Laboratory Primate Newsletter



Articles and Notes

Preliminary Observations on External Signs of Estrus in Moustached Tamarins, Saguinus mystax (Callitrichidae), by L. A. Sicchar ...... 4

Three Inexpensive Environmental Enrichment Options for Group- housed Macaca mulatta, by J. Beirise & V. Reinhardt ...... 7

Task-Oriented Feeding Device for Singly Caged Primates, by M. A. Murchison ...... 9

Peanut Puzzle Solvers Quickly Demonstrate Aptitude, by S. Heath, M. Shimoji, J. Tumanguil, & C. Crockett ...... 12

Behavioral Observations in the Detection of Diabetes Mellitus, by S. Levanduski, K. Bayne, & S. Dexter ...... 14

Isla Tigre: An Island for Tamarins (Saguinus geoffroyi), by D. R. Rasmussen ...... 16

Paternalistic Behavior in a Langur Colony, by M. Avallone S. Johnson ...... 18

Infanticide in a Zoo Group of Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata), by S. N. Tillekeratne & J. D. Paterson ...... 19

News, Information, and Announcements

Update: Nonhuman Primate Importation ...... 1

Modified Importation and Quarantine Requirements ...... 2

Fatal Herpesvirus simiae Case ...... 3

Erratum ...... 3

Comments Invited for ILAR Report on Psychological Well-being ...... 6

Meeting Announcements ...... 13
. . NIH Workshops on Humane Care and Use; Asia-Pacific Symposium; PsyETA Workshop

Information Requested and Available ...... 17
. . Regional Primate Center History; Request for Ethograms; Homosexual Behavior; Anesthesia and the CNS; Vocalization Survey; Cytokine Detection

News Briefs ...... 21
. . AAALAC Council on Accreditation; Glosser to U.C. Davis; New Journal; PETA, Washingtonian Settle Suit; Professor Wins Damage Suit; Malaria Prophylaxis News

Educational Opportunities ...... 22
. . Comparative Pathology Course; Space Life Sciences Training; Smithsonian Fellowships, Minority Internships

Grants Available ...... 23
. . Conservation Biology Grants; NSF Young Investigator Awards; NATO Collaborative Research Grants; AAZK Grants Available; NSF Research Equipment Grant Program; Leakey Foundation Grants

Directory of Graduate Programs in Primatology and Primate Research ...... 25


Positions Available: New Mexico; Primate Foundation of Arizona ...... 15

Address Changes ...... 24

Recent Books and Articles ...... 33

* * *

Preliminary Observations on External Signs of Estrus in Moustached Tamarins, Saguinus mystax (Callitrichidae)

Luis A. Sicchar and Eckhard W. Heymann
Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana and Deutsches Primatenzentrum


Many laboratory investigations have been carried out to detect ovulation and to determine the length of the estrus cycle in callitrichid monkeys by assaying hormone levels in urine (e.g., Brand, 1981; French et al., 1983; Hodges & Eastman, 1984). These and other authors maintain that callitrichids do not exhibit visible external signs of ovulation. However, a few papers mention the occurrence of possible external signs of estrus. Russell and Zuckerman (1935) report cyclical swellings in one female Callithrix sp., and Epple (1970) observed slight swellings in C. jacchus and Saguinus geoffroyi females during times of increased sexual activity. Soini and Soini (1982) found that in wild-trapped S. mystax, two classes of adult females could be distinguished: those with normal vulva and those with swollen, significantly larger, vulva. One female that was captured twice within two months also exhibited a size difference of the vulva, with an increase of length and width of more than 40%.

In the present paper, observations of possible external signs of estrus in a female moustached tamarin, S. mystax, are reported. The observations were made in connection with studies on behavior, communication, and spatial relations of moustached tamarins and saddle-back tamarins in an outdoor enclosure (Heymann, 1987; Heymann & Sicchar, 1988, 1990; Heymann et al., 1989; Sicchar et al., in press).


Observations were conducted on a young adult, wildborn female S. mystax that was living together with its mate and a pair of saddleback tamarins, S. fuscicollis, in the 9m x 13m x 2.5m outdoor enclosure of the Centro de Reproduccion y Conservacion de Primates No-Humanos (CRCP) in Iquitos, Peru. A detailed description of the enclosure is given by Kaumanns (1982).

Physical examinations such as transabdominal palpation and observations of the condition of the genitalia and nipples were carried out at irregular intervals between January and May 1983. Six other adult female S. mystax, each housed together with a mate in the indoor facilities (Galpon Mystax) of the CRCP were examined once in May 1983.


Nine examinations were carried out on the first female between January and May 1983. In four examinations (01/10, 04/22, 05/10, and 05/11), positive signs of a possible estrus (turgid and moistened vulva, reddish vagina, and swollen nipples) were observed. The moisture of the vulva was caused by a mucosal substance, the consistency of which was quite different from urine. In all other examinations (3/29, 4/02, 4/15, 4/26, 5/12), nipples were small, the vulva was dry and not turgid, and the vagina exhibited its usual pink coloration. The signs found on 05/11 were less pronounced than the day before (05/10), and on 05/12 all signs had disappeared.

In the five other females, examined once, moderate or strong moistening of the vulva was associated with swollen nipples. A sixth female exhibited swollen nipples, but no vulva moistening; the nipples of this female were reddish and the abdomen was strongly swollen, which clearly indicated pregnancy.


In wild female moustached tamarins, Soini & Soini (1982) found differences in the size of the vulva according to the vulva condition (normal or swollen). Soini (personal communication) also observed moistening of the vulva when turgid. An increase of the size of the vulva was recorded in a wild female moustached tamarin after the death of the reproducing alpha-female (Heymann, 1990), and an increase of size plus reddish color in another wild female after the disappearance of the second adult female of its group (Heymann, unpublished). While in these two cases the increase in vulva size might simply be interpreted as a maturation process or release from reproductive suppression, in the present study the turgidity of the vulva of an adult female moustached tamarin decreased and increased. Furthermore, this variation was accompanied by changes in moisture and color of the vulva and also by changes in the condition of the nipples.

Physical examinations of the female moustached tamarin were not made often enough to clearly demonstrate cyclicity. However, the data are suggestive: the interval between the fifth and the seventh examination, both with positive signs, is 18 days and thus within the range of estrus cycle lengths determined for other callitrichids (e.g., Epple & Katz, 1984). Calculating backward with steps of 17-18 days would end up at around 01/10. A positive sign (swollen nipples) had been found on 01/10. In the same female moustached tamarin, an 18-19 day cycle of frequencies of muzzle rubbing was found which was hypothesized to be related to the estrus cycle (Heymann et al., 1989). The last three examinations were made on consecutive days and showed a decrease of the parameters from full expression to the normal condition. If the observed signs are indicative of estrus, then the duration of estrus could be about 2-3 days.

Soini and Soini (1982) also reported that the suprapubic gland was larger and more smeared in females with a turgid vulva. This, however, was not observed in the female of this study. In the sample of Soini and Soini, nine out of 23 females that were pregnant also exhibited the signs we have described. This was interpreted as "false estrus".

Adult moustached tamarins, both male and female, have unpigmented, pink genitalia, which are very conspicuous in their natural habitat. Perhaps the visual component in social and sexual communication is more important in moustached tamarins than in other callitrichid species with dark, pigmented genitalia. This could then explain why external signs of estrus might be present in moustached tamarins.

The ideas presented in this paper are speculative and must await further confirmation. It will be necessary to combine the monitoring of external signs with hormone assays. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the traditional view that callitrichids do not show external signs of estrus should be considered more carefully and not be generalized.


Brand, H. M. (1981). Urinary oestrogen excretion in the female cotton-topped tamarin (Saguinus oedipus oedipus). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 62, 467-473.

Epple, G. (1970). Maintenance, breeding, and development of marmoset monkeys (Callithricidae) in captivity. Folia Primatologica, 12, 56-76.

Epple, G. & Katz, Y. (1984). Social influences on estrogen excretion and ovarian cyclicity in saddle back tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis). American Journal of Primatology, 6, 215-227.

Hodges, J. K. & Eastman, S. A. K. (1984). Monitoring ovarian function in marmosets and tamarins by measurement of urinary estrogen metabolites. American Journal of Primatology, 6, 187-197.

French, J. A., Abbott, D. H., Scheffler, G., Robinson, J. A., & Goy, R. W. (1983). Cyclic excretion of urinary oestrogens in female tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 68, 177-184.

Heymann, E. W. (1987). Behaviour and communication of moustached tamarins, Saguinus mystax mystax (Primates: Callitrichidae), in an outdoor enclosure. I. The physical structure of long calls of the moustached tamarin. Primate Report, 17, 45-52.

Heymann, E. W. (1990). Social behaviour and infant carrying in a group of moustached tamarins, Saguinus mystax (Primates: Platyrrhini: Callitrichidae), on Padre Isla, Peruvian Amazonia. Primates,31, 183-196.

Heymann, E. W. & Sicchar, V. L. A. (1988). Interspecific social grooming in a mixed troop of tamarins, Saguinus mystax and Saguinus fuscicollis (Platyrrhini: Callitrichidae). Folia Primatologica, 50, 221-225.

Heymann, E. W. & Sicchar V. L. A. (1990). Estudios etologicos del pichico barba blanca, Saguinus mystax mystax, y del pichico comun, Saguinus fuscicollis nigrifrons (Primates: Callitrichidae) en un galpon al aire libre -- resultados preliminares. In Proyecto Peruano de Primatologia (Ed.), La Primatologia en el Peru. Investigaciones Primatologicas (1973-1985) (pp. 359-381). Lima: Imprenta Propaceb.

Heymann, E. W., Zeller, U., & Schwibbe, M. H. (1989). Muzzle rubbing in the moustached tamarin, Saguinus mystax (Primates: Callitrichidae) -- Behavioural and histological aspects. Zeitschrift fur Saugetierkunde, 54, 265-275.

Kaumanns, W. (1982). Verhaltensbeobachtungen an Schnurrbarttamarinen (Saguinus m. mystax). Zeitschrift des Kolner Zoo, 25, 107-117.

Sicchar, L., Tapia, J., & Encarnacion, F. (in press). Resultados preliminares de la crianza de Saguinus mystax (Primates: Callitrichidae) en un galpon de reproduccion al aire libre. In Anales del XI Congreso Latinoamericano de Zoologia, Cartagena, Colombia.

Soini, P. & Soini, M. de (1982). Distribucion geografica y ecologia poblacional de Saguinus mystax (Primates, Callitrichidae). Informe de Pacaya, 6, 1-41.

Russell, A. E. & Zuckerman, S. (1935). A "sexual skin" in a marmoset. Journal of Anatomy, 69, 356-362.


Authors' addresses: (L. A. S.) Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana, Apartado 784, Iquitos (Loreto), Peru; (E. W. H.) Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Kellnerweg 4, 3400 Gottingen, Germany.
We are grateful to Dr. Carlos Malaga for his assistance on this study and to Dr. Michael Heistermann and Dr. Irmgard Kuderling for critically reading and commenting on the manuscript.

* * *

Three Inexpensive Environmental Enrichment Options for Group-housed Macaca mulatta

Jane Beirise and Viktor Reinhardt
Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center


It is often argued that enriching the environment of laboratory primates would be prohibitively expensive. This is undoubtedly true if sophisticated gadgets are offered to the animals in an attempt to entertain them. It has been demonstrated, however, that inexpensive yet effective stimulation can be provided to caged macaques by offering them properly installed PVC pipes or deciduous tree branches for perching, loose branch segments for gnawing (Reinhardt, 1991) or telephone directories for shredding (Bryant et al., 1988). In the present study we attempted to provide inexpensive foraging materials to grouphoused rhesus macaques. We assumed that the animals' drive for foraging was not satisfied by commercial dry food, and we hypothesized that foraging activity (food processing and eating/chewing) could be elicited by inexpensive items such as unhusked corn, peanuts in the shell, and a cardboard box.


The subjects of this study were 16 healthy laboratory-born rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) of mixed age (3-27 years) and sex. They lived as a compatible group in an indoor pen 5.7 m deep, 2.5 m wide and 2.1 m high. Numerous elevated structures, such as platforms, oak swings, and a ferris wheel, made the vertical dimension of the enclosure accessible to the monkeys. The pen was cleaned with pressurized warm water daily at 07:00 and again at 13:30. Room temperature was 20-22deg C, with a 12-hr light/dark cycle. Commercial dry food and water were available ad libitum.

We distributed the following enrichment materials on the floor once a week, each on a different day:
1. 1 kg roasted peanuts in their shells,
2. 32 ears of hard corn,
3. one non-corrugated cardboard box measuring 61 x 31 x 13 cm.
On the other 4 (non-testing) days of the week the animals received apples.

After a habituation period of 8 weeks, behavioral observations were made by the senior author during weeks 9, 10 and 11. Observations began at 14:00, immediately after an enrichment was offered, and continued at 5-minute intervals for 2 hours (24 observations). Each enrichment was tested once each of the 3 weeks, making a total of 72 observations for each material. The percentage of observations (100%=72) during which an animal was processing or chewing on the material was taken as the percentage of time it was distracted by it. The number of monkeys engaged with the material at the 1 hour and 2 hour observation marks was recorded and averaged, giving a measure of how interesting the enrichment remained over time.

The animals' activities with the enrichment materials were categorized as follows:
a) processing (cracking peanut shells, husking corn ears, tearing strips of cardboard),
b) eating/chewing (eating peanuts or corn, chewing husks or cardboard).

