we are obliged to use the genetic material available. Loon has also learned to station on scales for weight monitoring as well as to station in a small transport cage. Loon's husbandry conditioning is now complete. In November he was returned to his keepers' care and his female companions. The primate keepers have been trained in the operant techniques necessary to maintain Loon's cooperative behavior Because Loon has been such a remarkable student, he will continue to be evaluated; and other display/research/environ- mental enrichment strategies will be formulated and tested with him for use with other primates in the Zoo.
Boer, M. (1987). International Studbook for the Drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus). Hannover, Germany: IUCN/IUDZG.
Cox, C. R. (1987). Social behavior and reproductive status of drills (Mandrillus leucophaeus). AAZPA Regional Conference Proceedings. Wheeling, WV: AAZPA.
Desmond, T., Laule, G., & McNary, J. (1987). A training project to enhance positive social interactions in a community of drills (Mandrillus leucophaeus). AAZPA Regional Conference Proceedings Wheeling, WV: AAZPA.
Gartlan, S. (1970). Preliminary notes on the ecology and behavior of the drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus). Ritgen, 1824. In Napier and Napier (Eds.), Old World monkeys, evolution, systematics and behavor (pp. 445-480). New York: Academic Press.
Gorow, A. (1988). Stereotypic behaviors of the drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus). Unpublished study.
Keller, K. (1986). Training Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) for artificial insemination. International Marine Animal Trainers Association Annual Conference Proceedings, Vancouver, Canada (pp. 22-24).
Krames, (1984). The conditioning of various animal husbandry behaviors with killer whales. International Marine Animal Trainers Association Annual Conference Proceedings, Long Beach, California (pp 51-55).
Lee, P., Thronback, J., & Bennett, E. L. (1988). Threatened primates of Africa. The IUCN Red Data Book. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.
Oates, J. (1985). IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group action plan for African primate conservation: 1986-90. New York: UNEP/WWF.
Shinder, D. (1983). Separation and removal of marine mammals for medical examination. International Marine Animal Trainers Association Annual Conference Proceedings, Apple Valley, MN (pp. 93-102).
Vertein, R., & Reinhardt, V. (1989). Training female rhesus monkeys to cooperate during in-homecage venipuncture. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 28, 1-3.
Training session, urine and blood collection, insulin injection 7:00 to 7:30 AM Dry Primate Diet 350gm 12.5 oz Grapes 50gm 1.75 oz Broccoli 100gm 3.5 oz Banana 100gm 3.5 oz Orange 100gm 3.5 oz Greens 1.5 cups 1.5 cups Total 700gm + 24.75 oz + Training session 10:30 to 11:00 AM Apple 100gm 3.5 oz Sweet Potato 50gm 1.75 oz Total 150gm 5.25 oz Training session 12:00 to 12:30 PM Apple 100gm 3.5 oz Sweet Potato 50gm 1.75 oz Total 150gm 5.25 oz Training session, blood collection, insulin injection 3:00 to 3:30 Dry Primate Diet 350gm 12.5 oz Banana 50gm 1.75 oz Carrots 100gm 3.5 oz Orange 100gm 3.5 oz Green Beans 50gm 1.75 oz Broccoli 100gm 3.5 oz Total 750 gm 26.5 oz Total Daily Diet 1750gm 61.75 ozTable 1: Loon's diet and management schedule
Author's address: Zoological Society of San Diego, P.O. Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112-0551
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Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center
Pairing previously single-caged rhesus monkeys is a safe and effective means of environmental enrichment (Reinhardt, 1990) in compliance with pending federal rules (USDA, 1990, paragraph 3.81). It has been shown that the establishment of clear-cut dominance-subordination relationships during a period of non-contact familiarization is a safeguard against injuries since partners do not need to fight over dominance when being introduced to each other (Reinhardt, 1988). The aggression-reducing effect of familiarity has also been described in experimental group formations of macaques (Bernstein et al., 1979; Bernstein & Gordon, 1980; Erwin, 1979).
Establishing isosexual pairs of adult macaques without giving the animals the opportunity to get to know each other thoroughly is not advisable when the high risk of serious trauma is taken into account (Erwin, 1986). Are there exceptions to this rule? If an experimental protocol stipulates that a partner of previously paired animals be single-caged (e.g., metabolic studies, activity studies), directly re-pairing the non-experimental animal with a new partner would save the time required for familiarization.
It has recently been shown that adult female rhesus monkeys who have lost their partner can be re-paired without prior familiarization with another female who is in the same situation without undue risk of injury (Reinhardt, 1989). What is a safe re-pairing method for females may not be equally safe for males. As a precaution, it has been the policy at the WRPRC not to implement the direct re-pairing method for adult males but instead to replace an adult male companion with an infant (Reinhardt, 1989). This is probably the easiest and safest way to provide continued social enrichment for such males who have lost their adult male companion (Reinhardt et al., 1987). But there are institutions that have no access to infants and for obvious reasons do not wish to pair males with a female.
The present investigation attempts to determine if direct repairing of unfamiliar, yet socially experienced, males can be achieved without undue risks using the same technique described for females The study is based on the hypothesis that previous exposure to another adult companion provides a monkey with important social experiences necessary to adequately cope with the potentially dangerous situation of being confronted with an unfamiliar adult conspecific of the same sex (Reinhardt, 1989). The study is further supported by the observation that male rhesus monkeys are not more aggressive than females (Reinhardt, 1987).
Eight 4-14 years old (average age 8.2 years) male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were the subjects of this investigation. Canine teeth were blunted prior to this study to decrease the risk of injury. The animals had lived in 4 compatible pairs for more than 6 months. They were housed in 85x170x85-cm cages that were each provided with a PVC pipe for perching and a loose branch segment for gnawing and manipulating. Commercial dry food was distributed at 0730, supplemented with fruit at 1500. Water was available ad libitum. Room temperature was maintained at 21~C, with a relative air humidity of 50% and a 12-hour light/dark cycle.
Partners of different pairs were temporarily exchanged until all 24 possible dyads had been tested, one dyad per day. Two males were transferred at 1200 from their familiar companions into a test cage that had the same dimensions as the home cage. Partners were unrelated and had never lived together before.
Each pair was observed for 20 minutes, provided that neither partner inflicted a serious injury on the other. The animals were then left together for 24 hours. They were checked for signs of fighting (bruises, scratches, injuries) 6 times during this period, after which they were brought back to their original companions for one day or longer.
The partners of the 4 dyads tested at the end of the study were not separated. These pairs were checked for signs of incompatibility at least 3 times a day during a follow-up period of 2 months.
The monkeys were familiar with the observer and showed no noticeable reactions to his sitting in front of the cage and taking handwritten notes. All visible agonistic interactions and gestures were recorded during the 20-minute observations and their per-dyad occurrence and frequency computed. Agonistic interactions and gestures were categorized into contact aggression, non-contact aggression (no physical contact during the aggressive interaction) and spontaneous submissive gestures (submissive gestures were scored unless they were reactions to aggression). Dominance-subordination relationships were considered to be clear-cut if spontaneous fear-grinning and/or yielding occurred in a unidirectional way. Subordinate rank was assigned to the partner that showed these gestures.
During the first 20 minutes of pair formation, contact aggression occurred in 29% (7/24), non-contact aggression in 33% (8/24), and submissive behavior in 100% (24/24) of dyads. A total of 19 contact aggressions (0.8/dyad/20min), 33 non-contact aggressions (1.4/dyad/20min), and 319 submissive gestures (13.3/dyad/20min) were observed. Contact aggressions consisted of biting (7 times), pushing (6), slapping (4), and fighting (2). Non-contact aggressions consisted of threatening (15 staring, 3 intended slapping, 7 lunging), and chasing (8). Submissive gestures were fear-grinning (172 incidences) and spontaneous yielding (147).
The males established clear-cut dominance-subordination relationships in 96% (23/24) of dyads, on average within 24 seconds. They did so without resorting to any form of aggression in 83% (19/23) of cases. In 13% (3/23) of cases, the partners engaged in non-contact aggression, and in 4% (1/23) of cases they engaged in contact aggression while settling their rank relations. Once dominance-subordination relationships were established, aggressive behavior was shown exclusively by the dominant but never by the subordinate monkey. Partners in only one dyad failed to establish a clear-cut dominance-subordination relationship within 20 minutes.
There were 2 dyads in which partners engaged in fighting. In one case, an 8-year-old male attacked a 9-year-old counterpart, who after a brief fight in the 7th minute acknowledged his defeat by repeated fear-grinning. The two engaged in no further fighting during the 24-hour test period. In the other case, an 8-year-old male responded to repeated stare-threats from his 11-year-old counterpart by staring back. Soon after this, the younger one mounted and quickly bit the older one, who retaliated instantly but suffered a serious bite wound in the course of the ensuing fight in the 18th minute after pair formation. The two were separated and the laceration surgically treated Wound healing was uncomplicated and sutures were removed after 5 days Apart from this incident, no animal suffered any bleeding injury in the course of pair formations or during the following 24 hours.
Partner compatibility of the 4 final pairs was confirmed in all cases during the 2-month follow-up period. No incidence of fighting was recorded during this time.
The present data demonstrate that unfamiliar adult male rhesus monkeys may generally be paired directly with each other without undue risk provided partners have previously lived with another male companion. This is congruent with the findings made with adult females. It supports the assumption that previous exposure to another companion provides the animals with social skills necessary to adequately cope with the potential risk involved in being paired with an unfamliar conspecific of the same sex
Like females (Reinhardt, 1989), most of the males established clear-cut dominance relationships within a very short time. This was probably the guarantee that partners would get along with each other without much aggression. Once the dominance-subordination relationship was settled, there was little reason for the dominant male to further reinforce his status by means of aggression, since the other male refrained from aggression and consistently showed submissive gestures Also, like females (Reinhardt, 1989), males usually settled their initial dominance dispute without resorting to aggression, but the subordinate partner spontaneously acknowledged the other as dominant by exhibiting clear subordination signals. Visual cues were generally sufficient for the animals to quickly evaluate each other's relative status without the need to engage in vicious aggression that could be harmful not only for the subordinate but also for the dominant animal This supports the notion that dominance relations among rhesus monkeys are determined principally by visual means, probably as the result of prior social learning (Bernstein & Mason, 1963)
Two of the 24 dyads were exceptional, and partners had problems settling their rank relationship in a diplomatic fashion. In both dyads fighting was not immediate, but occurred only after repeated threatening, 7 and 18 minutes after pair formation. To minimize the risk involved in re-pairing unfamiliar yet socially experienced rhesus monkeys, it may be wise to observe the animals closely at pairing and separate any partners that do not establish definite rank relationships within 5 minutes. There is clearly a risk when partners are left together if one of them is reluctant to voluntarily submit to the other
Bernstein, I. S. & Mason, W. A. (1963). Group formation by rhesus monkeys. Animal Behaviour, 11, 28-31
Bernstein, I. S., Rose, R. M., Gordon, T., & Grady, C. L. (1979) Agonistic rank, aggression, social context, and testosterone in male pigtail monkeys. Aggressive Behavior, 5, 329-339
Bernstein, I. S., & Gordon, T. P. (1980). The social component of dominance relationships in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Animal Behaviour, 28, 1033-1039
Erwin, J. (1979). Aggression in captive macaques: Interaction of social and spatial factors. In J. Erwin, T. L. Maple, G. Mitchell (Eds.), Captivity and Behavior: Primates in Breeding Colonies, Laboratories, and Zoos (pp. 139-171). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold
Erwin, J. (1986). Environment for captive propagation of primates: Interaction of social and physical factors. In K. Benirschke (Ed.), Primates: The Road to Self-Sustaining Populations (pp. 297-305) New York: Springer
Reinhardt, V. (1987). Are male rhesus monkeys more aggressive than females? Primates, 28, 123-125
Reinhardt, V. (1988). Behavioral responses of unrelated adult male rhesus monkeys familiarized and paired for the purpose of environmental enrichment. American Journal of Primatology, 17, 243-248
Reinhardt, V. (1989). Re-pairing caged rhesus monkeys. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 28, 19
Reinhardt, V. (1990). Social enrichment for laboratory primates: A critical review. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 29, 7-11
Reinhardt, V., Houser, W. D., Eisele, S. G. & Champoux, M. (1987) Social enrichment of the environment with infants for singly caged adult rhesus monkeys. Zoo Biology, 6, 365-371
U.S. Department of Agriculture (1990). Animal Welfare Standards, Proposed Rules. Federal Register, 55, 33525
Author's address: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1223
Capitol Court, Madison WI 53715.