Statistical analysis was done with a two-tailed t-test with the level of significance set at p < 0.05.


       |Enrichment |      Percentage of time spent:                |
       |material   |  processing     eating/chewing      total     |
       |Corn       | 24.0 +/- 8.0% | 53.4 +/- 11.3% | 77.4+/- 8.8% |
       |           |               |                |              |
       |Peanuts    | 22.8 +/- 10.0%| 24.4 +/- 6.9%  | 64.8 +/- 9.2%|
       |           |               |                |              |
       |Cardboard  | 15.7 +/- 12.4%| 49.1 +/- 13.4% | 47.1 +/- 9.6%|

Table 1. Percentage of time the animals spent processing and eating/chewing the three enrichment materials during 2-hour observation sessions.

The corn was the most effective eliciter of foraging activity, engaging the animals about 77% of the time (Table 1). Next in effectiveness was the box (65%) and finally the peanuts (47%). All differences were statistically significant.

When processing and eating/chewing were considered separately, different patterns emerged. The animals spent about the same amount of time processing corn and peanuts, while they spent significantly less time processing the box. On the other hand, the animals spent a great deal of time eating the corn and chewing pieces of the box. Both corn and box elicited significantly more chewing than peanuts (see Table 1).

At the end of the 2-hour observation sessions, the animals still had unprocessed leftovers from corn and peanuts; the cardboard box, however, was completely shredded into small, chewed-up pieces. These enrichment materials did not cause problems with routine cleaning (e.g., clogged drains).

After 1 and 2 hours of exposure, the average proportion of animals interacting with the enrichment was:
90% and 60% for the corn,
83% and 21% for the cardboard box,
33% and 14% for the peanuts.


Periodic provision of unprocessed hard corn, peanuts in the shell, or cardboard boxes stimulates group-housed rhesus macaques to perform noninjurious, species-typical behavior patterns (food processing, chewing, and eating). Despite the fact that the animals were a) habituated to all three enrichment materials and b) had continuous access to their regular food, substantial time was devoted to foragingrelated activities oriented toward these materials. This suggests that the commercial dry food was not adequate in satisfying the animals' foraging drive.

The most effective enrichment was the hard corn: the animals spent, on average, 77% of the 2-hour observation periods processing and eating it. After 2 hours of exposure, more than half of the group continued to be distracted by the corn. Peanuts in the shell were the least effective enrichment: after 2 hours of exposure only 14% of the group continued to process and/or eat peanuts. When we consider processing alone, the animals spent equal amounts of time processing the peanuts and processing the corn, but they spent more than twice as much time eating corn as eating peanuts. Obviously, the relatively soft peanuts were easier to eat and satisfied the animals' appetite sooner than the hard corn kernels, which had to be well-chewed before they could be swallowed. [Editor's note: The high fat content of peanuts, compared to corn, probably caused a feeling of satiety sooner.]

The cardboard box was surprisingly attractive: the animals spent 65% of the time tearing it apart and chewing the shredded pieces. The relatively small amount of time devoted to processing (shredding) the box was determined by the relative small surface of cardboard. The time spent chewing cardboard pieces was about the same as that spent chewing corn (about 50%), suggesting that cardboard is a particularly useful foraging material because it is available throughout the year, costs nothing, and does not interfere with studies requiring controlled food intake.


Bryant, C. E., Rupniak, N. M. J. & Iversen, S. D. (1988). Effects of different environmental enrichment devices on cage stereotypies and autoaggression in captive cynomolgus monkeys. Journal of Medical Primatology, 17, 257-269.

Reinhardt, V. (1991). An environmental enrichment program for caged rhesus monkeys at the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center. In M. A. Novak & A. J. Petto (Eds.), Through the Looking Glass: Issues of Psychological Well-being in Captive Nonhuman Primates (pp. 149-159). Washington: American Psychological Association.

Siegel, S. (1956). Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences. New York: McGraw-Hill.


First author's address: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715.
We are grateful to Mr. John Wolf for providing constructive comments on this manuscript and for editing it.
This study was partly supported by NIH grant RR-00167 to the WRPRC.

* * *

Task-Oriented Feeding Device for Singly Caged Primates

Mark A. Murchison
Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washington


A primary concern in the care and housing of nonhuman primates is environmental enrichment to promote the psychological well-being of the animals (Federal Register, 1991). While social housing may be the best way to promote the well-being of captive primates (O'Neill, 1988; Pool, 1988; Line et al., 1990; Reinhardt, 1990a), animals that are assigned to research projects frequently must be housed in single cages and have only restricted contact with peers. These animals need devices that encourage species-typical activities and thus contribute to their psychological welfare (Pool, 1990; Reinhardt, 1990b; Bayne et al., 1991). Manipulable objects that deliver a novel and desired food reward can support the cognitive and manipulative needs of monkeys through the exercise of their foraging skills.

This report describes a simple foraging device designed to elicit foraging behaviors in nonhuman primates. The device was tested with 8 monkeys for 32 days. Video recordings showed that it was well received and elicited the desired behavior.

Materials and Methods

The foraging device. The foraging device (Figure 1) was constructed from a 10.2 cm diameter Boomer Ball (Boomer Ball, Grayslake, IL), a hollow ball made of hard plastic. Two holes (0.32 cm diameter) were drilled at opposing points on the surface of the ball. One hole served as a purchase point for a #12 x 1.9 cm sheet metal screw, which secured a 35.5-cm length linked chain to the ball. The other hole served as a drain when the ball was washed. A 1.9-cm access hole was centered 2.43 cm from the center of the chain screw hole. A snap hook clip secured the free end of the linked chain to a cage wire. The device was attached on the outside of the animal's cage.

Figure 1:: Boomer ball foraging device.

Whole peanuts in the shell were loaded into the foraging device through the access hole. The animals manipulated the devices by reaching through a small opening on the front of the cage above the feeder box. They removed the peanuts by holding the devices upside down with one hand and using the fingers of the other hand to pull peanuts out of the access hole.

Testing. Subjects were one feral-born and seven colony-born macaques: four female Macaca nemestrina (mean age 7.8 yr) and two male and two female M. fascicularis (mean age 7.0 yr). The feral animal has lived in the colony for 9 years in standard housing conditions. All animals were fed commercial monkey chow daily at 0700 h and 1400 h. As they did not consume all the chow they were fed, food was always available.

The subjects were presented with the foraging device for 32 days. Each morning at 0730 h the devices, still attached to the cages and in view of the animals, were loaded with 12 whole peanuts each.

Observations consisted of four bi-hourly sampling sessions of 1 min to count the number of peanuts removed. The animals' behaviors and use of the foraging devices were videotaped aperiodically between 0730 and 0930 h with a time-lapsed VHS video recorder. This time period was chosen because previous studies showed that macaques are more interested in foraging devices immediately after they are loaded than at any other time during the day (Murchison, 1991; Murchison & Nolte, in press). On the basis of the videotapes, the animals were scored for sitting or standing on the perch, working the foraging device, and other behaviors.

Recorded data consisted of number of peanuts removed between sampling periods, total number of peanuts removed each day, and duration of observed behaviors. Data were analyzed according to sex and species with the statistics program and multivariate general linear hypothesis program of SYSTAT, Inc. (Wilkinson, 1987).


Immediately after the foraging devices were loaded each morning, the animals began manipulating them to remove the peanuts. They usually ate the peanuts, but sometimes dropped them to the floor inadvertently while trying to retrieve them from the devices.

       |Hours    Sex    Mean   S.D.  t-statistic  P value|
       |  2     Males   10.55  3.17   11.66        0.00* |
       |       Females  2.59   4.44                      |
       | 4-8    Males   0.55   1.84   1.33         0.19  |
       |       Females  1.08   2.29                      |
       |Total   Males   11.09  2.64   10.90        <0.01 |
       |       Females  3.64   4.79                      |

Table 1. Number of peanuts removed by Macaca fascicularis by hours and total for each sex.

The sex analysis for M. fascicularis (Table 1) showed that males were more proficient than females in removing peanuts during the first 2 hours. During the study period females gradually increased the mean number of peanuts removed from the device, but never became as proficient as the males.

       |Hours    Species     Mean   S.D.  t-statistic  P value|
       |  2     nemestrina   8.49   3.94      3.20      0.00* |
       |       fascicularis  6.57   5.54                      |
       | 4-8    nemestrina   1.57   2.16      2.88      0.00* |
       |       fascicularis  0.81   2.08                      |
       |Total   nemestrina   10.07  3.11      4.93      0.00* |
       |       fascicularis  7.37   5.37                      |

Table 2. Number of peanuts removed by hours and total for each species.

The results of the species analysis are summarized in Table 2. Members of both species removed more peanuts during the first 2 hours than at any other time of day. M. nemestrina removed significantly more peanuts (p < 0.01) than M. fascicularis both during the first 2 hours and during the entire day. Throughout the study period M. nemestrina removed a greater mean number of peanuts than M. fascicularis (Figure 2). M. fascicularis, however, showed a greater increase than M. nemestrina in mean number of peanuts removed during the test period (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Mean number of peanuts removed by days and species.

Each animal was videotaped for an average of 172 minutes. The animals spent most of their time sitting on their cage perches. Manipulating the foraging device was the second most time-consuming activity. Female M. fascicularis spent significantly (p < 0.05) more time (62.5%) on their perches than males (36.4%). Male M. fascicularis spent more time (21.5%) manipulating the foraging devices than females (7.5%). There were no significant differences between the two species in observed behavioral activities.


The macaques that tested the Boomer Ball foraging device quickly learned to retrieve peanuts and continued to use the device throughout the short study period. As the animals were well fed and had commercial chow available virtually ad lib, their motive for manipulating the devices must have been not hunger but desire for the novel food. Among M. fascicularis, males were more proficient than females in retrieving peanuts from the device. M. nemestrina were more proficient than M. fascicularis in use of the device (Table 2), possibly because they spent slightly less time on their perches and more time manipulating the device than did M. fascicularis. The animals could not work the foraging devices while sitting on their perches. Since female M. fascicularis spent more time on their perches and less time manipulating the devices, they were not as proficient as males and this lowered the mean for peanuts removed for the species. Male M. fascicularis were as proficient as M. nemestrina in use of the device. Although only a small sample of animals tested the device, all animals in the study used the device and other animals in the colony continue to use it.

Previous studies have shown that singly caged macaques will manipulate inanimate objects that are associated with a food reward (Bloom & Cook, 1989; Crockett et al., 1989; Bayne et al., 1991; Gullekson et al., 1991; Murchison, 1991). Foraging devices encourage cage-housed nonhuman primates to use species-typical foraging skills, thus increasing their level of activity and contributing to their psychological well-being.

The Boomer Ball foraging device described here would seem to be an excellent addition to the arsenal of enrichment devices. The animals use it, and it is easy to care for. It can be loaded with peanuts in less than a minute without risk to the caretaker, and can be cleaned along with the cage to which it is attached.


Bayne, K., Mainzer, H., Dexter, S., Campbell, G., Yamada, F., & Suomi, S. (1991). The reduction of abnormal behaviors in individually housed rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with a foraging/grooming board. American Journal of Primatology, 23, 23-35.

Bloom, K. R. & Cook, M. (1989). Environmental enrichment: Behavioral responses of rhesus to puzzle feeders. Lab Animal, 18[5], 25-31.

Crockett, C., Bielitzki, J., Carey, A., & Velez, A. (1989). Kong toys as enrichment devices for singly-caged macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 28[2], 21-22.

Federal Register (1991). Animal welfare; Standards. Department of Agriculture, Animal Plant Health Inspection Service, 9 CFR Part 3, Subpart 3, 56 [32], 6499-6500.

Gullekson, R., Bench, L., Harrigan, K., & Pyle, K. (1991). Seed-feeder as a foraging device for singly housed cynomolgus monkeys Macaca fascicularis). Lab Animal, 20[6], 44-46.

Line, S. W., Morgan, K. N., Markowitz, H., Roberts, J. A., & Riddell, M. (1990). Behavioral responses of female long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to pair formation. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 29[4], 21-22.

Murchison, M. A. (1991). PVC-pipe food puzzle for singly caged primates. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 30[3], 12-14.

Murchison, M. A. & Nolte, R. E. (In press). Food puzzle for singly caged primates. American Journal of Primatology.

O'Neill, P. (1988). Developing effective social and environmental enrichment strategies for macaques in captive groups. Lab Animal, 17[4], 23-34.

Pool, T. B. (1988). Behaviour, housing and welfare of non-human primates. In A. C. Beynon & H. A. Solleveld (Eds.), New Developments in Biosciences: Their Implications for Laboratory Animal Science, pp. 231-237. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff.

Pool, T. B. (1990). Environmental enrichment for marmosets. Animal Technology, 4[2], 81-86.

Reinhardt, V. (1990a). Social enrichment for laboratory primates: A critical review. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 29[3], 7-11.

Reinhardt, V. (1990b). Time budget of caged rhesus monkeys exposed to a companion, a PVC perch, and a piece of wood for an extended time. American Journal of Primatology, 20, 51-56.

Wilkinson, L. (1987) SYSTAT: The System for Statistics. Evanston, IL: SYSTAT, Inc.


Author's address: Primate Field Station, Medical Lake, WA 99022.
This research was supported by National Institutes of Health grant RR0166. I thank Dr. Darrell D. Williams and Ms. Kathleen Elias for their critical review of the manuscript.

* * *

Peanut Puzzle Solvers Quickly Demonstrate Aptitude

Samantha Heath, Mika Shimoji, Jennifer Tumanguil, and Carolyn Crockett
Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washington

We recently modified a tube peanut puzzle developed by Murchison and described in this Newsletter (1991). Our puzzle differed from Murchison's in several ways. Instead of the polyvinylchloride tubing used by Murchison, which is preferable because it can withstand cage washing, we selected clear acrylic so that observers could see each peanut's location and thereby monitor the monkeys' progress. Instead of three levels, our puzzle had four tubes (35.84 cm long by 2.56 cm in diameter) stacked parallel and fastened together by a bolt (12.49 cm long) on each end (Figure 1). The puzzle was attached to the front of an animal's home cage with four chains (3.84 cm long) and fastened with snap hooks (Murchison's model was fastened only at the top). Each tube had more holes than in Murchison's model, and a loading tube was added at the top because monkeys tested on a prototype without it took the peanuts directly from the unprotected loading hole (Murchison's was loaded from the backside of the top tube).

Figure 1: Peanut puzzle made of clear acrylic tubes. Dashed lines indicate openings between levels so that the peanut may drop to lower levels. The puzzle is attached to the front of most cages by snap hooks.

Nine macaques served as subjects: 1 female and 1 male longtailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis), 3 female and 2 male pigtailed macaques (M. nemestrina), and 2 male rhesus macaques (M. mulatta). All were captive born and ranged in age from 1.5 to 4.4 years. During the study, they were housed individually and fed commercial Monkey Chow around 1500 h. Observation times varied from 0900 h to 1600 h.

At the beginning of each trial period, three whole, unshelled, unsalted peanuts were loaded in the top level of the puzzle. As soon as the puzzle was in place, the subject was observed continuously for 30 min and the peanuts' progress to each level was recorded.

We conducted at least seven trials per subject in order to give the monkeys a reasonable chance to learn how to use the peanut puzzle. Subjects that were slow to learn were shown how to move a peanut from one level to the next.

Performance was scored from a minimum of 0 points per peanut if the monkey failed to touch it to a maximum of 5 points per peanut if the monkey removed it from the opening at level 4. Some subjects pried the peanuts out through the small finger holes by cracking and peeling the shells instead of retrieving them from the bottom opening. This "cheating" was scored 1 point per peanut, as was moving a peanut within the first level, or moving one after the 30-min time limit.


The nine subjects displayed considerable variation in their abilities to solve the puzzle. Three, a pigtailed female, a pigtailed male, and a rhesus male were especially proficient in pushing peanuts through the puzzle feeder. By Trial 6 these three were able to solve the puzzle, defined as scoring 15 points within the first 30 min of presentation, and one solved the puzzle during Trial 3. By Trial 7, they were solving the puzzle in less than 10 min. Four of the six others were able to retrieve some peanuts either by cheating (3/4) or by moving them to the bottom opening (1/4); however, they were never able to solve the puzzle in the criterion time.

The three solvers improved significantly faster than the other six monkeys (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Mean score of "solvers" and "others." Error bars indicate Standard Error of the Mean (SEM). Solvers n = 3, Others n = 6.


Our study clearly showed that monkeys with an aptitude for solving the puzzle demonstrated their ability within only a few trials. Only one third of the subjects solved the puzzle, similar to Murchison's (1991) findings. Just because some subjects cheated or failed to solve the puzzle does not necessarily mean that the puzzles were somehow less enriching for them than for those that solved the puzzles quickly. However, the psychological well-being of monkeys that could not solve the peanut puzzle might be equally improved with a simpler, less expensive enrichment device (ours cost $30). Thus, when enrichment devices are few and time to distribute them is limited, the peanut puzzles could be reserved for the monkeys that have shown the greatest ability to solve them.


Murchison, M. A. (1991). PVC-pipe food puzzle for singly caged primates. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 30[3], 12-14.


Correspondence to: Carolyn Crockett, Ph.D., Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.
This research was supported by National Institutes of Health grant RR00166.
We thank C. Bowers, E. Dibble, C. Walker, J. Worlein, M. Murchison and K. Elias for commenting on the manuscript, J. Bielitzki for modifying Murchison's design, and G. Anderson for constructing the puzzles.

* * *

Behavioral Observations in the Detection of Diabetes Mellitus

Sharon Levanduski, Kathryn Bayne, and Sandra Dexter
National Institutes of Health

With an increased focus on "psychological well-being" of nonhuman primates mandated by law, research scientists and veterinarians are beginning to use behavioral observations to diagnose physiologic conditions and diseases, sometimes sooner than by other testing methods. For example, Markowitz et al. (1978) used behavioral changes to diagnose pregnancy and a hernia in servals.

More recently, behavioral observations were useful in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, a "genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of disorders that share glucose intolerance in common" (National Diabetes Data Group, 1979), in a cynomolgus monkey. Diagnosis of diabetes in humans is usually based on classical symptoms of polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, glucosuria, and elevated fasting plasma glucose levels (National Diabetes Data Group, 1979). In nonhuman primates it is usually based on glucosuria, abnormal oral glucose tolerance tests, and elevated fasting plasma glucose (Howard & Yasuda, 1990). Spontaneous diabetes mellitus has been reported in several primate species (Lemur catta, Macaca sps., Mandrillus leucophaeus, Pan troglodytes, Papio cynocephalus anubis, Saimiri scuireus, Urogale everetti, and Pongo pygmaeus) and were diagnosed through routine biochemical screening, severe physiologic changes such as glucosuria, weight loss, weakness, hyperglycemia, polydipsia, polyuria, or the presence of cataracts. One account (Leathers & Schedewie, 1980) noted uriposia, or the drinking of urine, as an abnormal behavior that was a secondary sign. Stokes (1986) noted that diabetes mellitus may be asymptomatic and remain undiagnosed for a long time, which can disrupt a variety of studies using such animals. Thus, early identification of diabetic animals is a necessity.

Our facility recently discovered diabetes mellitus in an adult Macaca fascicularis by behavioral observations prior to the discovery of any abnormal physiologic changes. The monkey was acquired in 1984, and had had an uneventful medical history, except for a tooth abscess in 1989. He was used as a control in a nutrition study, and in a skin graft project.

In July 1991, the animal was seen exhibiting uriposia during a routine behavioral observation which is conducted on each animal in the facility. He drank fresh urine from his cupped hands, and licked the urine-soiled cage bars. The animal's urine was immediately analyzed with a Multistix urinalysis reagent strip (Ames). The following abnormalities were noted: moderate ketones; 30+ protein; nitrites (+); pH 8.5; 3+ glucose; trace blood. The animal was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus based on physical examination, urinalysis, and blood evaluation.

The spontaneous development of diabetes mellitus, which often comes on gradually and is difficult to recognize in early stages, can disrupt research or invalidate test results. Early identification of diabetic animals is important because the disease may affect physiological parameters measured in a variety of research studies: weight loss, polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, and lethargy (Howard & Yasuda, 1990). Weight loss may be slight at first, and therefore overlooked, while polyphagia is difficult to observe in animals that are not fed ad libitum. Polydipsia, polyuria, lethargy, and uriposia can, however, be seen during routine behavioral observation. At the NIH Veterinary Resources Program, it is a standard procedure to clinically evaluate any primate observed engaging in uroposia. From November 1990 to July 1991, twenty-one animals exhibiting uriposia were checked for glucosuria. Of these, only the cynomolgus monkey reported here has been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. The remainder of the animals were diagnosed as exhibiting a psychological disorder, all but seven exhibiting other abnormal behaviors. The diabetic monkey did not exhibit any other abnormal behaviors during routine observations. No other animals housed in the same room engaged in uriposia, so it is presumed that the animal did not learn this behavior from other primates, but rather drank its urine for the sweet taste.

We suggest that increased utilization of routine behavioral observations will assist in earlier detection of diseases arising spontaneously, thereby ensuring healthier animal models.


Howard, C. F. Jr. & Yasuda, M. (1990). Diabetes mellitus in nonhuman primates: Recent research advances and current husbandry practices. Journal of Medical Primatology, 19, 609-625.

Leathers, C. W. & Schedewie, H. K. (1980). Diabetes mellitus in a pigtailed macaque (M. nemestrina). Journal of Medical Primatology, 9, 95-100.

Markowitz, H., Schmidt, M. J., & Moody, A. (1978). Behavioural engineering and animal health in the zoo. International Zoo Yearbook, 18, 190-194.

National Diabetes Data Group (1979). Classification and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and other categories of glucose intolerance. Diabetes, 28, 1039-1057.

Stokes, W. (1986). Spontaneous diabetes mellitus in a baboon (Papio cynocephalus anubis). Laboratory Animal Science, 36, 529-533.


Authors' address: Veterinary Resource Program, National Center for Research Resources, N. I. H., Building 14D, Room 313, Bethesda, MD 20205.
The authors would like to express their gratitude to Ms. Helen Spande for her assistance in the preparation of this manuscript.

* * *

Isla Tigre: An Island for Tamarins (Saguinus geoffroyi)

Dennis R. Rasmussen
Animal Behavior Research Institute

Four tamarins (Saguinus geoffroyi) were placed on Isla Tigre in Gatun Lake, Panama, in June 1987 and provisioned until June 1989. Provisioned groups of nonhuman primates on islands can be useful for conservation, research, education, propagation, and ecotourism (Rasmussen, 1991; Crooks & Rasmussen, 1991). Tamarins are found in the forests around the edges of Lake Gatun and on Barro Colorado Island (Moynihan, 1970), but have not been observed on the many smaller islands formed by creating Lake Gatun during the construction of the Panama Canal. Placing tamarins on Isla Tigre was a reintroduction into an area they probably occupied before the creation of Lake Gatun.

After release the group's range rapidly expanded to encompass the entire island, an area of about 33 ha. This area is considerably larger than the 8-15 ha territories used by marked and radio-collared wild groups at our field site, Clara, on a peninsula in Agua Clara Bay west of Barro Colorado Island (Rasmussen, 1989). The absence of neighboring groups was probably one factor allowing the group to use such a large area.

We provisioned the group weekly with locally purchased fruits, which were placed on a 1x4 m platform, 1 1/2 m above the ground. A surfeit of food was provided and the fruits were selected so that some ripened each day. Food was therefore available throughout the week. In June 1989 at least 3 of the originally released 4 tamarins were still alive. By that time the group had learned to forage on the abundant Spondias mombin trees whose fruit is the most favored plant food of wild tamarins in the area. Unlike wild tamarins at Clara, those on Isla Tigre have also been observed to feed on the fruit of Gustavia superba, a tree that is also abundant on Isla Tigre.

The tamarins were provisioned and maintained for 2 years for less than $3000, enough money to keep a similar group in a small laboratory colony or a zoo for only a fraction of this time. For study of behavior and ecology of tamarins, a provisioned group is exceptionally cost effective.

The Isla Tigre project is being reactivated in January, 1992 with four interrelated, long-term goals: 1) research on ecology and reproductive biology, 2) development of a permanent education and research area for the University of Panama, 3) public education on conservation of Panamanian tamarins, their habitat, and the watershed of the Panama Canal, and 4) propagation.


Crooks K. R. & Rasmussen, D. R. (1991). The relationship between kinship and grooming in the Tanaxpillo colony of stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides). Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 30[4], 1-3.

Moynihan, M. (1970). Some behavior patterns of Platyrrhine monkeys. II. Saguinus geoffroyi and some other tamarins. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 28, 1-60.

Rasmussen, D. R. (1989). Social ecology and conservation of the Panamanian tamarin. Anthroquest, 40, 12-15.

Rasmussen, D. R. (1991). Observer Influence on Range Use of Macaca arctoides After 14 Years of Observation? Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 30[3], 6-11.


Author's address: Animal Behavior Research Institute, 314 South Randall St., Madison, WI 53715.
Essential help in the conduct of this study was provided by Professor Felix S. Nunez, Professor David Carter, Gloria Carter, Antonio de Telesca, Maria Morello, Captain Chuck O'Droske, Dr. Nathan Gale, Carol A. Rasmussen and 28 undergraduates taking courses in primate social ecology. Julio Torres Miranda and Vielka de Telesca volunteered to provision the group and help obtain necessary permits. The project was supported by the School for Field Studies, an NIMH National Research Service Award, NIH, NSF, the World Wildlife Fund, the L. S. B. Leakey Foundation, the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, the Ministry of Housing of the Republic of Panama, and IN.RE.NA.RE.

* * *

"Paternalistic" Behavior in a Langur Colony

Michelle Avallone and Steig Johnson
University of California, Berkeley

The grey langur, Presbytis entellus, has been studied in many habitats. Interactions between adult males and juveniles vary greatly, ranging from tolerant acceptance (Dolhinow, 1972) through aggressive peripheralization of the juvenile by the adult male (Mathur & Manohar, 1991). However, few sequences of protective, or "paternalistic", behavior have been reported. On July 10, 1991, while observing the langur colony at the Field Station for Behavioral Research at UC Berkeley, we witnessed the following protective behavior by an adult male toward a distressed twenty-three-month-old juvenile male.