I am grateful to Dr. Dan Houser and Dr. Peter Judge for providing valuable comments on this manuscript, to Mr. John Wolf for editing it, and to Mrs. Jackie Kinney for proofreading it.
This study was supported by NIH grant RR-00167 to the WRPRC.
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Joe R. Held
Charles River Laboratories
I can summarize my talk in one sentence. Primate supplies will be reduced in number, and increased in cost. But before I get into that I'd like to review a bit of history. It seems like a very short time ago that I was part of an NIH group charged with looking at the future of primate supplies and at ways to cope with the shortages arising from the actions of various governments.
In October 1978, the Interagency Primate Steering Committee released its National Primate Plan. The plan's opening statement says:
A severe and long-term shortage of nonhuman primates threatens the continuation of many essential health activities. This shortage includes the rhesus monkey and other primate species needed for health and other scientific purposes. The primate shortage has not been met by private enterprise. Federal action is required to deal with the problem (IPSC, 1978, p.1).
I see similarities with the situation today. Coordinated federal action will be needed to resolve the present problem. It is appropriate for this to be done because it is every bit as much in the national interest today as it was in 1978. Those of us working in the private sector are willing to cooperate to do what is possible to resolve this problem, but the solutions require government decisions and actions that are beyond our scope and authority. I would like to review briefly the chronology of events over the past several months.
In November, 1989, a veterinarian working in an importer's facility in Reston, VA, diagnosed simian hemorrhagic fever (SHF) in a group of cynomolgus monkeys imported from the Philippines in October. The veterinarian submitted specimens from these animals to the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) for confirmation of the diagnosis. The USAMRIID confirmed the diagnosis of SHF, but also found that some animals were infected with an agent that morphologically resembled Ebola virus, a member of the Filoviridae family. The Ebola virus includes both Zaire and Sudan strains and had caused serious human disease outbreaks in Africa in 1976 and 1979 Subsequently, an agent was isolated from the Reston outbreak, a distinct, previously unrecognized member of the Filoviridae. Both SHF and Ebola had previously been associated only with Africa, and it was assumed that the cynomolgus imported from the Philippines might have been infected by contact with African species during their transit to Virginia. Cynomolgus monkeys imported from the Philippines during the months of December 1989 and January 1990 were actively infected with filovirus and some of these monkeys were sick. However, no illness or seroconversions occurred among persons in contact with these animals during this period. On January 19, 1990, the CDC, in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, gave an update on the situation and included "Interim Guidelines for handling nonhuman primates during transit and quarantine" (see this Newsletter, 1990, 29, 2-4).
Early in March 1990, a laboratory worker accidentally cut himself while carrying out a necropsy of an animal that subsequently proved to be viremic with the new Reston agent. About this time, the CDC began to consider placing an embargo on the importation of cynomolgus monkeys. On March 21, the New York State Department of Health issued an order prohibiting the importation of any cynomolgus, rhesus, or African green monkeys that have not previously been quarantined abroad for 60 days, and shown to be filovirus antibody negative. Before March 21, the John F. Kennedy Airport in New York had been the port of entry for more than 80% of nonhuman primates entering the U.S., and the New York order brought a halt to those importations. The New York order also requires an additional 60 day quarantine period after importation, and continued negative filovirus antibody serology.
On March 22, 1990, the CDC revoked the registrations of three of the four major nonhuman primate importers, bringing about an important reduction in the number of animals being imported. On March 23, CDC held a hearing on the subject at which several persons from the biomedical community testified on the impact an embargo might have on the national biomedical effort. All the speakers testified against the embargo, except one representing the ASPCA. On April 4, the CDC issued an update reporting that the new Reston agent is not Ebola, but a related agent. It also reported that four animal handlers who had been in contact with some infected primates had serologic evidence of recent infection, including the one mentioned above who cut his finger while performing a necropsy on an infected animal. Interestingly, daily monitoring of that individual following the exposure did not detect antigenemia as demonstrated by the ELISA antigen capture test, although a low level infectious viremia was detected by isolation in MA104 cells on days 8 through 11. The mode of infection was presumed to be laceration for that person, but has not been determined for the other three. None of the four had clinical disease.
On April 13, 1990, a closed meeting was held at CDC with officials from Canada and the states of New York, California, Virginia, Texas, and Florida to discuss the issue and actions that should be taken. On April 18 the CDC issued a mandatory directive requiring that a special permit be obtained in advance from the Director of CDC before importing cynomolgus, African green, or rhesus monkeys into the U.S. Applicants for special permits are required to provide detailed information on 23 different items, including shipment of animals, protective measures to be taken for workers and others who might contact them during transit, methods of disinfecting aircraft, testing procedures to be used in relation to the filoviruses, and interpretation of the results. That directive remains in effect today. On July 19 and 20, the CDC held a closed meeting of the Filovirus Review Panel, representatives from various govermnent agencies. I had the opportunity to see a copy of their final report. The panel has made a number of recommendations to the CDC which, if implemented, should bring about some needed changes in current procedures.
The 1978 Primate Plan projected an annual need of 34,000 primates, and that number has proved to be reasonably accurate. Since 1978 primate breeding in the U.S. has increased, but imports are still necessary to satisfy the total demand. The numbers of primates imported steadily increased over the past five years from about 14,000 per year in 1985 to 22,000 in 1989. Species breakdowns are difficult to obtain, but in 1988 61% were from Asia, and most likely were macaques In 1989, according to CDC, 16,000 cynomolgus were imported. Of those 16,000, approximately 3,000 were reexported to laboratories in Canada, Mexico, Europe, and Japan, leaving the U.S. needing about 13,000 imported cynomolgus per year.
In 1990 all imports of the three affected species were completely stopped from the end of March until June 21, when 100 cynomolgus were imported. The next importations took place on August 10, when 400 cynomolgus were imported, then another 100 on August 14. As of September 21, another 100 had been imported. Altogether only 700 cynomolgus had been imported from the end of March to September 21. The concensus of importers is that if the current situation continues, it is highly unlikely that more than 4,000 to 5,000 cynomolgus will be imported this year, about half during the first three months. That will be less than half the 13,000 needed. I have emphasized the cynomolgus here because it is the most numerous species used, but there is a similar problem with importation of African green and rhesus monkeys.
While the primary impact will be a reduction in numbers of animals available, a secondary impact is increased cost. To comply with the CDC guidelines there are many associated expenses, such as for filovirus testing, disposable garments that must be destroyed each time one leaves a quarantine room, and disinfection and disposal of certain items as hazardous wastes. The price for primates has already had to be increased over the pre-existing base price between $200 and $350 per animal due to increased costs for testing and implementing of new quarantine procedures. If we can get back to former import levels of approximately 15,000 to 20,000 animals per year, and if these costly procedures remain in place, we are projecting an added expense of from $4.5 to $6 million using present numbers.
The cost problem probably will be worse. The figures I've presented are based only on what has to be done in the U.S. once the animals arrive here. The exporters have been affected in ways that are causing them to increase their prices to importers. The air carriers have long been reluctant to ship nonhuman primates, and this situation has added to that problem. Most of the airlines refuse to take nonhuman primates, and those that do are increasing their prices. The average shipping cost for bringing a monkey to the U.S. may have been as low as $50 previously, but it is now trebling to $150. Again, if we use the figure of 15,000 to 20,000 animals, we are talking about an increase from the exporters of maybe $200 per animal, plus an increase in shipping of $100 per animal, or a total of $300, or another $4.5 to $6 million.
Altogether we are talking about an annual increase over prefilovirus prices of between $9 and $12 million. The end user will be paying for this. In research where primates are essential, these costs reduce the funds available for actual research by this amount Using fewer primates will mean deferring research to solve disease problems. The expansion of cynomolgus breeding colonies in the U.S. is also being delayed and made more costly.
Another economic repercussion of this episode is a loss of testing business. The U.S. and Canada are the only countries in the world that imposed special import requirements because of the Reston virus Many pharmaceutical firms with research facilities abroad are now transferring some activities from the U.S. to foreign installations.
There are other areas of impact besides these numbers and costs to the biomedical community. There is the impact felt by 12 of our workers and their families when they had to be laid off because we couldn't bring in enough primates to justify keeping them on the job It was the first large scale lay-off in the history of our company, and it was hard to do. Another human impact was felt by those workers who were found to be filovirus antibody titer positive. Though they were not sick, they were concerned--some were even scared. There was also a problem for many of these positive people in their domestic situations, since some had been counseled not to have sexual relations. Relief came later when the criteria for judging an individual to be positive was increased to a higher titer.
There probably also will be some positive effects. We are rapidly learning more about filoviruses, and obviously there is a need for much more accurate information regarding this group of potentially important agents. There were probably some things about primate import and quarantine that needed to be improved, and these may now be corrected. Whether what has happened is positive or negative depends on the eye of the beholder. At a recent meeting an animal protectionist said to me, "Ebola and I make a good pair. Ebola in a very short period has been able to accomplish much more than I could by trying for many years! "
It is easy to understand how the authorities involved took the actions they did. The only previously recognized filoviruses, Marburg and Ebola, caused serious disease in humans, with high fatality rates, and there are no effective treatments. In fact, it was Marburg which led to the current primate quarantine regulations in 1975. I think that we can take comfort in the fact that those measures did work. Had this been as serious as the Marburg outbreak, there is every reason to believe that the disease would not have escaped into the general population. There's also a good deal of evidence now that we are dealing with a new agent that is not pathogenic for man. In addition, we are learning that both man and animals can have antibodies to the filoviruses without being ill, and without being a hazard for other individuals.
Now it would be in the national interest to reevaluate the situation, and to determine exactly which measures make sense, and which don't. It seems that the pre-filovirus episode quarantine procedures that were in place were probably sufficient, but if they were not they should be changed in a more logical fashion, based on better scientific evidence. It would also be beneficial if a way could be found to resolve disparity that currently exists between federal requirements and those of New York state and California. This lack of synchrony makes procedures more difficult for those concerned with supplying these species to researchers.
Recently I have attended sessions dealing with this subject at various meetings. The presentations reflect that a great deal of effort has gone, and is continuing to go, into this matter. Much has been learned. At one meeting Peter Jahrling of USAMRIID said, referring to the Reston agent: 1) it is infectious for man and therefore does pose a potential health hazard; 2) the quarantine regulations which were in place worked to contain it; 3) with early identification of the agent in a quarantine facility the disease can be adequately handled.
Putting together everything I have learned in those presentations, as well as from a number of authorities in personal communications, and from reading whatever is available on the subject, I conclude that we now have ample information to enable a panel of experts to come up with a rational approach for dealing with this matter. Coupling that information with the knowledge and experience gained through years of importing hundreds of thousands of monkeys, under pre-existing CDC regulations and with complete success in protecting the general public, I have come to the following conclusions:
I hope that some degree of normalcy can return soon because I remain firmly convinced of the importance of these species to the advancement of biomedical progress. But it will require the leadership of groups such as yours. There is confusion regarding this topic, and what is best to be done. It will require an effort at the federal level to resolve this matter. In that regard I am reminded of an excellent book, Of Acceptable Risk -- Science and the Determination of Safety, by William W. Lowrance of Harvard University. This book was published in 1976 under the aegis of the Panel on Science and the Determination of Safety of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Science and Public Policy. It came to my attention then, while I was Director of the Division of Research Services here at NIH and Environmental Safety was one of my areas of responsibility. I would like to close by quoting from that book:
Such issues pop up with so little warning and present so many nearly balanced but opposed arguments that public decision makers often make hasty decisions that must be reversed later... No aspect of the national life escapes having crisis. ...What is special about safety crises is that they arise with little warning; their implications for well-being are taken personally and immediately by the affected public; the details of the technical assessments are often comprehensible only to a few specialists; and priorities are difficult to establish, because perceptions of the problems differ so much and because widely publicized immediate hazards distract attention from perhaps more important, but less visible, chronic ones (Lowrance, 1976, p. 105).
Lowrance, W. W. (1976) Of Acceptable Risk, Science and the Determination of Safety. Los Altos, CA: William Kaufmann, Inc.
IPSC, (1978) National Primate Plan. USDHHS, PHS, NIH. NIH Publication No. 80-1520.
Author's address: 1300 Crystal Dr. #505, Arlington, VA 22202-3234.
From an address to the Trans NIH Coordinating Committee for Research Animal Resources, September 21, 1990.
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Nutrition and Cancer
The American Cancer Society is accepting applications for its Special Institutional Grants on Nutrition and Cancer Program. The purpose of the program is to stimulate interdisciplinary research on the role of nutrition in cancer. Emphasis is placed on laboratory and epidemiological studies that will identify dietary patterns and factors that may cause or prevent cancer. The deadline for applications is March 15, 1991. For more information contact: Research Dept., ACS, 1599 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329 [404-320-3333].