The juvenile had twisted his arm through a wire cyclone mesh fence. The arm was thoroughly entangled and immobilized. The young male, lying on his side and struggling to free himself, began giving distress calls, arousing the attention of the entire group. The langurs became very excited, constantly visually checking the young male and repeatedly threatening the observers who were standing on the outside of the fence. The most visibly agitated of the group was the sixteen-year-old adult male. He remained close to the young male except to approach and threaten the observers and to chase away other group members. The primary receivers of his threats and chases were two four-year-old juvenile males who intermittently harassed the adult male during the excitement by approaching, circling, and touching him. However, he showed some tolerance toward the mother of the entrapped juvenile and allowed her to approach and touch her son. Throughout the incident, the adult male gave non-threatening facial expressions (opened mouth with exposed teeth) and vocalizations (short barks) to the youngster, and repeatedly touched him gently on the dorsum and ventrum in an apparent reassurance gesture. The young juvenile responded to the adult male with grimaces and squeals, and repeatedly grabbed the adult male's torso with his free arm. The entire incident, from entrapment of the juvenile to his release by observers who cut two links of the mesh fence, lasted approximately ten minutes. After the unharmed infant was freed, he immediately ran to his mother, embraced her, and remained in contact with her for the next hour. The adult male stayed near the juvenile and his mother for ten minutes after the release.


Dolhinow, P. J. (1972). The north Indian langur. In P. Dolhinow (Ed.), Primate Patterns (pp. 181-238). New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.

Mathur, R. & Manohar, B. R. (1991). Departure of juvenile male (Presbytis entellus) from the natal group. International Journal of Primatology, 12, 39-43.


First author's address: 2751 Buena Vista Way, Berkeley, CA 94708.

* * *

Infanticide in a Zoo Group of Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata)

S. N. Tillekeratne and J. D. Paterson
University of Calgary


In modern biosocial theory, infanticide by males is considered a normal part of reproductive strategy. Theoretically it is of benefit to males entering a one-male troop, or seizing control of a multimale group, to kill all of the younger infants, and thus bring on estrus in the mothers (Sugiyama, 1984). It is also considered counterproductive for a male to kill his own offspring. This paper reports two instances of a male engaging in this latter pattern.


In 1985 a small display group of Japanese macaques was created at the Calgary Zoo. The age, sex, and kinship composition of this group is not typical of free-ranging troops. It is composed of one young adult male named BJ, born locally in 1983, three young adult females, Hanash, Matta, and Mimi, born in 1984 at the Maruyama Zoo in Sapporo, Japan, and one infant male, Saru, an offspring of Hanash and BJ, born on site in 1989 (Calgary Zoo, 1990b). We studied this group during the summer of 1990 to obtain time budget and social dynamic data. During this study a case of infanticide came to the observer's (SNT) attention, and a second case was uncovered in the zoo records.

The study group is housed in a 375 m� wire mesh outdoor enclosure, twenty m in diameter and varying between three and six m in height. The animals have access to a much smaller off-display, indoor facility (de Vries & Taylor, 1989). This group was the focus of a 125 hour study of time budgeting during the summer of 1990. During this study an infant was born and died due to bite wound trauma. Two further deaths were discovered in the Zoo records of this group.


In the study group, four infants have been carried to or near to term. Of these, three have died (Calgary Zoo, 1990b). Hanash, the highest-ranked female, gave birth to a female infant in May 1988. The infant died two days later due to trauma with multiple areas of puncture wounds. It had been in normal physical condition, was nursing, and had exhibited normal behavior prior to death (Calgary Zoo, 1988a).

Two days later, Matta aborted a 470 g fetus -- close to the normal birth weight for Japanese macaques. Zoo officials suspected that it was due to a social problem, but did not rule out infectious disease (Calgary Zoo, 1988b).

In June 1989, Hanash gave birth to Saru, the juvenile male presently in the group.

In June 1990, Matta gave birth to a female infant which died four days later, due to bite wound trauma. It had been in good health, with normal activity pattern, and it had been nursing (Calgary Zoo, 1990a). The observer (SNT) had observed normal infant activity on the day before the death, but did not witness the killing.


Infanticide has been observed in numerous field studies of primates and reported in thirteen species within nine genera (Itani, 1982). Sugiyama (1984) claimed that infanticide had never been reported in Japanese macaques. However, Itani (1982) had previously noted reports of infanticide in two troops, but under specific circumstances which comply with theoretical expectations. In those cases, the infanticidal individuals were lone males who approached and invaded troops, and were not related to the infants they killed (Itani, 1982). The occurrences cited here from the Calgary Zoo disagree with Sugiyama, yet do not follow the pattern reported by Itani. Apparently, these four cases are the only instances of infanticide reported in Japanese macaques. Infanticide must be considered as rare in this species.

We have hypothesized that the infanticidal individual in our study was the adult male BJ, although neither act was observed. In the first case, it would have been extremely difficult for either of the low ranking females to obtain sufficient access to the alpha-female's infant. Hanash is clearly the most dominant female in this group, and has been for 4 years. In the second case, the only group members who had access to Matta and her infant were BJ and Mimi (the lowest ranking female). Finally, and most importantly, a female could not have produced the puncture wounds recorded on the two infants. Females, with their smaller and less protuberant canines, would have inflicted a crushing pattern of damage to the skull. The post-mortem records indicate that both of the infants' skulls were marked with a puncture pattern characteristic of male canines. Thus we conclude that the infanticides in the Calgary troop were committed by the male BJ.


The time budget information collected during the summer of 1990 suggests that the majority of the members of the Calgary Zoo troop have made a comfortable accommodation to their enclosure, and use their time in the same way that wild troops do. Our data are not significantly different from those reported by Maruhashi (1981) for wild troops on Yakushima. However, our time budgets show that BJ is not well integrated into the group, displaying virtually no social grooming either as actor or recipient. In spite of this, BJ does engage in normal reproductive activities during the breeding season (Rendall and Taylor, 1989). This lack of integration should not be surprising, considering BJ's age. Under natural conditions or even in a larger captive group, BJ would not be a dominant male, and it is unlikely that he would even occupy a place in the central hierarchy. BJ is of an age where he would normally be a low ranking peripheral male, or considering emigration.

BJ's failure to integrate into the group, whether due to his anoma- lous position or some idiosyncratic cause, has caused 67% of the deaths of infants, and has increased the group's infant mortality rate to 75%. The social dynamics involving BJ have therefore had a substantial negative impact on the reproductive success of the resident females.

The cases reported in the present paper are insufficient to question the validity of the male infanticide/reproductive advantage model. Until or unless further examples come to light, these infanticides are best considered to be aberrant cases, possibly due to psychological pathology in the resident male.


Calgary Zoo (1988a). Necropsy Report (Dr Cooper, May 26). Unpublished.

Calgary Zoo (1988b). Necropsy Report (Dr Mainka, May 27). Unpublished.

Calgary Zoo (1990a). Animal Health Centre Pathology Report. Unpublished.

Calgary Zoo (1990b). Taxon Report. Unpublished.

de Vries, A., & Taylor, L. (1989). Enclosure utilization and time budgets of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) at the Calgary Zoo. AAZPA 1989 Regional Conference Proceedings, 377-382.

Itani, J. (1982). Intraspecific killing among non-human primates. Journal of Social Biological Structure, 5, 361-368.

Maruhashi, T. (1981). Activity patterns of a troop of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata yakui) on Yakushima Island, Japan. Primates, 22, 1-14.

Rendall, A., and Taylor, L. (1989) Sexual display behaviour of a group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) at the Calgary Zoo. AAZPA 1989 Regional Conference Proceedings, 369-376.

Sugiyama, Y. (1984). Proximate factors of infanticide among langurs at Dharwar: A reply to Boggess. In G. Hausfater & S. Blaffer Hrdy (Eds.), Infanticide (pp. 311-314). New York: Aldine Publishing Company.


Second author's address: Department of Anthropology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive N.W., Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4.
We wish to the thank the administration and keepers of the Calgary Zoological Park for permission to conduct research in the Zoo, and for access to unpublished reports. The research was supported by a Summer Temporary Employment Project Grant from the government of Alberta. * * *

Update: Nonhuman Primate Importation

Beginning in November 1989, a number of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) imported into the United States were found to have been infected with a previously unrecognized Ebola-like filovirus (CDC, 1989). This report summarizes findings of surveillance and serologic testing of nonhuman primates imported under special permits from June 1990 - September 1991.

On January 19, 1990, CDC published interim guidelines for handling nonhuman primates during transit and quarantine (CDC, 1990a). CDC notified all importers by letter on March 15, 1990, that compliance with these transit, isolation, and quarantine standards was mandatory for continued registration as an importer of nonhuman primates and that registered importers would be subject to unannounced inspections of nonhuman primate quarantine facilities. In April 1990, CDC implemented a special-permit procedure for importing cynomolgus (the species involved in the initial outbreak), African green, and rhesus mon- keys because filovirus seroreactivity was detected in these species (CDC, 1990b). To obtain the permit, applicants were required to submit an importation plan describing the steps that would be taken to minimize the risk for filovirus exposure of persons and animals during the entire importation and quarantine process. Serologic testing for filovirus and CDC review of results were required before release of animals from quarantine.

From June 1990 through September 1991, 19 nonhuman primate quarantine facilities in the United States received 130 shipments of cynomolgus, African green, and rhesus monkeys under the provisions of the 13 special permits issued by CDC. A total of 12,245 primates (10,881 cynomolgus, 882 rhesus, and 482 African green monkeys) were imported from eight countries: Barbados, Canada, China, Indonesia, Mauritius, Myanmar, the Philippines, and Saint Kitts. As of September 9, 106 shipments (9287 animals) had completed the 31-day quarantine period and satisfied the filovirus testing requirements for release.

Surveillance of 106 shipments that have completed quarantine and testing indicated that 167 (1.8%) primates died (79 during the first 7 days of quarantine and 88 during days 8-31). Mortality by shipment ranged from 0 to 14.9%. Clinical diagnoses included cold stress, pneumonia, enteritis, dehydration, tuberculosis, and adverse reactions to anesthetics. No hemorrhagic illness has been reported. Filovirus antigen capture or virus isolation was attempted on tissue from 80 of the 88 animals that died after 8 or more days in quarantine; all were negative.

Paired serum specimens were obtained from the 9287 primates completing quarantine (specimens obtained during days 1-7 and on or after day 31 of quarantine) and were tested by a single laboratory for seroreactivity to filovirus antigens using an indirect fluorescent antibody panel that includes both African and Asian filovirus antigens. Of the 9287 specimens obtained during days 1-7 of quarantine, 121 (1.3%) had antibody titers of >= 256, suggesting filovirus infection sometime before importation. Fifteen (0.2%) sets of paired specimens demonstrated a significant antibody response by seroconversion (i.e., a fourfold or greater increse in antibody titer to >= 256) during the 31-day quarantine period. The animals that seroconverted were from 12 different shipments originating in Indonesia, Mauritius, Myanmar, and the Philippines. Fourteen of the seroconversions occurred in cynomolgus monkeys; one occurred in a rhesus monkey. A total of 728 primates from the 12 shipments containing primates that seroconverted were quarantined for a second 31-day period, and additional serum specimens were obtained. These specimens were paired with those obtained on or after day 31 of the initial quarantine period. Three (0.4%) seroconversions occurred; the groups they represented (from 3 of these 12 shipments) were quarantined for a third 31-day period. None of the monkeys quarantined for a third time seroconverted.

Among seropositive animals that survived primary infection, no evidence has been found of persistence of filovirus. Monkeys that maintained positive filovirus antibody titers during the quarantine period appeared to be free of active or persistent filovirus infections upon release from quarantine. In addition, among 32 (16 cynomolgus and 16 African green) monkeys experimentally infected at CDC with African or Asian filoviruses, filovirus has been detected in the tissues or fluids of surviving animals no later than 19 days after infection. Filovirus seroconversion has not been associated with illness or death among imported nonhuman primates since the original reports of primate deaths in 1989 and 1990 in Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia (CDC, 1989, 1990a; Jahrling, et al., 1990).

Of 104 special-permit importations that CDC monitored, 43 (41.3%) did not comply with one or more parts of the approved special-permit importation plan, most commonly those parts designed to prevent human exposure to the primates during transit. CDC is continuing to work with importers to improve the level of compliance.

During 1989, the year before identification of filovirus in imported nonhuman primates, approximately 15,900 cynomolgus monkeys were imported; based on mortality at that time (10%-15%), approximately 14,300 animals survived the quarantine period. Of these, an estimated 15%, or 2200 animals, were re-exported. Since January 1991, importations of cynomolgus monkeys have averaged 1000 per month. Based on this rate, an estimated 12,000 of these monkeys will be imported during 1991. Assuming a 1.8% mortality during quarantine, approximately 11,800 animals will survive quarantine.

Since the implementation of a special-permit procedure for importing cynomolgus (the primate species most frequently used in scientific research in the U.S.), African green, and rhesus monkeys, mortality during quarantine has declined substantially from that reported by industry estimates in December 1989. Because of the increased survival of imported monkeys, the health of animals completing the 31-day quar- antine, filovirus test results, and surveillance of nonhuman primate importations, CDC is modifying the special-permit requirements (see below). Compliance with the January 19, 1990, interim guidelines, which supplement existing regulations (42 CFR 71.53), continues to be mandatory for the importation of all nonhuman primate species. New regulations on importation and quarantine of nonhuman primates are being developed and will be published in the Federal Register to allow public comment. CDC will continue to monitor nonhuman primate importations and perform unannounced on-site inspections of registered importers' facilities. -- From Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports, 1991, 40, 684-685, 691.


CDC (1989). Ebola virus infection in imported primates -- Virginia, 1989. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports, 38, 831-832, 837-838.

CDC (1990a). Update: Ebola-related filovirus infection in nonhuman primates and interim guidelines for handling nonhuman primates during transit and quarantine. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports, 39, 22-24, 29-30.

CDC (1990b). Requirement for a special permit to import cynomolgus, African green, or rhesus monkeys into the United States. Federal Register, 77, 15210.

Jahrling, P. B., Geisbert, T. W., Dalgard, D. W., Johnson, E. D., Ksiazek, T. G., Hall, W. C., & Peters, C. J. (1990). Preliminary report: Isolation of Ebola virus from monkeys imported into the USA. Lancet, 335, 502-505.

* * *

Modified Importation and Quarantine Requirements

The following modified special-permit requirements for importation and quarantine of nonhuman primates were printed in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports, 1991, 40, 691.

1. Transit, isolation, and quarantine requirements will remain in effect (see CDC, 1990a, referenced above).

2. Routine testing for filovirus antibody is no longer required. Instead, serum samples drawn during the first week following arrival of the animals at the holding facility should be stored frozen. If the 31-day quarantine period is completed without incident (i.e., death or illnesses), the serum samples may be discarded.

3. If a death occurs following the first week of the initial quarantine period, tissue must be tested for filovirus antigen; if positive, the protocol for filovirus testing and release of the entire shipment described in the importer's approved special-permit application must be followed.

4. If any illness occurs during the initial quarantine period, the entire shipment must be held in quarantine until a second blood sample is drawn from all animals (upon completion of the 31-day quarantine period) and the paired serum specimens from the ill animals tested for filovirus antibodies. If any of the animals tested demonstrate a significant filovirus antibody response (i.e., fourfold or greater titer increase to >= 256), the protocol for filovirus testing and release of the entire shipment described in the importer's approved special-permit application must be followed.

5. Existing regulations (42 CFR 71.53) require that any animal suspected of having yellow fever, monkeypox, or hemorrhagic fever during the 31-day quarantine period must be reported to CDC within 24 hours; [404-639-1437; Voice Mail: 404-330-2705]. In addition, if mortality for a shipment exceeds 5%, the importer must immediately report the circumstances, including cause of death, to CDC.

* * *

Fatal Herpesvirus simiae Case

The Association of Primate Veterinarians (APV) has issued a statement that Dr. Bill Pollock, an employee at Hazleton Research Products Texas Primate Center since his graduation from LSU School of Veterinary Medicine in 1989, died October 30, 1991, of Herpesvirus simiae (B-virus). The nature of his exposure is not clear. No bites had been reported and no skin lesions suggestive of a bite or scratch were found. In his job, he had relatively little direct contact with unanesthetized animals.

A brief summary of Pollock's clinical symptoms is presented to emphasize the importance of including B-virus in the differential diagnosis early in the process. Although this is a neurotropic virus, signs of neurologic deficit did not appear until 5 days after the first reported signs of illness. Aching, persistent fever (102-104°), nausea, and other flu-like symptoms were the primary signs during the first 4 days of the illness. Double vision and difficulty in swallowing were among the early neurologic signs, but were not reported until Day 5. This is very similar to the clinical presentation of one of the fatal cases in Pensacola (see this Newsletter, 1987, 26[3], 2-4). Although the physician who normally attends to bite wounds of employees had been familiarized with the symptoms of B-virus, Pollock sought treatment from his family physician who had not been similarly indoctrinated. The initial differential diagnosis by his family physician included Rocky Mountain spotted fever and typhus. Within 2 days after the first neurologic signs, he had lapsed into a coma, and was placed on life support systems. He died on Day 15 of his illness shortly after life support was withdrawn. The lessons to be learned are that 1), the history need not include evidence of a recent bite or scratch and 2), persistent flu-like symptoms in persons at risk, regardless of their level of exposure to primates, should not be ignored.

The statement from the APV continues: As primatologists, we are again indebted to Dr. Julia Hilliard and her staff at Southwest for their tremendous support during this incident. Through her efforts, we continue to expand our knowledge and have learned more about the disease in the last 5 years than in the previous 50 years. The support of Drs. James Cheek, Joe Kent, and our own Bobby Brown, all from CDC, is gratefully acknowledged as are the many offers of assistance and support received from a large number of APV members.

A trust fund has been established in Bill's honor to assist his wife Carolyn and their child, who was due to be born in December. The APV Board asks that each of you remember Bill and Carolyn in your own way and send checks (made out to "Bill Pollock Trust") to Dr. David Martin, APV Treasurer, DuPont Merck Pharm. Co., P.O. Box 80400, Wilmington, DE 19880-0400.

* * *


The title of the Contents of Volumes 28-30 (30, 1991, i-vi), should have read 1989-1991.

* * *

Comments Invited for ILAR Report on Psychological Well-being

The Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR), National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, invites your comments pursuant to the development of recommendations on the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates.

ILAR has been asked by NIH and the USDA to develop recommendations suitable for use by institutions required to "develop, document, and follow an appropriate plan for environment enhancement adequate to promote the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates." The task originates from federal legislation (P.L. 99-198, the Food Security Act of 1985) that requires institutions to "provide a physical environment suitable to ensure the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates."

The report will be written by a committee appointed by the National Academy of Sciences and published by the National Academy Press. The charge to the committee will be to review current understanding of the cognitive abilities of nonhuman primates; identify and evaluate the environmental variables that are believed to be most influential in affecting well-being, and the behavioral and physiological measures believed to be objective indices of well-being; develop recommendations and procedures for individualizing institutional plans consistent with federal law; suggest priorities for future research; and develop a relevant bibliography on psychological well-being.

Written comments of a specific or general nature are invited. They might address, for example, practices believed to be either effective or ineffective in promoting the well-being of nonhuman primates, institutional programs that implement these practices, or the process by which the programs and the animals' well-being are evaluated. Copies of specific institutional plans are invited.

Correspondence should be addressed to: Committee on Psychological Well-being of Nonhuman Primates, ILAR, National Research Council, NAS 347, 2101 Constitutional Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20418.

* * *

Meeting Announcements

NIH Workshops on Humane Care and Use

The NIH Office for Protection from Research Risks, will continue to sponsor workshops on implementing the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Each workshop scheduled for FY 1992 will focus on a specific theme and will be open to institutional administrators, members of IACUCs, lab animal veterinarians, investigators, and other staff who have responsibility for high-quality management of sound institutional animal care and use programs.

A workshop, "Institutional Responsibility: Meeting the Intent of Federal Regulations for Animal Care and Use" will be held June 18-19, 1992, at Columbia University. For information and registration, contact Patrick Dwyer, Continuing Education Office, 630 W. 168th Street, NYC, NY 10026 [212-305-3682; FAX: 212-305-3545]. The topic of an August workshop in Pocatello, ID, has not yet been announced.

Asia-Pacific Symposium

An Asia-Pacific/International Symposium on Laboratory Animal Science has been organized by the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science, the Chinese Association for Laboratory Animal Science, and the China National Center for Biotechnology Development, to be held October 12-16, 1992, in Beijing, China. The purpose is to "strengthen the friendship and mutual communication among scientists in the field of Laboratory Animal Science." Topics will include Genetics, Breeding and Quality Control, Animal Models, Research on Primates, and Education and Training. The official language will be English. Information and registration forms are available from Prof. Lu Yaozeng, Chinese Association for Laboratory Animal Science, 9 Dong Dan San Tiao, 100730, Beijing, China [5128841 or 5128842; Telex: 222689 CMAS CN; FAX: 861-5124876].

PsyETA Workshop

Psychologists for the Ethical Treatment of Animals and the Medical Research Modernization Committee are jointly sponsoring a workshop, "Research Modernization Advocacy," April 3-5, 1992, at the Holiday Inn Capitol Hotel, Washington, DC, for the purpose of "training health care and research professionals to be public advocates for reform." For more information, contact Kenneth J. Shapiro, P.O. Box 1297, Wash- ington Grove, MD 20880-1297 [301-963-4751].

* * *

Positions Available

New Mexico

New Mexico State University/New Mexico Regional Primate Research Laboratory (PRL) has a position available for a person with a doctorate in veterinary medicine who has completed a post-doctoral training program in Laboratory Animal Medicine and has 2 years of experience, or 5 to 7 years of experience in Clinical Laboratory Animal Medicine as well as program management. Three to 5 years of the latter should be specific experience with nonhuman primates.

PRL is also soliciting applications for a position of Applied Behaviorist, Supervisor (Master's degree in Biology, Psychology, or Anthropology, and 1-2 years experience in handling and breeding nonhuman primates), and two positions of Applied Behaviorist (Bachelor's degree in above areas, and similar experience). All positions need a working knowledge of all applicable laws, rules, and regulations regarding the humane care and handling of laboratory animals.

NMSU is an EEO/AA Employer. An offer of employment is contingent upon verification of the individual's eligibility of employment in the United States and PRL's health standards. Reply to Dr. Chris Staley, Dept. Head, NMRPRL P.O. Box 1027 HAFB, NM 88330. Application and reference deadline is February 15, 1992.

Primate Foundation of Arizona

The Primate Foundation of Arizona is seeking a Registrar, to maintain and develop computer record systems to account for inventory and health status of the chimpanzee breeding colony. This person will work directly with the Staff Veterinarian; must be proficient in Lotus 123 and WordPerfect; type a minimum of 40 WPM; have good communication skills; and be willing to sign a three-year contract. Experience in a veterinary practice is perferred.

A second position, as Chimpanzee Caregiver, to assist in maintain- ing and caring for approximately 87 chimpanzees. requires a BA or BS in Zoology, Biology, Anthropology, or related field; ability to work well with peers; and a two-year contract. Primate or zoo experience is preferred.

All applicants for either position must have a negative T.B. skin test, negative hepatitis B surface antigen test, and evidence of a measles booster or natural disease prior to employment and as a condition of employment. We are an Equal Opportunity Employer with excellent benefits and negotiable salaries. Send letter of interest (with requested salary), resume, and three letters of reference to Jo Fritz, Director, Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 86, Tempe, AZ 85280.

* * *

Information Requested and Available

Regional Primate Center History

Dr. W. Richard Dukelow (Endocrine Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48842) is preparing an historical account of the Regional Primate Research Centers and is interested in obtaining information relating to the development of the Centers, particularly under the original seven Directors (Drs. Montagna, Harlow, Ruch, Riopelle, Bourne, Schmidt, or Trum). Anecdotal material and personal reminiscences relating to the original seven Directors would be particularly appreciated.

Request for Ethograms

Karla Drewsen is attempting to accumulate an assortmant of nonhuman primate ethograms, in order to form a centralized bank of ethograms that can be called upon for educational purposes and to help researchers devise ethograms without always having to "reinvent the wheel." She would appreciate any submissions from lab or field work, in addition to specialized ethograms. Contact Karla at the New England Regional Primate Research Center, 1 Pine Hill Drive, P.O. Box 9102, Southborough, MA 01772-9102 [BITNET: [email protected]].

Homosexual Behavior

Leslie Chan (Dept. of Anthropology, Scarborough College, Univ. of Toronto, 1265 Military Train, Scarborough, Ontario, M1C 1A4, Canada [e-mail: [email protected]] and a colleague, Paul Vasey, are preparing a review paper on homosexual behavior and "homosexuality" in nonhuman primates. The purposes of the paper are 1) to gather published as well as unpublished observations on homosexual behavior in nonhuman primates; 2) to provide an operational definition of "homosexuality" that is most appropriate in the primate context; 3) to critically review current theories pertaining to the origins and maintenance of "homosexuality" in nonhuman primates; and 4) to further explore the explanation that is best supported by current information. They would appreciate any reference, observations (both field and captive conditions), or comments pertaining to the topic. They would particularly appreciate sharing or discussion of personal observations or unpublished data on homosexual behavior in primates.

Anesthesia and the CNS

I. Porada (Dept. of Neurology, Neurophysiology Section, Hansastrasse 9, 78 Freiburg, Germany) is interested in the anaesthesia of monkeys for long term surgery and implantation of multifold microelectrodes. His main question is how to avoid brain edema following the opening of the dura mater. They have found that the use of ketamine (in combination with Xylazine) generally provokes an edema which in many cases is disastrous for the animal after waking up. He asks for others' experiences as to whether the use of barbiturate is appropriate for the procedure described, adding that they are not able to give the drug intravenously.

Porada also would like to contact researchers who are working on the CNS of Javanese monkeys or comparable species, especially those who are implanting or recording with chronic microelectrodes. Besides the address given above, Porado can be contacted by electronic mail at [email protected] -- From the electronic mailing list primate-talk.

Vocalization Survey

Marc Hauser, of UC-Davis, is making a survey of nonhuman primates which vocalize during (rather than before or after) copulation. He would very much appreciate answers to the following questions and, if possible, recordings of copulation calls from the species studied.
1. What species do you work on?
2. Have the data been collected in the field or in captivity?
3. Do males call during copulation? Are the calls relatively loud or soft? Are they always given during copulation or only sometimes?
4. Do females call during copulation? Are the calls relatively loud or soft? Are they always given during copulation or only sometimes?
5. Are copulating pairs harassed during copulation and if so, is harassment more or less likely to occur if one or both members of the copulating pair has called?

Recordings can be sent to Marc Hauser, Animal Communication Lab, Dept. of Zoology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA, 95616-8761. Answers to the survey can be sent to that address or to [email protected]. All responses will be gratefully acknowledged. -- From the electronic list, primate-talk

Cytokine Detection

Elliot Friedman would appreciate any information on detection of cytokines in simian plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, etc. He is particularly interested in interleukin-1 in rhesus monkeys, and is trying to find a commercially-available kit that will detect it. "Since all kits I've come across so far are designed to pick up only human or murine IL-1, I'll have to make do with one of those (probably human). I would like to know if anyone has succeeded (or failed) in similar attempts." Elliot Friedman, 22 N. Charter St., Madison, WI 53711 [608-263-3577; e-mail: friedman@primate.].