The Division of Instrumentation and Resources at the National Science Foundation has recently published a flier describing the possibilities of support for Database Activities in the Biological, Behavioral, and Social Sciences. Copies of the flier (NSF 90-70) may be obtained by sending a request (including mail address) to the address below. E-mail requests and telephone inquiries are welcome. Robert J. Robbins, Program Director, Database Activities, Biological, Behavioral, and Social Sciences, NSF, 1880 G Street, Room 312, Washington, DC 20550 [202-357-9880; FAX: 202- 357-7745]. -- From the ABSnet EMAIL Newsletter, 1990, 1.
The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism is considering grants on Mechanisms of Uncontrolled Ethanol Intake. Of particular interest is the development of behavioral models that will allow investigations of the mechanisms of ethanol craving and reinforcement These models should be able to integrate neuropharmocological, neurochemical, neurophysiological, and neuroanatomical measures with genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to ethanol self-administration.
The deadline for applications is February 1, 1991. For more information contact: Walter A. Hunt, Ph.D. (Neuroscience Research), Ellen D. Witt, Ph.D. (Behavioral Research), Division of Basic Research, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rm. 16C-05, Rockville, MD 20857 [301-443-4223].
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Harold R. Bauer, Section of Neonatology, Dept. of Pediatrics, Ohio State Univ. Children's Hospital, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, OH 43205-2696.
John Duktig, Lederle Labs, 401 N. Middletown Rd., Pearl River, NY 10965.
Robert D. Gunnels, Manager, Animal Resources, Pfizer Medical Research Labs., Eastern Point Road, Groton, CT 06340.
Denice Helwig, LESC Mailstop 236-5, Moffett Field, CA 94035.
Dr. Larry Hulsebos, 500 N. Main St., Mattawan, MI 49071.
Ronald R. Hutchinson, 650 S. Lincoln, Augusta, MI 49012.
Dr. Donald R. Koritnik, Ft. Wayne Center for Medical Education, Indiana Univ. Medical School, 2101 Coliseum Blvd. East, Ft. Wayne, IN 46805.
Kathleen N. Morgan, Dept. of Psychology, California State Univ., 5500 University Pkwy, San Bernardino, CA 92407.
Evalyn F. Segal, 200 Ridge Trail, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-1641.
Heidi Shaw, Friends of Washoe, Dept. of Psychology, Central Washington Univ., Ellensburg, WA 98926.
Robert M. Werner, Director, Laboratory Animal Resources, Florida State University, 118 WJB, Tallahassee, FL 32306.
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Fogarty Senior International Fellowships
The Senior International Fellowship Program (SIF) was developed by the Fogarty International Center (FIC) to enable U.S. scientists with more than five years postdoctoral experience to carry out research at foreign institutions for periods of three to twelve months. The intent is to enhance the exchange of ideas and information in all fields of biomedical research between U.S. and foreign scientists.
The SIF program provides up to three separate visits (minimum three months) to the foreign laboratory within a three-year period after activation, for a maximum of twelve months; a foreign living allowance of $24,000 per year; an institutional allowance of $500 per month; and a stipend of $15,000 for the year.
Prospective applicants must have a clear understanding with the foreign host institution about the goals of the fellowship and the work to be pursued. The FIC will not accept any proposal that has as its major feature brief observational visits; attendance at formal training courses; or full-time clinical, technical, or teaching services.
To be eligible for an SIF, an applicant must:
Application receipt dates are May 10 and September 10. For further information and the required application kit, please contact: David A. Wolff, Ph.D., Chief, International Research and Awards Branch, Fogarty International Center, Building 31, Room B2C21, NIH, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-1653; FAX: 301-402-0779].
N. R. C. Research Associateships
The National Research Council announces the 1991 Resident, Cooperative, and Postdoctoral Research Associateship Programs for research in the sciences and engineering to be conducted on behalf of 30 federal agencies or research institutions whose 115 participating research laboratories are located throughout the United States. The programs provide opportunities for Ph.D. scientists and engineers of unusual promise and ability to perform research on problems largely of their own choosing yet compatible with the research interests of the sponsoring laboratory.
Approximately 450 new full-time Associateships will be awarded on a competitive basis in 1991 for research in fields including biotechnology and the biological, health, and behavioral sciences. Most of the programs are open to both U.S. and non-U.S. nationals, and to both recent Ph.D. degree recipients and senior investigators.
Awards are made for one or two years, renewable to a maximum of three years; senior applicants who have held the doctorate at least five years may request a shorter period. Annual stipends for recent Ph.D.'s for the 1991 program year range from $27,150 to $42,000 depending upon the sponsoring laboratory, and will be appropriately higher for senior associates.
Financial support is provided for allowable relocation expenses and for limited professional travel during duration of the award. The host laboratory provides the Associate with programmatic assistance including facilities, support services, necessary equipment, and travel necessary for the conduct of the approved research program.
Applications to the National Research Council must be postmarked no later than April 15 and August 15, 1991.
Information on specific research opportunities and participating federal laboratories, as well as application materials, may be obtained from: Associate Programs, Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20418 [202-334-2760; Fax: 202-334-2759].
Graduate Research Assistant
The University of Nebraska at Omaha has openings for one or more graduate research assistants. The research focuses on the socioendocrinology of reproductive behavior in golden lion tamarins. The University has graduate programs leading to the Ph.D. and M.A. in Psychobiology, and the M.A. in Biology. Cooperative Ph.D. programs are available in Physiology, Life Sciences, and Anthropology at neighboring institutions. Application deadline is March 15, 1991. For more information contact Jeff French, Callitrichid Research Center, Psychology Dept., Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha, NE 68182-0274 [402-554-2558; Bitnet: [email protected]]. -- From the ASP Bulletin, 1990, 14.
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The Fyssen Foundation's general aim is "to encourage all forms of scientific enquiry into cognitive mechanisms, including thought and reasoning, underlying animal and human behavior, into their biological and cultural bases, and into their phylogenetic and ontogenetic development." For this purpose, the Foundation will award a number of fellowships. These fellowships are meant for the training and support of research scientists working in disciplines relevant to the aims of the Foundation, which wishes to support, particularly, research in such fields as: Ethology and Psychology: Nature and development of the cognitive processes in man and animals. Neurobiology: Neurobiological bases of cognitive processes and of their embryonic and post-natal development, as well as the elementary mechanisms which they involve Anthropology-Ethnology: Study of a) the representations of the natural and cultural environment. Analysis of the construction principles and transfer mechanisms of these systems as they illuminate their cognitive aspects, b) the technological systems developed in the various forms of social organization. Human Paleontology: Origin and evolution of the human brain and human artifacts.
Fellowships will be given to French scientists to work abroad and to foreign scientists to work in French laboratories. Study grants will normally be granted for one year but may be extended up to three.
Application forms can be obtained from the Foundation. Applications must include: a curriculum vitae; a list of publications of the applicant; the names of two senior scientists whom the applicant has asked to send testimonials to the Secretariat of the Foundation by March 31, 1991; a letter of acceptance by the inviting laboratory. Fifteen copies of the completed information should be sent to the Secretariat of the Foundation, 194 rue de Rivoli, 75001 Paris, France. Deadline for receipt of applications by the Foundation is March 31, 1991.
A substantial International Scientific Prize will be given for a major contribution to the progress of knowledge in the fields of research supported by the Foundation. It was awarded to Professors A Leroi-Gourhan (1980), W. H. Thorpe (1981), V. B. Mountcastle (1982), H. C. Conklin (1983), R. W. Brown (1984), P. Buser (1985), D. Pilbeam (1986), D. Premack (1987), J. C. Gardin (1988), and P. Goldman-Rakic (1989). The discipline considered for the 1989 prize is Cognitive Psychology. The nominations should include a curriculum vitae of the nominee; a list of his publications; a summary (four pages maximum) of the research work upon which the nomination is based. 15 copies of the nomination should be sent to the Secretariat of the Foundation at the above address. Deadline for receipt of nominations is September 1, 1991.
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The National Science Foundation has installed a Vacancy Hotline listing all current vacancies. The phone number is 800-628-1487 [357-7735 in Washington, DC].
Primate Foundation of Arizona
The Primate Foundation of Arizona has two job openings. They are seeking a full-time staff veterinarian for their chimpanzee (Pan trolodytes) breeding and behavioral research facility. This person will coordinate preventative medicine programs, manage clinical cases, assist in complying with USDA and NIH regulations, develop staff health policies, write SOP's, and compile and publish valuable chimpanzee information. Candidates must have the DVM degree, clinical experience, and a strong interest in primate medicine. Salary will be commensurate with experience.
The second position is Chimpanzee Caretaker. It requires a BA or BS in Zoology, Biology, Anthropology, or related field of study, and the ability to work well with peers. Primate or zoo experience is preferred. This person will share responsibility for maintaining and caring for approximately 74 chimpanzees. Salary is negotiable.
All personnel must have a negative T.B. skin test and a negative hepatitis B antigen test. We are an equal opportunity employer and offer excellent benefits. Send letter of interest, requested salary, resume, and three letters of reference to: Jo Fritz, Director, Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 86, Tempe, AZ 85280.
A training program has been funded at the Brain and Development Research Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, to promote interdisciplinary research in mental retardation and developmental neurobiology. Fellows collaborate with research scientists on human and non-human research in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, neuroendocrinology, psychopharmacology, neurology, genetics and behavioral psychology. The fellowships will be available September 1, 1991 for 1-2 years. Ph.D. and/or M.D., evidence of interdisciplinary research potential, and U.S. citizenship or permanent residence are required Send curriculum vitae, representative reprints and three references to: J.S. Kizer, M.D., Brain and Developmental Research Center, 212 Biological Sciences Research Building., CB# 7250, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7250. The deadline is May 1, 1991.
A position is available for a tenure-track Assistant Professor in Cognitive/Developmental/Experimental Psychology beginning August 1991 Ph.D. is required; prior teaching experience is preferred. Courses taught may include Introductory, Developmental, Cognitive, Sensation & Perception, Research Methods, or other courses in the individual's specialty area to make a total load of 8 course equivalents over 3 quarters. Faculty in the department are committed to excellence in teaching and maintaining an active research program that engages undergraduates. Applicants should submit a cover letter describing their research and teaching interests, a copy of their vita, preprints or reprints, and three letters of recommendation to: Dr. Francis C Dane, Chair, Psychology Department, Mercer University, Macon, Georgia, 31207. Review of applications will begin February 20 and continue until the position is filled. Mercer University is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer that encourages applications from women and minority members.
University of Washington
A tenure-track position is available as assistant professor in biological anthropology. Applicants should have a Ph.D. and a background in laboratory or field research, teaching, and scholarly publications, in behavioral, nutritional, and/or population ecology, and be prepared to work closely with archaeology and sociocultural colleagues. Ethnic minority persons and women are encouraged to apply Send application letter, resumé, and names of four referees to Carol Eastman, Chair, Biological Anthropology Search Committee, Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. -- From the ASP Bulletin, 1990, 14.
University of Colorado
The Developmental Psychobiology Research Group at the Univ. of Colorado expects to have several NIMH-funded post-doctoral training fellowships for highly qualified Ph.D.s or M.D.'s who are interested in academic research careers in developmental biology and behavior. The training program faculty is multidisciplinary and has available for study approximately 150 bonnet and pigtail macaques in harem groups For more information, contact Martin Reite, M.D., Dept. of Psychiatry, C-268R, Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 4200 East Ninth Ave., Denver, CO 80262 [303-394-7743]. -- From the ASP Bulletin, 1990, 14.
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The Fourteenth Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists will be hosted by the Asociacion Mexicana de Primatologia, and will be supported by the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Universidad Veracruzana, and Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana. The Latin American Society of Primatology will also meet with us. The meeting will be held June 24-28, 1991, at the Emporio Hotel in Veracruz, Mexico. Committee meetings and registration are scheduled for Monday afternoon and evening, with an evening reception for all registrants following. Scientific paper presentations will begin Tuesday morning, June 25. The final session will be Friday, June 28, followed by a banquet. Field trips to visit the island colonies of stumptail macaques and howler monkeys of the Universidad Veracruzana and the biological research station "Los Tuxlas" of UNAM will be scheduled after the meeting.
The deadline for abstracts was January 2, 1991. For program information, contact Dr. Glover Barnes, Urology RL-10, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. For arrangements and accomodations information, contact Dr. A. Estrada, Estacion de Biologia "Los Tuxtlas" , Inst. de Biologia-UNAM, Apdo. 176, San Andres Tuxtla [FAX: 011-52-294-30115].