* * *

News Briefs

AAALAC Council on Accreditation

The American Association for Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care (AAALAC) announces the appointment to their Council on Accreditation of two new members, Marilyn J. Brown and Robert M. Werner. Michael D. Kastello, who has been a member of the Council since 1983, has just been appointed Chairman. Drs. Brown and Werner had been ad hoc consultants to AAALAC prior to their appointments. Council members and consultants conduct site visits to accredited programs and new applicants. The Council meets three times per year to formally discuss and review reports from programs participating in the accreditation process.

Glosser to U.C. Davis

James W. Glosser has left his position as Administrator of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) at the U.S. Department of Agriculture to accept a faculty position as Assistant Dean in the School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of California at Davis. Robert B. Melland, who has been with the Department since 1987, and has been associate administrator of APHIS since June, 1990, has been named to replace him.

New Journal

Psychologists for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, an organization of psychologists and other social scientists interested in animal welfare, is planning a journal, Society and Animals: Social Scientific Studies of the Human Experience of Other Animals (S&A). The goal of the journal is "to stimulate and support an emerging content area within the social sciences consisting of studies of the ways in which nonhuman animals figure in our lives."

S&A will be organized to represent four broad areas: Applied uses of animals; Animals in the popular culture; Wildlife and the environment; and Sociopolitical movements, public policy, and the law. For more information, contact the Editor, Kenneth Shapiro, P.O. Box 1297, Washington Grove, MD 20880; or the Associate Editor, Arnold Arluke, Dept. of Sociology & Anthropology, Northeastern Univ., 360 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115.

PETA, Washingtonian Settle Suit

With the assistance of a mediator, an agreement has been reached in a lawsuit that was filed almost two years ago by Alex Pacheco and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) against Katie McCabe, author of "Beyond Cruelty," an article which appeared in the February 1990 issue of The Washingtonian. Pacheco and PETA sought $3 million in damages for alleged "false, defamatory and malicious statements" they claimed were contained in the article. The Washingtonian has announced that correction and clarification of several points will be published in their December issue. -- From the electronic news list APAARIB.

Professor Wins Damage Suit

Nedim C. Buyukmihci, a tenured associate professor of veterinary medicine at the University of California at Davis, and president of the Association of Veterinarians for Animal Rights, has won $75,000 in damages in a suit involving his support of animal rights. In 1988 the university began disciplinary proceedings against Dr. Buyukmihci after he objected to the use of healthy dogs in surgery-lab instruction. The university cited him for interference with the conduct of a course and for attempting to coerce the judgment of students. In addition, a faculty committee removed him as leader of a course on veterinary ophthalmology. --From the electronic news list APAARIB.

Malaria Prophylaxis News

CDC has been advised that the U.S. manufacturer (Winthrop Pharma- ceuticals, New York) has resumed production of primaquine phosphate, the antimalarial drug that decreases the risk of relapses from Plasmodium vivax and P. ovale. Therefore, primaquine will no longer be available from the CDC Drug Service. -- From Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports, 1991, 40, 727.

* * *

Educational Opportunities

Comparative Pathology Course

The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and the American Registry of Pathology are co-sponsoring a continuing education course on Comparative Pathology, April 20-22, 1992, at the Holiday Inn, 8120 Wisconsin Ave., Bethesda, MD 20814. This course is specially designed to bring attention to disease processes in animals for which similar entities occur in humans. The differences and similarities of lesions as well as the biologic behavior of such diseases are compared between animals and humans. Physicians, veterinarians, and allied scientists with an interest in the comparative aspects of disease will find the course of interest. The first day of this year's program will focus on "Developments in Comparative Virology".

For application forms and programs for the course, contact the Education Division, AFIP, Washington, DC 20306-6000 [301-427-5231]. The tuition fee is $250, but Department of Defense employees and Public Health Service applicants will only be assessed an administrative fee of $100.

Space Life Sciences Training

The Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) is an intensive 6 week training program at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida for college students interested in Life Sciences, Pre-medicine, Bioengineering, or related fields. The program will allow students to participate in the conceptualization, preparation, pre- and post-flight testing, data analysis, and report preparation phases of space flight experiments and NASA life sciences research. After completion of this program and subsequent professional training, the end result should be a pool of talented research scientists employed in universities, industries, and NASA with practical experience in the flight of life sciences experiments in space.

The program is scheduled for mid-June through July, 1992. After successful completion of the program, five semester credit hours of tuition-free college credit will be offered to each student through Florida A&M University. Eligibility is limited to currently enrolled undergraduate students (not graduating seniors) who are pursuing their first undergraduate degree, and who have a minimum cumulative GPA of 3.0 or higher. US citizenship is required, and the minimum age is 16 years. For more information or the application kit, contact Program Director SLSTP, Florida A&M University, College of Pharmacy, 106 Honor House, Tallahassee, FL 32307 [904-599-3636]. The application is due no later than January 31, 1992 at that address. -- From the electronic mailing list PRIMATE-TALK.

Smithsonian Fellowships, Minority Internships

The Smithsonian Institution announces its research fellowships for 1992-93 in the fields of History of Science and Technology, Anthropology, and Biological Sciences. The fellowships are awarded to support independent research in Panama at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, in Washington DC at the National Zoological Park, with programs in Brasil and elsewhere, and at the National Museum of Natural History, in association with the research staff and using the Institution's resources. Predoctoral and postdoctoral fellowship appointments for 6-12 months and graduate student appointments for 10 weeks are awarded.

Applications are due 15 January 1992. Indicate the particular area in which you propose to conduct research, and give the date of degrees received or expected. Stipends supporting these awards are $26,000 per year plus allowances for postdoctoral fellows; $21,000 per year plus allowances for predoctoral fellows; and $3000 for graduate students for the ten-week period.

Internships are available for students to participate in research or museum-related activities for periods of 9-12 weeks during the summer, fall and spring. U.S. minority undergraduates and graduate students are invited to apply. The appointment carries a stipend of $250 per week for undergraduate and $300 per week for graduate students and may provide a travel allowance. For more information on any of these opportunities, contact Office of Fellowships and Grants, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560 [202-287-3271]. -- From the electronic mailing list primate-talk.

* * *

Grants Available

Conservation Biology Grants

The Sophie Danforth Conservation Biology Fund, established by the Roger Williams Park Zoo and the Rhode Island Zoological Society to help protect the world's threatened wildlife, each year awards grants of up to $1000 to individuals or institutions working in conservation biology. Projects and programs that enhance biodiversity and maintain ecosystems receive the highest funding priority. Field studies, environmental education programs, development of techniques that can be used in a natural environment and captive propagation programs that stress an integrative and/or multi-disciplinary approach to conservation are also appropriate. For detailed information and application forms, contact Dr. Anne Savage, Director of Research, Roger Williams Park Zoo, Elmwood Ave., Providence, RI 02905 [401-785-9450; FAX: 401-941-3988].

NSF Young Investigator Awards

The NSF Young Investigator Awards Program (NYI) was established to achieve the following objectives: (1) to recognize outstanding young faculty in science and engineering; (2) to enhance the academic careers of recent Ph.D. recipients by providing flexible support for research and teaching; and (3) to foster contact and cooperation between academia and industry. The NYI awards are intended to encourage the development of future academic leaders, both in teaching and research. NSF Young Investigators are expected to have standard teaching responsibilities relative to non-NYI faculty. The deadline for applications is January 31, 1991. For more information contact: NSF Young Investigator Awards, NSF, 1800 G St. NW, Washington, DC 20550 [202-357-7536].

NATO Collaborative Research Grants

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) helps fund projects which have international collaboration costs which cannot be met by other sources. Emphasis is on fundamental aspects rather than technological development, though projects with promising applications will also be funded. This program is intended to enhance the effectiveness of research through coordinated development of specific projects carried out by teams of at least 2 persons in 2 or more NATO countries. This can include cooperation on a particular project already underway through a multiple exchange of researchers. Investigators should be working at universities or research institutions in different NATO countries and not already involved in current NATO sponsored collaborative research projects. Among the fields considered are the life, behavioral, and social sciences. It is expected that research will result in joint publications of findings and longstanding collaboration among members of research teams. Awards averaging $5,000 per year (renewable for an additional 2 years) cover travel and living expenses abroad for visits of 1-4 weeks by members of research teams. No support for collaboration with industrial organizations, attendance at conferences, symposia, workshops, or for purely local travel. Deadlines are March 31, August 15, and November 30. Contact: NATO Scientific Affairs Division, 1110 Brussels, Belgium, Attn: International Scientific Exchange Programmes [phone: 241.0040].

AAZK Grants Available

The American Association of Zoo Keepers (AAZK) announces the availability of two $750 research grants in the field of zoo biology. The deadline for submissions is 31 March 1992. Interested applicants should direct their inquiries to Sue Barnard, Chairperson, AAZK Research/Grants Committee, Zoo Atlanta, Dept. of Herpetology, 800 Cherokee Avenue SE, Atlanta, GA 30315. -- From the AAZPA COMMUNIQUE, October 1991.

NSF Research Equipment Grant Program

The objective of a grant for research equipment is to improve the quality or broaden the scope of the research and education that will be conducted at the proposing institution. The terms of an equipment grant require that the equipment (a) be essential but not reasonably available and accessible to the project(s) and (b) will be subject to reasonable inventory control, maintenance procedures, and organizational policies that will enhance its shared use on other projects if this will not interfere with the work on project(s) for which the equipment is being acquired. Awards are for the purchase of new research equipment or for upgrading of existing equipment. The equipment must be necessary for the pursuit of specific research projects. Local computing equipment (including workstations, specialized processors, superminis, and local area networks) may be supported under this program. General-purpose office equipment is not considered eligible for support.

Each proposal must include a paragraph indicating the institutional support proposed. Institutions must contribute at least 1/3 of the total cost of equipment. The deadline for applications is February 1, 1992. For more information contact: Staff Associate, Division of Engineering Infrastructure Development [202-786-9631].

Leakey Foundation Grants

The L. S. B. Leakey Foundation supports studies relating to human evolution. Priority is given to research into environments, archeology, and human paleontology of the Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene, behavior of the Great Apes and other Old World primate species, and ecology and adaptations of living hunting-gatherer peoples. Grants are normally made to scientists with professional qualifications and demonstrated capability, but graduate students working for an advanced degree will be considered. The average award is $4000.

The Franklin Mosher Baldwin Fellowships for the Study of Early Man in Africa permit the Foundation each year to support Afrcian field studies for African archeologists or graduate-study fellowships in the United States. American specialists are awarded fellowships to conduct field research on African sites in cooperation with African scientists. Senior and postdoctoral researchers are encouraged to apply. It is anticipated that the maximum grant will be $8000.

The Foundation also funds a Fellowship for Great Ape Research and Conservation, promoting long-term field research on wild populations of great apes. This fellowship awards $20,000 for one or two years of field expenses.

For further information and application forms, contact the Leakey Foundation, 77 Jack London Sq., Suite M, Oakland, CA 94607-3750 [510-834-3636]. -- From the electronic mailing list primate-talk.

* * *

Address Changes

Gerald S. Borman, 7065 Suburban Arch, Norfolk, VA 23505.

Jennifer Cobb, 2530 Kilkenny Circle, Anchorage, AK 99504.

Joe R. Held, Microbiological Assoc. Inc., Life Sci. Center, 9900 Blackwell Rd., Rockville, MD 20850.

Billy W. Howard, 39 Spesutie Island Rd., Aberdeen Proving Gr., MD 21005.

George W. Irving, III, 137 Vinsant Circle, San Antonio, TX 78235.

Randall C. Kyes, Dept. of Comparative Med., Bowman-Gray School of Med., 300 S. Hawthorne Rd., Winston-Salem, NC 27103.

Melvin Levitt, 724 Chester Rd., Winston-Salem, NC 27104.

G. Lussier, Charles River Canada, 10145 Fabre, Montreal H2C 3E1, Canada.

Diane McIntyre, 72 Graves St., So. Deerfield, MA 01373.

Rosalind M. Rolland, 87 Spruce St., Watertown, MA 02172.

Norman Rosen, 27 16th St., Hermosa Beach, CA 90254.

P. K. Seth, 106 Nayjiwan Vihar, New Delhi 110 017, India.

Ken Shapiro, Psychologists for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, P.O. Box 1297, Washington Grove, MD 20880.

George F. Zarzycki, Jr., Faunacare, 51B Crescent St., Keansburg, NJ 07734.

* * *

Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors)


* Understanding Behavior: What Primate Studies Tell Us About Human Behavior. J. D. Loy & C. B. Peters [Eds.]. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. 264 pp. [Price: $49.95]
. . The editors ask, Has primatology succeeded in producing useful and significant information about humans? Contents: Mortifying reflections: Primatology and the human disciplines, by J. D. Loy & C. B. Peters. Maternal behavior in human and nonhuman primates, by N. A. Nicolson. Primate paternalistic investment: A cross-species view, by D. Taub & P. Mehlman. Ontogeny of behavior in humans and nonhuman primates: The search for common ground, by J. Chism. Human evolution and the sexual behavior of female primates, by L. D. Wolfe. Male sexual behavior: Monkeys, men, and apes, by R. D. Nadler & C. H. Phoenix. Primates and the origins of aggression, power, and politics among humans, by B. Chapais. Kinship, by D. S. Sade. Apes, humans, and culture: What primatological discourse tells us about ourselves, by C. B. Peters. Suggestions for further reading.