A symposium on the Restoration and Recovery of Endangered Species will be held this April 30-May 1, in Chicago, as part of the Second Annual Conference of the Society for Ecological Restoration. Topics to be addressed include: endangered species recovery and restoration planning guidelines and policy issues; genetic, demographic, and ecological factors affecting the maintenance of genetic diversity; and research and monitoring. For more information, contact: Marlin Bowles, The Morton Arboretum, Route 53, Lisle, IL 60543 [708-719-2422].
The 17th International Conference of the Animal Transportation Association, "Animal Transportation Looks at 1992," will be held April 28-May 1, 1991, in Wiesbaden, Germany. The main topics to be discussed are: The Live Animal Regulations of IATA and CITES; The EEC Regulations on documentation, entry, transit, export, and co-ordination within the community; Animal welfare in relation to handling techniques to reduce stress; holding/inspection facilities; Technological design improvements in ships, aircraft, and road vehicles; container design; Freight forwarders and carriers - their roles and responsibilities. For further information contact Cherie Derouin, P.O. Box 797095, Dallas, TX 75379-7095 [214-713-9954] or Tim Harris, Harris Associates, Ltd., Crab Hill Farm, South Nutfield, Redhill, Surrey RH1 5NR, England [0737-82-22-49].
Institute of Human Origins
The Institute of Human Origins (IHO) will mark its 10th anniversary with a "celebration of the sciences of geochronology and paleoanthropology" on March 15-16, 1991. Activities will begin Friday evening in San Francisco, followed by an all-day conference in Berkeley on Saturday, featuring speakers addressing the major issues in the evolutionary sciences. Beginning March 16, hominid fossils, casts, and casting techniques will be displayed, along with video and slide presentations of IHO field and in-house research activities. For information, contact Ina Campbell or Sharie Shute, IHO, 2453 Ridge Road, Berkeley, CA 94709 [415-845-0333].
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Research Resources Information Center
The Research Resources Information Center, PHS, handles inquiries covering the spectrum of biomedical science and technology. The Research Resources Reporter has carried many requests for information -- together with answers -- in the past, and the staff at RRIC will continue to respond to all inquiries directed to the Center Should you have a request for information, please write or phone the RRIC Science Advisor, Dr. Ole Henriksen, RRIC, 1601 Research Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20850 [301-251-4953; FAX 301-251-4917]. -- From the Research Resources Reporter, 1990, 14, 14.
The Gorilla Behavior Advisory Group has produced a comprehensive compilation of gorilla ethograms, in text format, or Macintosh or IBM disks, which are available at cost. The costs for text or disk is $5 ($2 if you send your own disk); they may be ordered from Jackie Ogden, Department of Research, Zoo Atlanta, 800 Cherokee Ave., S.E., Atlanta, GA 30315 [404-624-5681; FAX 404-627-7514]. IBM requests should specify disk size. For information about the compilation or about the Group, contact Ms. Ogden.
The Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW) produces a range of publications on many aspects of animal welfare, including Handbooks on the care of laboratory animals, guidelines on pain, anesthesia, and analgesia, surgical procedures, and reports of animal welfare research. Membership is open to departments and libraries of educational and training establishments, societies, research institutes, professional and trade associations, and commercial and industrial establishments. Information and membership forms are available from The Secretary, UFAW, 8 Hamilton Close, South Mimms, Potters Bar, Herts EN6 3QD, England [0707-58202; FAX: 0707 49279].
Directory of Biotechnology Info Resources
The Directory of Biotechnology Information Resources is an electronic database, funded by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), offering access to a wide array of information relating to medicine, agriculture, pharmaceuticals, food technology, microbiology, environmental sciences, and molecular biology. For information, contact Dr James J. Ferguson, Jr., Specialized Information Services, NLM, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 [301-496-6531].
Tom Ferrell of the New England RPRC, One Pine Hill Drive, Southborough, MA 01772, would like to be in contact with any researchers or zoo- keepers who are maintaining Barbary macaques (Macaca nemestrina) in their facilities. Please contact Tom at 508-481-0400 [FAX: 508-460-1209]. -- From the Primate Supply Information Clearinghouse New Listings
The State Department offers a free brochure "What You Should Know Before You Go," containing safety tips and information about immunizations and passports. Write: Americans Abroad, Consumer Information Center, Pueblo, CO 81009.
The Consortium of Aquariums, Universities and Zoos (C.A.U.Z.) is an information network of more than 635 scientists and educators from more than 300 zoos, aquariums, colleges and universities, nature centers, foundations, governmental agencies, etc., in 14 countries. The 133 page 1990-91 C.A.U.Z. Directory contains information on the interests and projects of the members of the C.A.U.Z. Network. People are listed by their interests in specific groups of animals, general interests, expertise in various fields, etc. The Directory also lists the name, address, phone number and BITNET/INTERNET address (if any) for members. The directory is available at $15 from Dr. Donna Hardy, C.A.U.Z. Network Coordinator, Dept. of Psychology, California State Univ., Northridge, CA 91335. She will also send you more information about C.A.U.Z. and the form to fill out and submit in order to join the Network. Two monographs, one on the De Brazza's guenon, the other on golden-bellied mangabeys, are available from Dr. Hardy in printed or electronic format.
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Controversial Project Debated
Dr. Robert Cooper, Director of the Monkey Jungle (14805 S.W. 216 St., Miami, FL 33170), recently sent us a packet of articles about the Helping Hands project, along with a thoughtful letter. The articles took quite different views of the program, which trains capuchin monkeys to help severely disabled humans to live more independently than would otherwise be possible. Articles from the Ladies' Home Journal (Salvatore, 1986) and the Smithsonian Magazine (MacFadyen, 1986) emphasize the advantages to the quadraplegics, and the affectionate relationships between them and their monkey companions. Their descriptions of the animals' training are brief and lyrical ("Whenever a monkey properly executes an assignment it receives a reward." "Negative reinforcement is administered by way of a tiny battery-powered backpack which can deliver a slight electric shock...[comparable] to the static charge sometimes generated by touching a metal doorknob." MacFayden, 130).
At the other extreme are two letters to The Simian, the monthly newsletter of the Simian Society of America, Inc. (Pascoe, 1989; McLean, 1990). Pascoe was a trainer on the Helping Hands project for 5 years, who came to the conclusion that the program "is wrong, misleading to the public, and must be stopped." She objects to: the forceful removal of infants from their mothers; placement with and subsequent removal from foster families; full-mouth tooth extraction; caging during training; training with electric shock; another separation, from trainers this time; foreign programs, imitating Helping Hands, which are less-well supervised; and the low success rate in training and placement, after a large expenditure of money and effort.
McLean's letter (1990) was less objective, and based on second-hand observations. Dr. Cooper writes: "I had difficulty believing McLean's report that 'so many capuchin mothers have had their infant babies taken from them (that) they now refuse to hold them after giving birth. They leave them on the ground and just walk away.' When asked about it, Alison Pascoe (the quoted source) said that when the mothers with infants were separated from the group and pursued with a net, they sometimes ditched their babies...a very different and believable account!"
An evaluation of the project by the Department of Veterans Affairs' Rehabilitation Research and Development Evaluation Unit (1989) did not address any of the questions of how the monkeys were treated, but concluded "that monkey helpers are useful, effective and acceptable." It stated that monkey helpers offer some freedom for caretakers, and more independence to the disabled.
A three-page flier from Helping Hands, titled "Animal Health Concerns," addresses the questions of tooth extraction, training by shock, neutering of some animals, stress in the companion animal's daily life, and health risks to the humans living with the animal.
Dr. Cooper writes: "I have been very much against the Helping Hands project for some years...based solely upon the extremes which must be taken to train these capuchins (and protect humans from attack). However, even Alison Pascoe says that the concept looks great if only successfully placed animals are considered. And I have found my contacts (all recent) with Mary J. Willard [founder and director of Helping Hands] to be very illuminating. She says that there is a grain of truth in virtually everything her critics charge, but that being deprived of the context and accompanying data leaves a very incomplete perspective. Her answers to all of my questions were extremely candid and without defensiveness. As a partial result, I now realize that this is a complex, rather than a black vs white, issue (at least for me).
Both M. J. Willard and Alison Pascoe indicated to Dr. Cooper that they would be willing to participate in a panel discussion with primatologists knowledgeable about Cebus at an ASP or similar academic meeting.
The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA, 1990) House of Delegates has considered a recommendation from the AVMA Animal Welfare Committee (AWC) that the AVMA oppose the concept and practice of utilizing nonhuman primates as assistive animals, but referred the recommendation back to the AWC and to the Committee on the Human-Animal Bond. There is no official AVMA position on this matter at this time The proposal by the AWC had stated: "That the AVMA is opposed at this time to the concept and practice of utilizing nonhuman primates as assistive animals, based upon serious animal stewardship and human safety concerns, including: 1) zoonotic disease and injury to humans; 2) use of aversion training techniques; 3) imposition of asocial and aberrant social behavior on naturally social species; 4) use of nondomestic species rather than a domestic one; and 5) physical mutilation of the animal (extraction of all teeth)." -- Few issues are as black or white as most activists would have us believe. -- The Editors
AVMA (1990). Nonhuman primates as assistive animals. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 197, 312.
MacFadyen, J. T. (1986). Educated monkeys help the disabled to help themselves. Smithsonian Magazine, October, 125-133.
McLean, J. (1990). [Letter to the editor]. The Simian, August
Pascoe, A. (1989). [Letter to the editor]. The Simian, August.
Rehabilitation Research and Development Evaluation Unit (1989). An evaluation of capuchin monkeys trained to help severely disabled individuals. (Dept. of Veterans Affairs, Baltimore, MD 21202).
Salvatore, D. (1986). A very special love story. Ladies' Home Journal, May, 54-61.
An Educated Baboon
I wish to report on a program that ran at the Weizmann Institute of Science (W.I.S.) for 4 years, involving a female baboon, now 7 years old. This animal served as the only live, interactive exhibit at the Garden of Science, which is part of the Youth Activities Section of the Feinberg Graduate School, W.I.S. Since my retirement from the W.I.S., she has been performing in identical fashion at the children's educational zoo at the Tsova Kibbutz near Jerusalem. The purpose of this exhibit is to demonstrate animal learning. "Malie" does this in three different ways: 1) "Reading" Hebrew words; 2) "Reading" English words; and 3) "Solving" problems in arithmetic. In all these demonstrations the visitor at the exhibit competes with "Malie" via a PC, which serves two parallel monitors. Language or arithmetic problems are presented by a scrambler. Whoever reacts first and correctly to a presented problem scores a point. Twelve problems are presented in each round. "Malie" has a vocabulary of 74 two-letter Hebrew words, 149 three-letter English words, and recognizes 37 multiplication and division problems. She will press a lever if a pair of letters is a valid word, or if the result of a problem is given correctly. For example, she will press the lever if she sees
414 / 23 = 18but not
414 / 23 = 15
It may not surprise you that it is "Malie" who usually wins in 9 out of 10 rounds. Naturally, this monkey exhibit is very popular Hundreds of children and adults have tried their luck or skill.
Details of part of this program were presented in January 1988 at the IXth ICLAS International Symposium on Laboratory Animal Science, Bangkok, and published in its proceedings in 1990.
With best regards, Efraim Benhar, 40 Beeri Street, Rehovot 76351, Israel
* * *
Researchers at the Wisconsin RPRC and the Harlow Primate Laboratory in Madison have shown that chronic exposure to low levels of lead appears to impair fertility by interfering with ovarian function. It suppresses secretion of progesterone, an ovarian hormone that is necessary for successful pregnancy and is particularly crucial for implantation of the embryo in the uterus. The ovarian dysfunction, which was revealed in a study of rhesus monkeys that received lead in drinking water, occurs even at relatively low levels of exposure that do not produce any overt signs of lead toxicity. Although the toxic effects of high levels of lead on the reproductive systems of humans and animals--including menstrual abnormalities, miscarriage, premature birth, and chromosomal anomalies in offspring--have long been recognized, the element's specific effect on ovarian hormones had been studied only in mice and had never been completely clarified.
In an earlier study, Dr. Nellie K. Laughlin of this group had noted that lead exposure resulted in menstrual irregularities. "In this study we wanted to determine if we could relate those defects to luteal function per se, as opposed to another part of the menstrual cycle," said Dr. Donald J. Dierschke. The luteal phase of the menstrual cycle follows ovulation, during which an egg is released from an ovarian follicle. The remaining follicular components change into the corpus luteum, which secretes progesterone.
Ten treated rhesus monkeys received lead acetate in drinking water 5 days a week for 7 months. The amount of lead was adjusted each week to the highest level that would not produce clinical symptoms or alterations of the central nervous system. The treated animals showed no signs of lead toxicity such as weight loss or reduced red blood cell volume, and there were no significant differences between experimental and seven control monkeys in general health. However, significant differences were seen in 3 measures of progesterone secretion. In the treated animals total circulating levels of the hormone during the study period were only 60% of those in control animals; and peak levels were reduced. Only one experimental animal showed a pattern of regular ovulatory cycles comparable to those of the control group, and this animal's progesterone levels were still lower than those of the controls.
The effect appears to be dose-related, because progesterone levels declined with increasing lead intake and increasing blood lead levels.
The investigators, who included Drs. Patricia Franks and Robert Bowman, were unable to determine the precise mechanism of action by which lead alters luteal function. Further studies will include evaluation of pituitary function, since lead may act directly upon the ovary, or it may affect the hypothalmus or the pituitary. They are also interested in further investigations of the cellular and molecular effects of lead. "Essentially nothing is known about the effects of lead at the cellular level and especially at the molecular level Our feeling is that there is a lot more to be learned there," says Dr Dierschke. -- From a report by Mary Ann Moon in the Research Resources Reporter, 1990, 14, 8-10
* * *
Know Your Monkeys: A Guide to the Primates of Kenya. R. M. Eley Nairobi: Institute of Primate Research, 1989. 63 pp. [Price: $10.00 by air mail and $5.00 by sea mail. Available from: Institute of Primate Research, National Museums of Kenya, P.O. Box 24481, Karen, Nairobi, Kenya]
Beginning with a brief introduction to taxonomy and to the characteristics of the order Primates, this book continues with descriptions of each family, and under each family, the species represented in Kenya, with their physical characteristics, habitats, foods, reproduction, and behavior described in detail. A distribution map for each species helps one locate its range relative to Kenya's parks.
Unfortunately, the poor quality of the photographs (in composition and reproduction) and the separation of the color plates from the text make this book difficult to use as a field guide. I recommend taking it to a zoo and learning to identify the monkeys there before taking it on safari. Despite this drawback, this book is well-written and informative, and will help the non-specialist visitor get the most out of his encounters with primates in Kenya. -- Elva Mathiesen
* * *
AAALAC Celebrates 25th Year
The American Association for Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care celebrated its 25th anniversary with a commemorative dinner in Milwaukee, October 16, 1990. AAALAC strives to promote high standards of animal care and use, improve laboratory animal welfare, and enhance biomedical research through the accreditation process. Currently, more than 530 units, including academic, commercial, government, and nonprofit organizations, are accredited. Attainment of accreditation demonstrates an institution's animal care and use program commitment to a standard of excellence beyond the minimum required by law. At the dinner, Howard University College of Medicine and University of Louisville School of Medicine were honored for maintaining accreditation for 25 years.
Supreme Court to Consider "Silver Spring" Case
The United States Supreme Court has accepted one part of an appeal filed in International Primate Protection League (IPPL), et al. v Administrators of the Tulane Educational Fund and the National Institutes of Health, an action by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals and other animal rights groups seeking to block any euthanasia of the Silver Spring monkeys and to gain custody of the animals. The sole issue to be decided by the Supreme Court is whether the lawsuit, originally filed in a Louisiana court, was properly removed to federal court. IPPL contends there is disagreement among federal circuit courts about the applicability of this removal authority to federal agencies as well as to federal officers. No other aspect of the activists' appeal will be reviewed; the court has precluded any reopening of the standing question. In April, 1987, the Supreme Court declined to hear an activist appeal and let stand the lower court's decision that appellants lacked standing to bring suit for custody of the Silver Spring monkeys.
The Supreme Court is scheduled to hear the case in March 1991, with a decision expected late that year. -- From the NABR Update, 1990, 11. See also this Newsletter, 1986, 25, 8; 1987, 26, 5; 1987, 26, 12; 1987, 26, 8; 1989, 28, 16-17; and 1990, 29, 16.
* * *
*Socioendocrinology of Primate Reproduction (Monographs in Primatol-
ogy, Vol. 13). T. E. Ziegler & F. B. Bercovitch (Eds.). New York:
Wiley-Liss, 1990. 217 pp. [Price: $72.50, plus shipping]
. . A symposium at the XII Congress of the International Primatological Society, Brasilia, Brazil, July 24-29, 1988. Contents: Introduction to socioendocrinology, by F. B. Bercovitch & T. E. Ziegler. Family composition, stress, and the timing of human menarche, by M. K. Surbey. Socioendocrine interactions in great ape reproduction, by C. E Graham & R. D. Nadler. The socioendocrinology of reproductive development and reproductive success in macaques, by F. B. Bercovitch & R. W Goy. Social influences on endocrine function in male vervet monkeys, by M. J. Raleigh & M. T. McGuire. Social interactions and determinants of ovulation in tamarins (Saguinus), by T. E. Ziegler, C. T Snowdon, & H. Uno. Social control of ovulation in marmoset monkeys: A neuroendocrine basis for the study of infertility, by D. H. Abbott, L M. George, J. Barrett, J. K. Hodges, K. T. O'Byrne, J. W. Sheffield, I. A. Sutherland, G. R. Chambers, S. F. Lunn, and M.-C. Ruiz de Elvira. Social influences on the reproductive success and reproductive endocrinology of prosimian primates, by M. K. Izard. Socioendocrinology: Key to a fundamental synergy, by C. M. Worthman.
*Coalition Formation among Male Baboons. R. Noë. Utrecht: Doctoral
dissertation, 1989. 234 pp. [Some copies are available for $25 plus
postage, from R. Noë, Max-Planck Inst. für Verhaltensphysiologie, Abt
Wickler, D-8130 Seewiesen, Germany)
. . Chapter 1, "A Veto game played by baboons: A challenge to the use of the Prisoner's Dilemma as a paradigm for reciprocity and cooperation," has been published in Animal Behaviour, 1990, 39, 78-90; and Chapter 3, "Reproductive tactics of male savanna baboons," in Behaviour, 1990, 113, 117-170. Chapter 2, "The market effect: An explanation for pay-off asymmetries among collaborating animals," will be published this year in Ethology, and Chapter 4, "Coalition formation among adult male savanna baboons," will eventually appear elsewhere.
*Comparative Reproduction in Mammals and Man. R. M. Eley (Ed.). Nairobi: Institute of Primate Research, 1989. 264 pp. [Price: $20 airmail, $10 seamail. Order from the Institute of Primate Research, National Museums of Kenya, P.O. Box 24481, Karen, Nairobi, Kenya]
. . Proceedings of a conference of the National Centre for Research in Reproduction, Nairobi, November, 1987. Partial contents: The U.S national chimpanzee breeding programme, by C. E. Graham & W. C. Hobson. Fertility in captive raised chimpanzees, by C. E. Graham & W. C Hobson. Prolonged postpartum amenorrhea in chimpanzees: Treatment and etiology, by C. E. Graham, E. F. Struthers, W. C. Hobson, & C. Faiman Artificial breeding of nonhuman primates, by K. G. Gould. Super ovulation, artificial insemination in vitro and embryo transfer in rhesus monkeys, by M. Lu, Y. Su, M. Liu, & H. Chang. Reproductive behaviour and physiology of the chimpanzee, by R. D. Nadler, J. F. Dahl, M. E Wilson, K. G. Gould, & D. C. Collins. Effects of oral contraceptives on chimpanzees: Preliminary report, by R. D. Nadler, J. F. Dahl, D. C Collins, K. G. Gould, & M. E. Wilson. Is oxytocin a primate ovarian hormone? by M. R. Luck, B. Jungclas, C. Praetorius, & M. Münker. A comparison of placentation and placental proteins between the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the human, by H. Soma. Some aspects of conceptus development in the olive baboon (Papio cynocephalus anubis), by R. M. Eley & R. P. Tarara. Neuroendocrine suppression of LH secretion in subordinate female marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus), by D. H Abbott, K. T. O'Byrne, J. W. Sheffield, S. F. Lunn, & L. M. George Reproductive parameters of Hanuman langur, Presbytis entellus, around Jodhpur, India, by G. Agoramoorthy. Seasonal variation in reproductive capabilities of the bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata), by S. S Majumdar, R. P. Das, & S. Roy. Comparative morphoendocrine aspects of peri-implantation in the human, baboon and vervet monkey, by R. P Tarara, C. S. Bambra, G. E. O. Owiti, & R. M. Eley. Introduction of bioeffective anti-LHRH response in monkeys, Macaca radiata, with per- missible adjuvants, by S. K. Sekhri & C. Das. Biochemical and genetic characterization of a prostatic secretory protein specific to primates, by M. Mbikay, C. G. Linard, S. Noley, S. Benjannet, C. Lazure, N. G. Seidah, & M. Chretien. Gossypol: Problems and prospects, by N R. Kalla, W. Aulitzky, & J. Frick. Reproductive lesions in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) and dogs (Canis domestica) infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, by G. W. O. Akol & P. D. Sayer Mycoplasma colonization in primate animal laboratories, by M. A. Khatamee.
*Medical Management of the Orangutan. S. K. Well, E. L. Sargent, M E. Andrews, & D. E. Anderson. New Orleans: Audubon Park Zoo, 1990. 215 pp. [Price: $20, payable to the Audubon Park Zoo. Order from S. Wells, Audubon Park Zoo, 6500 Magazine Street, New Orleans, LA 70118]
*Multiple Births in Catarrhine Monkeys and Apes: A Review. T. Geissmann. Firenze: Il Sedicesimo, , 1989. 78 pp. [Price: $25. Order from "Il Sedicesimo" Scientific Publisher, Via Manelli 29r., 50136 Florence, Italy]
*Ape Locomotion: Anatomical, Biomechanical and Bioenergetic Aspects. A Selective Bibliography. 1972-1990. J. L. Pritchard. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1990. 18 pp. (192 citations) [Price: $6.50. Stock #90-007. Send order to Primate Information Center, RPRC, SJ-50, Univ of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.]
*Hepatitis Research in Nonhuman Primates, 1989-1990. Update. J. L Pritchard. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1990. 10 pp. (103 citations) [Price: $6.50. Stock #90-009. Ordering information same as above.]
*Parkinson's Disease: Studies in Nonhuman Primates. Annual Update, 1989-1990. J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1990 12 pp. (124 citations) [Price: $6.50. Stock #90-010. Ordering information same as above.]
*Primate Welfare, Well-being and Enrichment Studies and Legislation: 1989-1990, Update. J. L. Pritchard. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1990. 17 pp. (192 citations) [Price: $6.50. Stock #90-008 Ordering information same as above.]
*ICLAS Bulletin, Number 67, Autumn, 1990. (International Council for
Laboratory Animal Science, CANTAB, Alexandra House, Hinchingbrooke
Hospital, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE18 8NT UK)
. . Contents include Research utilization of baboons in southern Africa, by S. J. van Rensburg, and Transportation tips from the U.S Dept. of Agriculture, Office of Transportation.
Magazines, Newsletters, and Reports
*Kyoto University Overseas Research Reports of New World Monkeys VII.
Kyoto University Primate Research Institute, 1990
. . Reports on 1988 and 1989 Grants for Field Research of the Monbusho International Scientific Research Program. Contents: Geology and localities of monkey fossils in the La Venta Badlands, Colombia, South America, by M. Takai & T. Setoguchi. A new ceboid primate, closely related to Neosaimiri, found in the upper red bed in the La Venta Badlands, Middle Miocene of Colombia, South America, by T. Setoguchi, M Takai, & N. Shigehara. How to explain the short face of the New World monkey, by T. Mouri. Similarities of the molar size in various squirrel monkeys (Saimiri, Ceboidea), by N. Shigehara & M. Natori. A preliminary analysis of cranial size difference in the genus Callicebus, by S. Kobayashi.
*Humane Innovations and Alternatives in Animal Experimentation: A
Notebook, 1990, Volume 4. (Published by PsyETA, Box 87, New Gloucester, ME 04260)
. . This issue contains articles on Mixing species for social comfort, by P. O'Neill; Guenon care, by C. Bramblett; A perch for caged macaques, by V. Reinhardt
*Research Resources Reporter, 1990, 14. [Division of Research
. . This issue includes a report from the California Primate Research Center on a rhesus monkey model for heterosexual transmission of AIDS, by J. Collins.