* State Laws Concerning the Use of Animals in Research. 3rd ed. National Association for Biomedical Research. Washington, DC: NABR, 1991. [Price: $25 from NABR, 818 Connecticut Ave., N.W., Suite 303, Washington, DC 20006]


* Primate Welfare, Well-Being and Enrichment Studies and Legislation: 1990-1991 Update. J. L. Pritchard. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1991. 13 pp. (146 citations, primate index) [Price: $6.50. Stock #91-006. Send order to P.I.C., RPRC, SJ-50, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195]

* Annotated Bibliography on Laboratory Animal Welfare. R. A. Murphy, A. N. Rowan, & R. R. Smeby (Eds.). Bethesda, MD: SCAW, 1991. 91pp. [Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, 4805 St. Elmo Ave., Bethesda, MD 20814]
. . Over 500 entries, arranged under 10 headings, and indexed by author.


* Preparation and Maintenance of Higher Mammals During Neuroscience Experiments. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, 1991. [Free from Michael D. Oberdorfer, National Eye Inst., Bldg. 31, Rm. 6A47, Bethesda, MD 20892]
. . A resource to aid researchers, veterinarians, and IACUC members in interpreting and implementing animal care and use laws, policies and guidelines.

* Woolly-monkeys: Information about their Diet and Reproduction at Apenheul. J. Vermeer. 1990. 10pp. [Available from Jan Vermeer, Veen- kamp 96, 3888 LJ Uddel, Holland]
. . Practical information, including suggested diets and analysis of supplements.


* Handbook for the Use of Animals in Neuroscience Research. [Price: $2.00 from the Society for Neuroscience, 11 Dupont Circle, N.W., Suite 500, Washington, DC 20036]
. . Background information and proactive and reactive strategies for dealing with the animal rights movement.

Magazines, Newsletters, and Reports

* Annual Report 1990. Institute of Applied Radiobiology and Immuno- logy TNO. [151, Lange Kleiweg, P.O. Box 5815, 2280 HV Rijswijk, The Netherlands]
. . Short reports on research and accomplishments at the Institute, which focuses on 3 main areas: radiobiology in relation to oncology, chronic diseases (with a putative immunological etiology), and infectious diseases.

* Primate Report, No. 30, July, 1991. [Annual Scientific Report 1990 of the German Primate Center (DPZ). Price: $8]
. . Besides reports on the divisions of the Center, the following articles are included: Circulating IgM in callitrichid IgM-nephropathy, by M. Brack & M. Fooke. Diurnal variations of urinary testosterone excretion in the male saddle-back tamarin (Saguinus fuscicollis) , by L. Lerchl, I. Kuderling, & G. Epple. Social status in tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus labiatus) is reflected by protein pattern, by J. Rosenbusch, I. Kuderling, & E. Fuchs.

* Primate News. Fall, 1991, 25. Oregon Regional Primate Research Center (505 N.W. 185th Ave., Beaverton, OR 97006)
. . This issue contains an article about animals' psychological well-being at the Center.


* Man and Beast He Preserves: Humans and Animals in the Bible and Jewish and Christian Traditions. J. V. Parker. 27 pp. [Price: $5, from J. V. Parker, 4327 N.E. Glisan St., Portland, OR 97213]
. . Biblical interpretation and historical information for evaluating the use of religious language and sources in animal rights discussions. Included is a summary of church statements, a guide for interpreting the Bible, and some do's and don'ts for debaters when the topic is religion and animals.

Special Journal Issues

*Nonhuman primate models for AIDS, III. Journal of Medical Primatology, 1991, 20[4].
. . Papers presented at the meeting held at the Delta Primate Research Center in October, 1990, guest edited by J. W. Eichberg. Contents: Introduction, by J. Moor-Jankowski. Recovery of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and depression of colony formation in vitro infected progenitor cell-enriched rhesus bone marrow (BM), by L. Beltz, O. Narayan, R. J. Adams, S. J. Noga, & A. D. Donnenberg. Infection of rhesus monkeys with topical instillation of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)B670 into the conjunctival sac, by M. D. Conway, B. Davison-Fairburn, L. N. Martin, M. S. Insler, & M. Murphey-Corb. Severe autoimmune hemolytic anemia in SIVsmm9-infected Macaca mulatta, by C. D. Hillyer, A. R. Brodie, A. A. Ansari, D. C. Anderson, & H. M. McClure. Early SIV encephalopathy, by B. Hurtrel, L. Chakrabarti, M. Hurtrel, M. A. Maire, D. Dormont, & Luc Montagnier. SIV of stump-tiled macaque (SIVstm) is a divergent Asian isolate, by A. S. Khan, T. A. Galvin, M. B. Jennings, M. B. Gardner, & L. J. Lowenstine. Antibody-dependent enhancement and neutralization pattern of sera from SIV-infected or HIV-2-vaccinated rhesus monkeys, by R. Le Grand, G. Vogt, A. Chapel, & D. Dormont. Characterization of T- and B-cell epitopes of a simian retrovirus (SRV-2) envelope protein, by A. Malley, L. Werner, E. Benjamini, C. Y. Leung, J. Torres, N. Pangares, S. Shiigi, & M. Axthelm. Maternal transmission of SIVsmm in rhesus macaques, by H. M. McClure, D. C. Anderson, P. N. Fultz, A. A. Ansari, T. Jehuda-Cohen, F. Villinger, S. A. Klumpp, W. Switzer, E. Lockwood, A. Brodie, & H. Keyserling. Molecular diversity of SIVsmm/PBj and a cognate variant, SIVsmm/PGg, by F. J. Novembre, V. M. Hirsch, H. M. McClure, & P. R. Johnson. Maternal-fetal transmission of SIV in macaques: Disseminated adenovirus infection in an offspring with congenital SIV infection, by H. D. Ochs, W. R. Morton, C.-C. Tsai, M. E. Thouless, Q. Zhu, L. D. Kuller, Y. P. Wu, & R. E. Benveniste. Interleukin-6 and retroperitoneal fibromatosis from SRV-2-infected macaques with simian AIDS, by S. T. Roodman, M. D. Woon, J. W. Hoffmann, P. Theodorakis, C. C. Tsai, H.-N. Wu, and C.-C. Tsai. Variation in T-lymphoctye activation and susceptibility to SIVPBj14-induced acute death in macaques, by Y. J. Rosenberg, B. D. White, S. F. Papermaster, P. Zack, P. B. Jarling, G. A. Eddy, D. S. Burke, & M. G. Lewis. Serial pathogenesis study of SIV brain infection, by L. R. Sharer, J. Michaels, M. Murphey-Corb, F.-S. Hu, D. J. Kuebler, L. N. Martin, & G. B. Baskin. Neutralization epitope in the envelope glycoprotein of simian retrovirus-1 (SRV-1) and identification of the virus receptor, by J. V. Torres, L. L. Werner, A. Malley, & E. Benjamini.

* Annual Resource Guide 1991. Special edition of Continuing Listings. Primate Supply Information Clearinghouse (PSIC, PIC, RPRC, SJ-50, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195).
. . Suppliers of animals, services, and information.

*Special issue: Pain in animals and humans. ILAR News, 1991, 33[1-2].


*Logistics, set up and operation of a two year research project on the social ecology of stumptail macaques. Menendez, D., Guss, L., Nash, A. & Rasmussen, D. R. 15 min.
*Observation, sampling, and data collection methods used in a two year research project on the social ecology of stumptail macaques. Ordonez, D., Guss, L., Nash, A. & Rasmussen, D. R. 15 min. [Price: $18, from Larry Guss, 5319 Strathmore Ave., Kensington, MD 20895]
. . Logistics and sampling methods used in a study of the social ecology of the stumptail macaque colony on Tanaxpillo Island.

Animal Models

*Increased efficiency of retroviral-mediated gene transfer and expression in primate bone marrow progenitors after 5-fluorouracil-induced hematopoietic suppression and recovery. Wieder, R., Cornetta, K., Kessler, S. W., & Anderson, W. F. (W. F. A., Molecular Hematology Branch, NHLBI, Bldg. 10, RM. 7D18, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892). Blood, 1991, 77, 448-455.
. . The authors cycled primate bone marrow in vivo, then transduced samples in vitro with a retroviral vector carrying the bacterial NPT gene, to define the post 5-FU-insult time curve of transduction efficiency assayed by NPT activity and G418R CFU-GM in a light-density bone marrow cell subpopulation partly enriched for early progenitors.

*Fetal nondopaminergic neural implants in parkinsonian primates: Histochemical and behavioral studies. Bankiewicz, K. S., Plunkett, R. J., Jacobowitz, D. M., Kopin, I. J., & Oldfield, E. H. (CNS Implantation Unit, Surgical Neurology Branch, NINDS, Bldg. 10, Rm. 5D37, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892). Journal of Neurosurgery, 1991, 74, 97-104.
. . Fetal cerebellum or spinal cord was implanted into preformed cavities in the caudate nuclei of 3 MPTP-induced parkinsonian monkeys, causing stable improvement for up to 6 months. Sprouted dopaminergic fibers oriented from the ventral striatum and nucleus accumbens were found in the areas of the tissue implants. Implant-induced and trophic factor-mediated dopaminergic sprouting by the host brain seems to play a role in the behavioral recovery and may be responsible for the clinical improvement seen in parkinsonian patients after brain implants.

*Behavioral recovery from MPTP-induced parkinsonism in monkeys after intracerebral tissue implants is not related to CSF concentrations of dopamine metabolites. Bankiewicz, K. S., Plunkett, R. J., Mefford, I., Kopin, I. J., & Oldfield, E. H. (Address same as above). Progress in Brain Research, 1990, 82, 561-571.
. . Survival of fetal mesencephlic tissue implanted into the primate neostriatum and at least partial reversal of the MPTP-induced motor deficits has been demonstrated in monkeys. The mechanism of this improvement in motor function is unclear, but these results indicate that monitoring of CSF concentrations of amine metabolites as an index of graft survival does not reflect the status of grafted dopaminergic tissue.

*Apparent unilateral visual neglect in MPTP-hemiparkinsonian monkeys is due to delayed initiation of motion. Bankiewicz, K. S., Oldfield, E. H., Plunkett, R. J., Schuette, W. H., Cogan, D. G., Hogan, N., Zuddas, A., & Kopin, I. J. (Address same as above). Brain Research, 1991, 541, 98-102.
. . Treated monkeys appeared to ignore food presented from the contralateral side, suggesting neglect of visual stimuli in that half-field. Further study indicated that there was rather a marked delay in initiating movements (unilateral hypokinesia), which is consistent with the known role of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurones in movement regulation. This is a useful model of hypokinesia, a cardinal symptom of Parkinson's disease.

*Neurochemical and behavioural features induced by chronic low dose treatment with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in the common marmoset: Implications for Parkinson's disease? Russ, H., Mihatsch, W., Gerlach, M., Riederer, P., & Przuntek, H. (P. R., Clinical Neurochemistry, Dept. of Psychiatry, Fuchsleinstr. 15, D-8700 Wurzburg, Germany). Neuroscience Letters, 1991, 123, 115-118.
. . Treatment by a total of 25 ml/kg MPTP, given in 15 doses over 29 days, caused transitory changes in motor behavior reminscent of human Parkinson's disease. 16 days from the start of treatment, all animals showed motor impairment (profound akinesia and a rigid posture) but no resting tremor. There was a profound loss of dopamine and serotonin in the substantia nigra and in the striatum; noradrenaline was only reduced in the putamen.

*Chronic low-dose MPTP in nonhuman primates: A possible model for attention deficit disorder. Roeltgen, D. P. & Schneider, J. S. (Dept. of Neurology, Hahnemann Univ., Broad & Vine, Philadelphia, PA 19104-1192). Journal of Child Neurology, 1991, 6, S82-S89.
. . Chronic low-dose MPTP caused cognitive dysfunction without significant motor impairment on tasks thought to be related to the caudate-frontal axis. This dysfunction my not only be a model for the cognitive disturbances that accompany Parkinson's disease, but may also aid in understanding the cognitive dysfunction seen in children with attention deficit disorder.

*Remitting-relapsing EAE in nonhuman primates: A valid model of multiple sclerosis. Rose, L. M., Richards, T. L., Petersen, R., Peterson, J., Hruby, S., & Alvord, E. C. Jr. (Dept. of Pathology, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195). Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology, 1991, 59, 1-15.
. . Multiple sclerosis (MS) is frequently remitting-relapsing, while experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an otherwise good model of MS, is typically monophasic and acute.This article reviews techniques for creating a remitting-relapsing EAE, and discusses possible uses of the model.

*Toxicokinetic study of norfloxacin-induced arthropathy in juvenile animals. Machida, M., Kusajima, H., Aijima, H., Maeda, A., Ishida, R., & Uchida, H. (H. K., Central Research Labs, Kyorin Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, 2399-1 Mitarai, Nogi, Nogi-machi, Shimotsuga-gun, Tochigi 329-01, Japan). Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 1990, 105, 403-412.
. . Cynomolgus monkeys were dosed with norfloxacin once a day for 7 consecutive days, showing no arthropathy at doses of less than 500 mg/kg/day. Rats, rabbits, and dogs were also treated, and the penetration of norfloxacin into the articular cartilage was the same regardless of the joint's anatomical locations, but differed among species, being highest in rats and lowest in monkeys.