*The Newsletter, 1990, 2. [Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box
86, Tempe, AZ 85280]
. . Contents: The great apes and the human ancestor, by M. P. Ghiglieri. A brief report on neurobehavioral integrity in chimpanzee and human neonates, by K. A. Bard
*Australian Primatology, 1990, 5[1/2]. [Graeme Crook, CSIRO Div. of
Human Nutrition, Majors Rd., O'Halloran Hill, S.A. 5158, Australia]
. . Contains the proceedings of the 8th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Australian Primate Society, plus an article, "Marmoset milk: The search for a substitute," by G. A. Crook
Special Journal Issues
*Primate socioecology, communication, and hominid evolution, Part II
International Journal of Primatology, 1990, 11.
. . Contents: Patterns of paternal care in primates, by P. C. Wright. Experimental field studies of Asian ape social systems, by J. C. Mitani. Humans as primates: The social relationships of Efe pygmy men in comparative perspective, by R. C. Bailey & R. Aunger. Social relationships and ritualized greetings in adult male baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis), by B. B. Smuts & J. M. Watanabe
*Primate socioecology, communication, and hominid evolution, Part III
International Journal of Primatology, 1990, 11.
. . Contents: Human uniqueness and theoretical content in paleoanthropology, by M. Cartmill. Fallacies of progression in theories of brain-size evolution, by T. W. Deacon. Problems of ontogeny and phylogeny in brain-size evolution, by T. W. Deacon
*The Hand-rearing and Socialization of Two Injured Gorilla Infants at Brookfield Zoo. [Price: $9, payable to Chicago Zoological Soc. Order from Craig Demitros, Brookfield Zoo, Primate Dept., 3300 Golf Rd., Brookfield, IL 60513]
Animal models of human disease: Scrub typhus. R. L. Ridgway (U.S
Army Medical Research Inst. of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick,
Frederick, MD 21701-5011). Comparative Pathology Bulletin, 1990,
. . Colony-reared cynomolgus monkeys are the most useful models for vaccine and pathology studies of scrub typhus.
*MPTP-induced parkinsonism: Relative changes in dopamine concentration
in subregions of substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area and retrorubral field of symptomatic and asymptomatic vervet monkeys. Elsworth,
J. D., Deutch, A. Y., Redmond, D. E. Jr., Sladek, J. R. Jr., & Roth,
R. H. (Dept. of Pharmacology, Yale Univ. School of Medicine, 333 Cedar
St., New Haven, CT 06510). Brain Research, 1990, 513, 320-324.
. . Identical MPTP treatment regimens produced animals with different degrees of parkinsonism. Changes in dopamine and homovanillic acid were more severe and widespread in symptomatic than in nonsymptomatic monkeys.
*Effect of exogenous surfactant on the development of bronchopulmonary
dysplasia in a baboon hyaline membrane disease model. Maeta, H.,
Raju, T. N. K., Vidyasagar, D., Bhat, R., Esterly, J., Matsuda, H.,
Shimada, S., Krukenkamp, I. B., & Shanklin, D. R. (T. N. K. Raju,
Dept. of Pediatrics (m/c 856), 840 S. Wood St., Univ. of Illinois,
Chicago, IL 60612). Critical Care Medicine, 1990, 18, 403-409.
. . Surfactant-treated animals showed a significant improvement in arterial/alveolar oxygen ratio and pulmonary compliance, facilitating rapid weaning from assisted ventilation. Lung histology showed that pulmonary parenchyma expanded 70-95% without features of early bronchopulmonary dysplasia. In contrast, a control group had alveolar expansion ó50%, basal cell hyperplasia in the bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium, dysplastic maturation with cellular atypia, extensive epithelial erosion, and type II cell hyperplasia.
*SIV infected rhesus macaques: An AIDS model for immunoprevention and
immunotherapy. Gardner, M. B. (Dept. of Medical Pathology, Univ. of
California, School of Medicine, MSI-A, Davis, CA 95616). In M. Z
Atassi (Ed.), Immunobiology of Proteins and Peptides V (pp. 279-293)
New York: Plenum, 1989.
. . Summary of initial results using inactivated whole SIV immunogens for immunoprevention and post-infection immunotherapy in the SIV-rhesus monkey system.
*An intravascular technique to occlude the middle cerebral artery in
baboons. Brassel, F., Dettmers, C., Nierhaus, A., Hartmann, A., &
Solymosi, L. (Neurologische Universitätsklinik, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse
25, D-5300 Bonn, Germany). Neuroradiology, 1989, 31, 418-424.
. . Infarcts were created in 21 of 24 baboons by injecting N-Butyl-2-cyanoacrylate-monomers by catheter.
*Dominance-seeking strategies in primates: An evolutionary perspective. Liska, J. (Dept. of Speech Communication, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN 47405). Human Evolution, 1990, 5,
. . A theoretical perspective for conducting comparative analyses of social competence. It is suggested that the vehicle for competence is communication, which is dependent upon empathy, and that both are facilitators and consequences of the social nature of primates. The importance of symbolic capabilities in advancing the development of empathy and expanding the repertoire of strategies and tactics in humans is emphasized.
*Mechanisms maintaining monogamy in monkeys. Snowdon, C. T. (Dept. of
Psychology, Univ. of Wisconsin, 1202 West Johnson St., Madison, WI
53706). In D. A. Dewsbury (Ed.), Contemporary Issues in Comparative
Psychology (pp. 225-251). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 1990.
. . Data from marmosets, tamarins, and other monogamous species suggest that whether males express parental care is a function of their early rearing environment and the degree to which mothers need helpers to assist in infant care.
*Vocal communication in New World monkeys. Snowdon, C. T. (Address
same as above). Journal of Human Evolution, 1989, 18, 611-633.
. . A review, comparing vocal communication of New World monkeys and phenomena of bird song and human speech, and pointing out the existence of lexical syntax and rule systems that seem to govern duetting, contact calling, and complex vocal exchanges.
*Infant-care behavior of mothers and fathers in a communal-care primate, the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus). Tardif, S. D., Carson, R. L., & Gangaware, B. L. (Oak Ridge Associated Univs., Marmoset Research Center, P.O. Box 117, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117). American
Journal of Primatology, 1990, 22, 73-85.
. . Observations of 23 different groups bearing 35 litters suggest that fathers are more responsive to infants than are mothers. Mothers may limit their involvement, as has been proposed by field researchers, due to an energetically demanding reproductive strategy.
*Evidence for task-dependent memory dysfunction in the aged monkey
Rapp, P. R., & Amaral, D. G. (Salk Inst., P.O. Box 85800, San Diego,
CA 92138). Journal of Neuroscience, 1989, 9, 3568-3576.
. . Aged (22-26 years old) monkeys were impaired on tasks known to be sensitive to prefrontal cortical damage, but performed well on a procedure that subjects with medial temporal lobe damage fail, suggesting that prefrontal cortical dysfunction may mediate prominent aspects of age-dependent cognitive impairment in the monkey.
*A case of lethal infant abuse in an established group of chimpanzees
Spijkerman, R. P., van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M., & Jens, W. (J. van
Hooff, Lab. of Comparative Physiology, Univ. of Utrecht, P.O. Box
80.086, 3508TB Utrecht, Netherlands). Folia Primatologica, 1990, 55, 41-44.
. . Report of a violent incident in a zoo colony which had been studied in detail for 13 years.
*Initiation and solicitation in male-female grooming in a wild Japanese macaque troop on Yakushima Island. Tsukahara, T. (Dept. of
Anthropology, Fac. of Science, Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku,
Tokyo, 113 Japan). Primates, 1990, 31, 147-156.
. . Males solicit females to groom them, while females approach the alpha male and groom him.
*Social behaviour and infant carrying in a group of moustached tamarins, Saguinus mystax (Primates: Platyrrhini: Callitrichidae), on Padre Isla, Peruvian Amazonia. Heymann, E. W. (Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Kellnerweg 4, 3400 Göttingen, Germany). Primates, 1990, 31,
. . A group of 8 (5.3), including 2 adult males and 1 breeding female, was studied for over 6 months, plus short surveys 2 and 5 months later. Data is given on allogrooming, infant carrying, aggressive and sexual behavior, and on the development of the younger females after the death of the breeding female.
*Mother-infant interactions of wild-born, individually-caged cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) during the first 14 weeks of infant
life. Nakamichi, M., Cho, F., & Minami, T. (Dept. of Ethology, Faculty of Human Sciences, 1-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565 Japan)
Primates, 1990, 31, 213-224.
. . Observations of 42 mother-male infant pairs and 41 mother-female infant pairs give results broadly similar to those reported for mother-infant interactions in other macaques living in social groups.
*Five months of daily standardized exercise for sedentary monkeys
Zerath, E., Mestries, J. C., Gau, C., Nogues, C., & Milhaud, C
(EASSA-CERMA, 5 bis Ave. de la Porte de Sevres, 75731 Paris Cedex 15,
France). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1990, 19, 583-594.
. . Rhesus monkeys were trained to climb a motor-driven rope, which continually moves down at a rate controlled by an operator.
*Cortisol response of female rhesus monkeys to venipuncture in homecage versus venipuncture in restraint apparatus. Reinhardt, V., Cowley, D., Scheffler, J., Vertein, R., & Wegner, F. (Wisconsin RPRC, 1223 Capital Court, Madison, WI 53715). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1990, 19, 601-606.
. . Cortisol response of 10 single-caged monkeys bled in a restraint apparatus was compared with that of 10 paired and 5 single-caged monkeys bled in the homecage. Cortisol concentrations did not differ significantly at first venipuncture, but did so at second, 15 minutes later.
*Inanimate environmental enrichment for group-housed rhesus macaque
infants. Champoux, M., DiGregorio, G., Schneider, M. L., & Suomi, S
J. (NIH Animal Center, P.O. Box 289, Poolesville, MD 20837). American Journal of Primatology, 1990, 22, 61-67.
. . Four animals raised in a peer group with apparatuses designed to promote motor activity and to provide response-contingent feedback were compared to control animals. Monkeys in the enriched condition exhibited fewer behavioral and affective signs of disturbance than control infants in all observation conditions.
*Integration of hand-reared gorillas into breeding groups. Meder, A.
(Eduard-Pfeiffer-Str. 54, 7000 Stuttgart 1, Germany). Zoo Biology,
1990, 9, 157-164.
. . The introduction and integration of 5 hand-reared infants at 3 zoos was observed for 2 to 4 years. Introductions proceed more smoothly if infants are first introduced to a calm and socially competent adult female, and if the infants are not much older than 1 year at the start of integration.
*Primate diversity and the tropical forest. Mittermeier, R. A. (Dept
of Anatomical Sciences, Health Science Center, Stony Brook, NY 11794)
In E. O. Wilson & F. M. Peter (Eds.), Biodiversity (pp. 145-154)
Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1988.
. . A review of the status of tropical nonhuman primates and the organizations which attempt to protect them.
*Primate viral diseases in perspective. Kalter, S. S., & Heberling, R
L. (Virus Reference Lab., 7540 Louis Pasteur, San Antonio, TX 78229)
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1990, 19, 519-535.
. . B virus is only one viral disease that plays a role in primate colony management. This report describes a number of viruses other than H. simiae, which have high morbidity and mortality rates, including simian hemorrhagic fever virus, SA8, herpesvirus, respiratory synoytial virus, encephalomyocarditis virus, Ebola virus, and SIV.
*Visual function of cynomolgus monkeys with macula degeneration and
peripheral retinal degeneration. Suzuki, M. T., Ogawa, H., Cho, F., &
Honjo, S. (Corp. for Production & Research of Laboratory Primates,
Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305, Japan). Experimental Animals, 1990, 39,
571-575. (Japanese with English abstract)
. . Forty-four monkeys with normal eyes, 11 with macula degeneration, and 13 with peripheral retinal degeneration were examined. Those with peripheral retinal degeneration showed about the same visual function as those with normal eyes, while those with macula degeneration were inferior in visual function.
*Inactivated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine failed to protect
rhesus macaques from intravenous or genital mucosal infection but
delayed disease in intravenously exposed animals. Sutjipto, S., Pedersen, N. C., Miller, C. J., Gardner, M. B., Hanson, C. V., Gettie, A.,
Jennings, M., Higgins, J., & Marx, P. A. (CPRC, Univ. of California,
Davis, CA 95616). Journal of Virology, 1990, 64, 2290-2297.
. . It appears that a strong, immediate immune response to SIV can delay the onset of clinical SAIDS. It is also possible that mucosal inoculation causes an initial localized infection of sufficient duration to provide systemic immunity.
*The use of the polymerase chain reaction for the detection of simian
immunodeficiency virus in experimentally infected macaques. Kitchin,
P. A., Almond, N., Szotyori, Z., Fromholc, C. E., McAlpine, L., Silvera, P., Stott, E. J., Cranage, M., Baskerville, A., & Schild, G
(WHO AIDS Collaborating Centre, National Inst. for Biological Standards and Control, South Mimms, Potters Bar, Herts. EN6 3QG, UK)
Journal of Virological Methods, 1990, 28, 85-100.
. . A rapid, non-radioactive assay for the detection of proviral SIV in tissue-culture cells. It can also be used to detect the SIV gag gene in DNA isolated directly from experimentally infected cynomolgus macaque lymphocytes.
*Sialolithiasis in two chimpanzees. Orkin, J. L., & Braswell, L. D
(Yerkes RPRC, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 1990, 196, 1651-1653.
. . A sialolith, a calculus in a salivary gland or duct, was discovered in each of 2 common chimpanzees, of 50 that were radiographed for an experimental survey. Neither animal had any signs of discomfort, salivary gland enlargement, or dysphagia.
*Immunogenicity of a new Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (meningococcal protein conjugate) (PedvaxHIB). Vella, P. P.,
Staub, J. M., Armstrong, J., Dolan, K. T., Rusk, C. M., Szymanski, S.,
Greer, W. E., Marburg, S., Kniskern, P. J., Schofield, T. L., Tolman,
R. L., Hartner, F., Pan, S.-h., Gerety, R. J., & Ellis, R. W. (Dept
of Virus & Cell Biology, Merck Sharp & Dohme Research Labs, West
Point, PA 19486). Pediatrics, 1990, 85[Conjugate Vaccines], 668-675.
. . Infant rhesus monkeys failed to mount an anti-polyribosylribitolphosphate (PRP) response to a commercially available H. influenzei type b conjugate vaccine, PRP-D, but they did respond well to PRP conjugated to an outer membrane protein complex.
*A finger on the missing link. Desrosiers, R. C. (NERPRC, One Pine
Hill Dr., Southborough, MA 01772). Nature, 1990, 345, 288-289.
. . A brief review of the proliferation of SIV isolations in the past 10 years.
*Isolation and characterization of simian immunodeficiency viruses
from two subspecies of African green monkeys. Allna, J. S., Kanda, P.,
Kennedy, R. C., Cobb, E. K., Anthony, M., & Eichberg, J. W. (Dept. of
Virology & Immunology, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research,
West Loop 410 at Military Dr., San Antonio, TX 78284). AIDS Research
and Human Retroviruses, 1990, 6, 275-285.
. . Data suggest that simian viruses from distinct subspecies also have phenotypic and genotypic variations demonstrating viral evolution coincident with host divergence.
*Electrolyte abnormalities associated with diarrhea in rhesus monkeys:
100 cases (1986-1987). George, J. W., & Lerche, N. W. (Dept. of Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 1990, 196, 1654-1658.
. . Hyponatremia, hypochloremia, acidosis, and high anion gap values were most severe in monkeys infected with Campylobacter sp, either alone or with concurrent Shigella flexneri infection.
*Ocular histopathologic findings in a case of human herpes B virus
infection. Nanda, M., Curtin, V. T., Hilliard, J. K., Bernstein, N
D., & Dix, R. D. (R. D. Dix, P.O. Box 016880, Bascom Palmer Eye Inst.,
Miami, FL 33101). Archives of Ophthalmology, 1990, 108, 713-716.
. . Histopathological examination of the eye of a laboratory technician who died as a result of herpes B infection from a wound by a rhesus monkey showed multifocal necrotizing retinitis associated with a vitritis, optic neuritis, and prominent panuveitis. Herpes-type virus was identified in the involved retina by electron microscopy. Postmortem vitreous and retinal cultures were positive for herpes B virus.
*Alouatta caraya: Population density and demography in Northern Argentina. Rumiz, D. I. (118 Newins-Ziegler Hall, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611). American Journal of Primatology, 1990, 21, 279-294.
. . Eleven groups were monitored regularly over 28 months, and 11 other groups were also noted in 150 ha of forest patches spread out in a 3000 ha rural area. These groups are also compared to the population on an island near the main study area. Habitat features as well as the history of each study site may account for observed demographic differences.
*Group size variability in primates. Beauchamp, G., & Cabana, G
(Sub-dept. of Animal Behaviour, Madingley, Cambridge CB3 8AA, UK)
Primates, 1990, 31, 171-182.
. . Analyses of effects of mean troop size, diet, territoriality, and habitat upon temporal variability of group size, using data from 36 studies of 38 species. Results are related to social organization and to the degree of feeding interference observed within and between troops.
*Ecology of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in northwest Pakistan
Goldstein, S. J., & Richard, A. F. (A. F. Richard, Dept. of Anthropology, 51 Hillhouse Ave., New Haven, CT 06511). International Journal
of Primatology, 1989, 10, 531-567.
. . 1000 hours of contact time with a focal group showed that the animals may be pre-adapted to living in distrubed-site, forest-edge communities. The evolutionary history of M. mulatta may be tied closely to the disappearance of forest and the spread of meadows and savannahs over the last million years.
*Weed macaques: The evolutionary implications of macaque feeding ecology. Richard, A. F., Goldstein, S. J., & Dewar, R. E. (Address same as
above). International Journal of Primatology, 1989, 10, 569-594.
. . Patterns of feeding ecology among living macaques conform poorly with recognized phyletic distinctions within the genus. A division between "weed" and "non-weed" species, based on differing abilities to tolerate and even prosper in close association with human settlements, cross-cuts phyletic groupings.
*Feeding ecology of the proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus). Yeager,
C. P. (Psychology Dept., Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN
37996-0900). International Journal of Primatology, 1989, 10, 497-530.
. . Proboscis monkeys are folivore/frugivores, specializing in seed consumption, with preferences for a few dominant tree species. During times of low food abundance and/or availability proboscis monkeys switched dietary strategies and increased dietary diversity.
*Genetic relationships among three squirrel monkey types: Implications for taxonomy, biomedical research, and captive breeding. Vande-Berg, J. L., Williams-Blangero, S., Moore, C. M., Cheng, M.-L., & Abee, C. R. (Dept. of Genetics, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical
Research, P.O. Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78228-0147). American Journal of Primatology, 1990, 22, 101-111.
. . Fourteen electrophoretically variable and 12 monomorphic erythrocytic and serum proteins were used to determine the genetic relationships among Bolivian, Peruvian, and Guyanese squirrel monkeys. The use of this panel of biochemical genetic markers, combined with karyotypic analysis, can ensure a high degree of certainty that animals selected for experimental protocols are uniform with respect to unique physiological characteristics of each species and subspecies. They also can ensure that animals selected to be members of breeding colonies are of a single species/subspecies type and reproductively compatible.
*Gonadal dysgenesis with X-monosomy in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca
fascicularis). Reyes, F. I., Osborn, R. G., Fuller, G. B., Hobson, W.
C., Greenberg, C. R., Ray, M., Thliveris, J. A., & Faiman, C. (C
Faiman, GG449, Health Sciences Centre, 700 William Ave., Winnipeg,
Manitoba R3E 0Z3, Canada). American Journal of Primatology, 1990, 22, 51-59.
. . A 3-year old female cynomolgus monkey was found to have inappropriately high circulating immunoassayable follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels, compatible with primary gonadal failure. She also showed features of Turner syndrome: small body size, sexual underdevelopment, gonadal streaks with absent follicles, and a chromosomal constitution of 41,X. Considering the fetal and live birth prevalences in humans of aneuploidy in general and X-monosomy in particular, the authors predict that this chromosomal aberration underlies a high number of pregnancy failures in nonhuman primates.
*DNA "fingerprints" and paternity ascertainment in chimpanzees (Pan
troglodytes). Ely, J., & Ferrell, R. E. (Dept. of Human Genetics,
Crabtree Hall, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261]. Zoo
Biology, 1990, 9, 91-98.
. . Analysis of 21 cases shows that DNA probes that detect hypervariable sequences in the genomic DNA is a powerful technique for both unique assignment of biological fathers in multi-male situations and the simultaneous exclusion of all other potential fathers.
Instruments & Techniques
*Intrauterine insemination with ultrasound guidance in the long-tailed
macaque (Macaca fascicularis). Tarantal, A. F., VandeVoort, C. A., &
Overstreet, J. W. (CPRC, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1990, 19, 447-453.
. . Intrauterine insemination has been performed previously, but only as a surgical procedure. Ultrasound-guided techniques provide a relatively noninvasive method.
*New methodology for measuring blood pressure in awake baboons with use of behavioral training techniques. Turkkan, J. S. (Dept. of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1990, 19, 455-466. Adult male baboons were behaviorally conditioned to extend an arm outside of the home cage and accept repeated cuff inflations for manual auscultatory blood pressure measurements. Advantages over direct arterial cannulation for blood pressure measurement during extended, chronic experiments are discussed.
*The refractometer index as a correction factor for urinary estradiol
in rhesus females. Thibodeaux, J. K., Anzalone, C. A., Voelkel, S. A.,
Roussel, J. D., & Goodeaux, L. L. (J. D. Roussel, Dept. of Dairy Science, LAES, LSU Agricultural Center, Louisiana State Univ., Baton
Rouge, LA 70803). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1990, 19, 493-499.
. . Refractometer indexes may be used in place of creatinine levels to correct for urine concentration fluctations when predicting ovulation in the rhesus female.
*Rapid dimethyl sulfoxide-modified acid-fast stain ofCryptosporidium
oocysts in stool specimens. Bronsdon, M. A. (RPRC, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195). Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1984, 19, 952-953.
. . Brilliantly stained pink oocysts against a pale green background demonstrated well-preserved internal morphology and facilitated rapid, simple, noninvasive diagnosis without fluorescent or phase-contrast microscopy.
*Duplex ultrasound analysis of operated carotid arteries in baboons
Bass, A., Kelly, A. B., Otis, S. M., Hanson, S. R., Torruella, A.,
Harker, L. A., & Krupski, W. C. (W. C. Krupski, Surgical Service, San
Francisco VAMC, 4150 Clement, San Francisco, CA 94121). Journal of
Ultrasound Medicine, 1990, 9, 267-273.
. . In 24 cases studied, duplex examination accurately demonstrated postoperative hemodynamic changes, and with only one exception correctly identified patency and occlusion.
*Fighting the flab: Ecological energetics applied to orang-utan diets
Markham, R. J. (Dept. of Anatomy & Human Biology, Univ. of Western
Australia, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia). Australian Primatology,
1990, 5, 4-7.
. . Since most orangs in captivity are housed and fed in groups which bear no resemblance to natural population units, food distribution is often inappropriate and leads to obesity in some animals, underfeeding in others. A diet and feeding program is described, along with methods of calculating energy requirements for animals of varying age and size.
*Composition of the diet of lowland gorillas at Lopé in Gabon. Williamson, E. A., Tutin, C. E. G., Rogers, M. E., & Fernandez, M.
(Dept. of Psychology, Univ. of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland)
American Journal of Primatology, 1990, 21, 265-277.
. . Data collected over 6 years, from feeding trails and by direct observation, but mostly by fecal analysis. More foods were recorded here than elsewhere, and this is the most frugivorous population studied so far.
*Rates of predation on mammals by Gombe chimpanzees, 1972-1975
Wrangham, R. W., & van Zinnicq Bergmann Riss, E. (Dept. of Anthropology, Peabody Museum, Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA 02138). Primates, 1990, 31, 157-170.
. . Data on 75 kills suggest that adult males consumed an average of 25 kg of meat per year.
*Brain damage induced by prenatal exposure to dexamethasone in fetal
rhesus macaques. I. Hippocampus. Uno, H., Lohmiller, L., Thieme, C.,
Kemnitz, J. W., Engle, M. J., Roecker, E. B., & Farrell, P. M. (WRPRC,
1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715-1299). Developmental Brain
Research, 1990, 53, 157-167.
. . Prenatal administration of dexamethasone (DEX) and other corticosteroids has been used for prevention of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Injection of pregnant monkeys with DEX resulted in degenerative changes in fetuses delivered by Caesarean section 3 or 30 days later.
*Increased carbon monoxide excretion in Bolivian squirrel monkeys with
fasting hyperbilirubinemia. Rodgers, P. A., Cornelius, C. E., Vreman,
H. J., & Tarkington, B. K. (C. E. Cornelius, CPRC, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1990, 19, 485-492.
. . Pulmonary carbon monoxide excretion rates (VeCO) were 50% greater, on average, in Bolovian squirrel monkeys, which exhibit a unique fasting hyperbilirubinemia, than in fasted control Brazilian squirrel monkeys. The increased VeCOs are consistent with concurrent increases in endogenous bilirubin production rates. Overproduction of bilirubin may be responsible for this difference.
*Relationship of serum total calcium and albumin and total protein in
owl monkeys (Aotus nancymai). Weller, R. E., Buschbom, R. L., Ragan,
H. A., Baer, J. F., & Malaga, C. A. (Battelle, Pacific Northwest Labs,
P7-50, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1990, 19, 439-446.
. . A positive linear relationship was found between total calcium and albumin, and between total calcium and total protein in the serum of 205 owl monkeys. Adjusted calcium calculations for monkeys based on albumin concentration were similar to those for man and dogs, but different from those based on total protein.
*Comparison of auditory functions in the chimpanzee and human
Kojima, S. (Primate Research Inst., Kyoto Univ., Kansin, Inuyama,
Aichi 484, Japan). Folia Primatologica, 1990, 55, 62-72.
. . Absolute thresholds for pure tones, loudness, frequency, and intensity difference thresholds, and the resonance of the external auditory meatus were measured in chimpanzees and compared with those in humans The effects of differences in hearing between species upon speech perception are discussed
*Long-term effects of early social isolation in Macaca mulatta:
Changes in dopamine receptor function following apomorphine challenge
Lewis, M. H., Gluck, J. P., Beauchamp, A. J., Keresztury, M. F., &
Mailman, R. B. (Biological Sciences Research Center, CB#7250, BSRC,
Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7250). Brain Research,
1990, 513, 67-73.
. . Results from 8 isolated and 8 socially reared individuals support the hypothesis of long-term changes in the sensitivity of central dopamine receptors, as estimated by apomorphine challenge, induced by early social deprivation of rhesus monkeys. Cisternal CSF monoamine metabolite concentrations, examined prior to any drug challenge, were not different between groups.
*Acute hypotensive responses to peptide inhibitors of renin in conscious monkeys: An effect on blood pressure independent of plasma
renin inhibition. Schaffer, L. W., Schorn, T. W., Winquist, R. J.,
Strouse, J. F., Payne, L., Chakravarty, P.K., de Laszlo, S. E., ten-Broeke, J., Veber, D. F., Greenlee, W. J., & Siegl, P. K. S. (P.
Siegl, Dept. of Pharmacology, Merck Sharp & Dohme Research Labs, West
Point, PA 19486). Journal of Hypertension, 1990, 8, 251-259.
. . Peptide renin inhibitors can elicit blood pressure reductions by a plasma renin-dependent as well as a plasma renin-independent mechanism. Therefore, studies designed to investigate the antihypertensive efficacy of renin inhibitors may overestimate the renin-dependent hypotensive activity of these peptides.
*The effects of depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) on copulation-related and agonistic behaviors in an island colony of stumptail
macaques (Macaca arctoides). Linn, G. S., & Steklis, H. D. (Nathan
Kline Inst. for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY 10962). Physiology & Behavior, 1990, 47, 403-408.
. . Repeated DMPA treatment of adult females led to decreases in males approaching those females and dominant male following them. As treatment did not affect females genital presenting, or females approaching or following males, it is concluded that DMPA primarily reduced female sexual attractiveness. The treatment was also consistently associated with increased female agonistic behavior, but did not alter dominance relationships.
*Immunological indicators for a nonhuman primate model of psychosocial
stress. Iturrian, W. B., & Bunnell, B. N. (Dept. of Pharmacology,
Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602). International Journal of Neuroscience, 1990, 51, 227-229.
. . Cortisol, ACTH, PRL, PBL number, viability, and mitogen responses, as well as various aggressive, submissive, and affiliative social behaviors, were monitored during social stress, produced by adding a stranger into a group and other manipulations. Results suggest that experimental paradigm for psychoneuroimmunology should use multivariate input (stress and host variables) while analyzing multiple immunological outcomes.
*Dominance and immunity in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Masataka,
N., Ishida, T., Suzuki, J., Matsumura, S., Udono, S., & Sasaoka, S
(Dept. of Anthropology, Fac. of Science, Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo,
Bunkyo, Tokyo 113, Japan). Ethology, 1990, 85, 147-155.
. . IgG and IgM levels of animals living in groups were significantly negatively correlated with their dominance status. On transfer to isolated conditions, Ig levels did not correlate with their previous dominance status in groups.
*1989 International Studbook Golden Lion Tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia). J. D. Ballou. Washington, DC: National Zoological Park, 1990. 184pp. (N.Z.P., Washington, DC 20008).
*Techniques and significance of gamete collection and storage in the
great apes. Gould, K. G. (Yerkes RPRC, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA
30322). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1990, 19, 537-551.
. . A summary of the present status of techniques. Although pregnancies have been initiated in the chimpanzee and gorilla using thawed frozen semen, there has not yet been a birth from in vitro fertilization.
*Changes in electrical impedance of the vaginal medium during the menstrual cycle of female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Fischer, L.,
Germain, G., Florence, G., & Milhaud, C. (Ministere de la Defence,
CERMA, 26, Boul. Victor, 75996 Paris, Armees, France). Journal of
Medical Primatology, 1990, 19, 573-582.
. . Changes in electrical impedance of the vaginal medium during the menstrual cycle were recorded using an electrical probe, and were correlated with estradiol-17beta and progesterone plasma concentrations Results support the used of these measurements as a help for diagnosis of the periovulatory time in the female rhesus monkey.
*Determination of bioactive FSH in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)
Matteri, R. L., Durning, M., Dierschke, D. J., & Handrow, R. R
(WRPRC, Univ. of Wisconsin, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI
53715-1299). American Journal of Primatology, 1990, 21, 295-305.
. . A new bioassay using rat Sertoli cells is shown to be useful in studying the reproductive biology of rhesus monkeys.
*The relationship of serum estradiol and progesterone concentrations
to the enzyme immunoassay measurements of urinary estrone conjugates
and immunoreactive pregnanediol-3-glucuronide in Macaca mulatta.
Shideler, S. E., Munro, C. J., Tell, L., Owiti, G., Laughlin, L.,
Chatterton, R. Jr., & Lasley, B. L. (CPRC, Univ. of California, Davis,
CA 95616). American Journal of Primatology, 1990, 22, 113-122.
. . Enzyme immunoassay measurements of ovarian hormones in daily urine samples can be used to accurately monitor ovarian function and early pregnancy in rhesus monkeys.
*Familial incidence of multiple births in a colony of chimpanzees (Pan
troglodytes). Geissmann, T. (Anthropological Inst., Univ. Zürich-
Irchel, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich, Switzerland). Jour-
nal of Medical Primatology, 1990, 19, 467-478.
. . Analysis of pedigrees for multiple births over 63 years at the Yerkes chimpanzee colony demonstrate the recurrence of twins in relatively few family lines which can be traced back to a small number of ancestors, suggesting that twinning is a family trait. In addition, a relatively high level of inbreeding may have enhanced the incidence of multiple births.
*Twinning frequency in catarrhine primates. Geissmann, T. (Address
same as above). Human Evolution, 1990, 5, 387-396.
. . Examining only samples of at least 1500 pregnancies, only four estimates (for Macaca mulatta and Papio hamadryas, and ranging from 0.19 to 0.35%) of twinning frequency are not rejected. Published birth samples for apes are relatively small, and twinning rates may not be reliable.
*Control data on pre- and neonatal survival of captive chimpanzees
Meiss, L., Goosen, C., Schrama, A. G. L. A., & Schonk, J. (C. Goosen,
TNO Primate Center, P.O. Box 5815, 2280 HV Rijswijk, Netherlands)
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1990, 19, 479-484.
. . Analysis of breeding records over 7 years gives probabilities of pregnancy termination at various stages. These estimates provide a basis for comparison of different husbandry procedures. The data can also be used in evaluation of experimental procedures carried out on pregnant or prenatal animals.
*Infanticide and juvenilicide in Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus)
around Jodhpur, India. Agoramoorthy, G. & Mohnot, S. M. (Red Howler
Project, Apartado 39, Calabozo 2312-A, Venezuela). Human Evolution,
1988, 3, 279-296.
. . Seven of 12 cases of infant and juvenile killings support the reproductive advantage hypothesis, that infanticide is an adaptive behavior to increase male reproductive success. The other 5 victims were over 8 months old, and their deaths could not shorten the interbirth interval. By killing older infants and juveniles new males may get an advantage in resource competition for their own offspring.
*Abortions in free ranging Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) -- a
male induced strategy? Agoramoorthy, G., Mohnot, S. M., Sommer, V., &
Srivastava, A. (Address same as above). Human Evolution, 1988, 3, 297-308.
. . During a 10-year long study, 6 eyewitnessed and 1 presumed cases of abortion occurred in 3 troops. Most of the reproductive losses seem to be related to psychical and physical stress exerted by new males on pregnant females. Abortions may, however, represent an adaptive reproductive strategy of females, who prefer to abort instead of investing in a fetus which is likely to be killed after birth.
*Placental implications for pregnancy complications in the chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes). Soma, H. (Dept. of Ob-Gyn, Tokyo Medical College
Hospital, 1-7, Nishishinjuku 6, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160, Japan). Zoo
Biology, 1990, 9, 141-147.
. . Comparison of placentas from 28 term chimpanzee pregnancies with those from 171 small-for-dates, 306 premature, and 77 pregnancy toxemic human infants suggest that chimpanzees may suffer the same obstetric complications seen in human pregnancies.
*Urinary endocrine monitoring of the ovarian cycle and pregnancy in
Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii). Carroll, J. B., Abbott, D. H.,
George, L. M., Hindle, J. E., & Martin, R. D. (D. H. Abbott, MRC/AFRC
Comparative Physiology Research Group, Inst. of Zoology, Regent's
Park, London NW1 4RY, UK). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility,
1990, 89, 149-161.
. . Six captive females were monitored to provide measurements of the major estrone and estradiol-17beta metabolites excreted in the urine during the ovarian cycle and pregnancy. Ovulation was suppressed in 1 of 3 subordinate females housed in male-female-female trios.
*Natural suppression of fertility. Abbott, D. H. (Address same as
above). Symposium of the Zoological Society of London, 1988, 60, 7-28.
. . A review of research on the social suppression of fertility in marmosets and naked mole rats.
*Hour of delivery in cynomolgus monkeys under indoor individually-caged conditions. Suzuki, M. T., Ono, T., Kohno, M., Ogawa, H., & Cho,
F. (Corp. for Production and Research of Laboratory Primates, 1 Hachi-mandai, Tsukuba, Ibaragi, 305 Japan). Primates, 1990, 31, 251-255.
. . In artifically lighted (05:00-19:00) rooms, 90% of 152 deliveries took place during dark hours, with 72% occurring between 22:00 and 01:00.
*Copulatory behavior unaccompanied by ovulation in the Japanese monkey
(Macaca fuscata). Nigi, H., Hayama, S.-I., & Torii, R. (Dept. of Wild
Animal Medicine, Nippon Veterinary & Zootechnical College, Musoshino,
Tokyo, 180 Japan). Primates, 1990, 31, 243-250.
. . Laparoscopic examination of females immediately after copulation indicate that copulatory behavior in the Japanese monkey is not always controlled by the development of a follicle or ovulation in the ovary
*Body size, sperm competition, and determinants of reproductive success in male savanna baboons. Bercovitch, F. B. (Caribbean Primate
Research Center, Univ. of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, P.O
Box 1053, Sabana Seca, PR 00749). Evolution, 1989, 43, 1507-1521.
. . Study of 6 troops of baboons showed that neither body size nor testicular volume was associated with differences in male reproductive activity. The outcome of fights over access to females could not be related to male body size, and ejaculatory patterns of males were independent of testicle size. Among savanna baboons, the probability of an ejaculation resulting in a conception is fairly low, which may account for the infrequency of injurious fights. Although testicle size influences sperm production, it does not influence either the timing of mating or the fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa. Social factors seem more important than size in male reproductive success of baboons.
In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest. In most cases, abstracts are those of the authors.
* * *
All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. (Phone: 401-863-2511)
The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
Service Grant RR-00419 from the Animal Resources Program,
Division of Research Resources, N.I.H.
Cover drawing of a drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) by Dr. Robert M. George, Department of Anatomy, University of South Carolina
Copyright @1991 by Brown University
Editor: Judith E. Schrier, M. Sc.
Associate Editor: James S. Harper, D.V.M.
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar, D.V.M.
Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen, B. A.
Founding Editor: Allan M. Schrier, Ph.D.