*A primate model of anterior segment ischemia after strabismus surgery: The role of the conjunctival circulation. Fishman, P. H., Repka, M. X., Green, W. R., D'Anna, S. A., & Guyton, D. L. (M. X. R., Wilmer Inst., B1-35, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21205). Ophthalmology, 1990, 97, 456-461.
. . Six adult cynomolgus monkeys underwent tenotomies of 3 or 4 rectus muscles by making limbal conjunctival incisions in one eye and fornix incisions in the other. Eyes with limbal incisions exhibited more severe anterior segment ischemic changes than those with fornix incisions in every instance of four rectus muscle surgery.

*The effect of fluid resuscitation on cardiac function changes monitored by radionuclide ventriculography in the septic shock baboon model. Dormehl, I. C., Kilian, J., Pretorius, J. P., Van Gelder, A. L., & Hugo, N. (AEC Inst. for Life Sciences, P.O. Box 2034, Pretoria 0001, South Africa). American Journal of Physiologic Imaging, 1991, 6, 29-33.
. . Dramatic cardiac volume losses characterize the baboon model in bacterial septic shock. Loss of vascular tone and a probable vascular fluid leak were regarded as contributing factors. This experiment indicates that fluid loading, although not normalizing the hemodynamic parameters, led to smaller changes and an improvement in some measures of cardiac function.

Animal Welfare

*Appropriate animal numbers in biomedical research in light of animal welfare considerations. Mann, M. D., Crouse, D. A., & Prentice, E. D. (Dept. of Physiology & Biophysics, Univ. of Nebraska Med. Center, Omaha, NE 68198). Laboratory Animal Science, 1991, 41, 6-14.
. . A review of the statistical aspects of experimental design, and economic, contractual, and welfare issues which IACUCs encounter in reviewing proposed experiments using animals.


*Age- and dominance-related variation in feeding time among free-ranging female rhesus monkeys. Johnson, R. L., Malik, I., & Berman, C. M. (Dept. of Anthropology, 380 MFAC, Ellicott Complex, SUNY, Buffalo, NY 14261). International Journal of Primatology, 1991, 12, 337-356.
. . Observations of 34 lactating females show that time spent feeding declines with age. It also declines with decreasing status, but only when age was held constant.

*Reciprocity and partner preference in grooming of female blue monkeys. Rowell, T. E., Wilson, C., & Cords, M. (Dept. of Integrative Biology, Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA 94720). International Journal of Primatology, 1991, 12, 319-336.
. . Grooming among about 17 female Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni in a habituated group was observed, analyzed, and compared to that of baboons and macaques.

*Social relationships and individual contribution to cooperative behaviour in captive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Koenig, A. & Rothe, H. (Inst. of Anthropology, Univ. of Gottingen, Burgerstr. 50, D-3400 Gottingen, Germany). Primates, 1991, 32, 183-195.
. . Study of a family of eight captive marmosets, including a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the social substructing observed.

*Analyses of feeding lateralization in the small-eared bushbaby (Otolemur garnettii): A comparison with the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta). Milliken, G. W., Stafford, D. K., Dodson, D. L., Pinger, C. D., & Ward, J. P. (J. P. W., Dept. of Psychology, Memphis State Univ., Memphis, TN 38152). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1991, 105, 274-285.
. . Lateralization in food reaching, holding, and manipulation were examined in 23 small-eared bushbabies, and the results compared with results from a previous study on ring-tailed lemurs. Sex differences are a stronger factor in lateralization than species differences.

*[Cooperation and competition in foraging in primate groups: Comparitive experiments with Cercopithecus aethiops and Lemur fulvus albifrons.] Vossing, A. (Westfalische Wilhelms-Univ., Zoologisches Inst., Abt. Verhaltensforschung, Badestr. 9, D-4400 Munster, Germany). Zoologische Beitrage, 1990, N. F. 33, 161-195. [German, with English summary]
. . Competition for food prevented lemurs and vervets from solving foraging problems which were too difficult for one animal alone.

*Group fusions and minimum group sizes in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Isbell, L. A., Cheney, D. L., & Seyfarth, R. M. (Animal Behavior Group, Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616). American Journal of Primatology, 1991, 25, 57-65.
. . Six cases of group fusion were observed in 5 years in a declining population of vervets in Kenya. In each case, group members abandoned their territory and joined a neighboring group shortly after the group lost its penultimate adult. Apparently only adults are able to maintain vervet groups as cohesive units. Intergroup competition may be more important than predation avoidance in the timing of fusions.

*Associations among wild orang-utans: Sociality, passive aggregations or chance? Mitani, J. C., Grether, G. F., Rodman, P. S., & Priatna, D. (Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109). Animal Behaviour, 1991, 42, 33-46.
. . Encounters and associations within two groups of orangutans were compared. Encounter rates, durations of associations, and proportions of time spent in associations were greater than expected by chance. There were differences in association patterns between the groups. The data support the hypothesis that variations in the reproductive states of adult females account for differences in the patterns of association, while sociality appears primarily the result of aggregation at common resources, either food or mates.

*Social dynamics of intergroup encounters in the capped langur (Presbytis pileata). Stanford, C. B. (Address same as above). American Journal of Primatology, 1991, 25, 35-47.
. . Data from a 15-month field study. Males defended females from other males, but females did not defend resources or participate in intergroup encounters. The implications of this difference is discussed with regard to ecological models of female-bonded primate groups.

*Preliminary report on the social organization of ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) in a northeast Madagascar rain forest. Morland, H. S. (P.O. Box 30490, Nairobi, Kenya). Folia Primatologica, 1991, 56, 157-161.
. . Results of the first field study of ruffed lemur social organization based on known individuals followed over an annual cycle. Ruffed lemurs were found to live in dispersed female-based communities with cooperatively defended communal home ranges.

*Reciprocity and interchange of grooming and 'support' in captive chimpanzees. Hemelrijk, C. K. & Ek, A. (Dept. of Comparative Physiology, Univ. of Utrecht, Padualaan 14, 3508 TB Utrecht, Netherlands). Animal Behaviour, 1991, 41, 923-935.
. . When there was a clear alpha-male, males supported more often those they groomed more frequently, suggesting a social bond. Males reciprocated support in conflicts only when the alpha-position was unclear. Grooming and support relationships of females were the same whether or not the alpha-male position was clear.

*Infant carrying by nulliparous female vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Meaney, M. J., Lozos, E., & Stewart, J. (Douglas Hospital Research Centre, 6875 Boul. LaSalle, Montreal, PQ H4H 1R3, Canada). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1990, 104, 377-381.
. . Nulliparous females who had had little experience with infants were studied for 2 summers and the intervening fall, as they were exposed to infants. Juvenile nulliparous females spent the most time near infants and frequently held and carried them. During the second summer, nulliparous females were more likely to carry infants without support, and the infants were more likely to cling than in the previous year, a change to the type of carrying shown by experienced mothers.


*Further notes on leaf-monkey husbandry: Iron poisoning in Presbytis femoralis. Caton, J. M. (Dept. of Prehistory & Anthropology, Australian National Univ., GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia). Australian Primatology, 1991, 6[3], 11-12.
. . Symptoms of iron-poisoning were quickly followed by the death of a newly arrived leaf-monkey. Possibly causes are considered.

*Increasing food foraging activities in caged Macaca fascicularis. Brokenshire, B. Australian Primatology, 1991, 6[3], 19-20.
. . Responses of 3 groups of animals to a variety of different foods.


*The process of weaning in Hanuman langurs Presbytis entellus entellus. Rajpurohit, L. S. & Mohnot, S. M. (Dept. of Zoology, Univ. of Jodhpur, Jodhpur 342 001, India). Primates, 1991, 32, 213-218.
. . Observations from birth to weaning (about 13 months) of 12 infants in 3 wild troops.

*Strangers in a strange land: A psychobiological study of infant monkeys before and after separation from real or inanimate mothers. Kraemer, G. W., Ebert, M. H., Schmidt, D. E., & McKinney, W. T. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Harlow Primate Lab., Madison, WI 53715). Child Development, 1991, 62, 548-566.
. . Some, but not all, rhesus infants have a despair or depression-like response to mother-infant separation. The neurobiological status of infants raised with natural and with inanimate mothers was evaluated by measuring the concentration of norepinephrine, its major metabolite, and the metabolites of dopamine and serotonin in cerbrospinal fluid. Results suggest that coping with the separation environment depends on neurobiological and behavioral characteristics of the infant that are related to, if not determined by, characteristics of the mother.


*A preliminary note on the intestinal parasites of wild chimpanzees in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. Kawabata, M. & Nishida, T. (Nihon Univ. School of Medicine, 30-1, Ohyaguchi, Kamimachi, Itabashi, Tokyo, 173 Japan). Primates, 1991, 32, 275-278.
. . Report on parasites in the feces of about 120 chimpanzees in 2 troops, with comparisons between different groups, regions, and seasons.

*A single amino acid substitution within the matrix protein of a type D retrovirus converts its morphogenesis to that of a type C retrovirus. Rhee, S. S. & Hunter, E. (Dept. of Microbiology, Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35294). Cell, 1990, 63, 77-86.
. . Description of a gag mutant of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus, a type D retrovirus, in which a tryptophan substituted for an arginine in the matrix protein results in efficient assembly of capsids at the plasma membrane through a morphogenic process similar to that of type C retroviruses, implying that a type D retrovirus Gag polyprotein contains an additional, dominant signal that prevents immediate transport of precursors from the site of biosynthesis to the plasma membrane. Capsid assembly processes for different retroviruses appear to differ only in the intracellular site to which capsid precursors are directed.

*Immunological studies of the basis for the apathogenicity of simian immunodeficiency virus from African green monkeys. Norley, S. G., Kraus, G., Ennen, J., Bonilla, J., Konig, H., & Kurth, R. (R. K., Paul-Ehrlich-Inst., Paul-Ehrlich-Strasse 51-59, 6070 Langen, Germany). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A., 1990, 87, 9067-9071.
. . Potential reasons for the lack of pathogenicity of the simian immunodeficiency virus SIVagm in its natural host, the African green monkey (AGM), were investigated. Two possibly important differences between the AGM/SIVagm system and the human/HIV system are 1) the low immune response of the AGMs to the core protein of SIVagm and 2) the significantly lower inhibitory effect of SIVagm proteins on the proliferation of AGM lymphocytes.

*A simple, rapid immunoassay for the detection of simian immunodeficiency virus antibodies. Yee, J. L., Jennings, M. B., Carlson, J. R., & Lerche, N. W. (Dept. of Medical Pathology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616). Laboratory Animal Science, 1991, 41, 119-122.
. . An immunoassay for the detection of SIV antibodies, utilizing inactivated SIV antigen and Fast-Chek, a membrane/filter paper device that uses protein A gold to detect antibody and/or antigen. Result concordance with Western blot was 96% in a study of 155 banked sera.

*Elimination of type D retrovirus infection from group-housed rhesus monkeys using serial testing and removal. Lerche, N. W., Marx, P. A., & Gardner, M. B. (California PRC, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616). Laboratory Animal Science, 1991, 41, 123-127.
. . Seventeen (34%) of 47 animals proved to be virus-free after 4 rounds of testing and removal of positives from an established colony. These animals and their offspring have remained healthy and antibody negative more than 2 years.

*An attempt to predict anergy in tuberculosis suspect cynomolgus monkeys. Corcoran, K. D. & Jaax, G. P. (U.S. Army Med. Research Inst. of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010-5425). Laboratory Animal Science, 1991, 41, 57-62.
. . Delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity response to tetanus toxoid was not helpful in identifying animals exhibiting false negative intradermal tuberculin tests.


*The Old World monkeys: I: The leaf-eating monkeys of the family Colobidae. Caton, J. M. (Dept. of Prehistory & Anthropology, Australian National Univ., GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia). Australian Primatology, 1991, 6[1], 12-18.
. . A review of current systematics.


*Carbonic anhydrase II in New World monkeys. Sampaio, M. I. C., Schneider, M. P. C., Barroso, C. M. L., Silva, B. T. F., Schneider, H., Encarnacion, F., Montoya, E., & Salzano, F. M. (Dept. de Genetica, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Univ. Federal do Para, Campus Univ. do Guama, 66059 Belem, Para, Brazil). International Journal of Primatology, 1991, 12, 389-402.
. . Electrophoretic patterns were investigated in 3113 animals from 24 species of 12 genera in order to describe the variation, standardize the allele nomenclature, and verify the manner in which the results agree with present taxonomic relationships.

Instruments & Techniques

*Changes in basal and stimulated growth hormone secretion in the aging rhesus monkey: A comparison of chair restraint and tether and vest sampling. Wheeler, M. D., Schutzengel, R. E., Barry, S., & Styne, D. M. (D. M. S., Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of California, MS1A, Room v1134, Davis, CA 95616). Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1990, 71, 1501-1507.
. . Cortisol levels were consistently higher with chair restraint than with the tether and vest system, but were not consistently different with age in either. Data show a clear decrease in basal and stimulated GH secretion with advancing age in the adult male rhesus, and indicate that the tether and vest restraint system is a superior method for the study of nonhuman primates.

*Segmental spinal fixation of a thoracic vertebral fracture in an adult chimpanzee. Shores, A., Purvis, J. D., Jones, D., Boring, J. G., Lester, T. S., & Tyner, C. L. (Dept. of Small Animal Clinical Sci., College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI 48824). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 1991, 198, 306-308.
. . Description of surgery on an animal which had fractured a vertebra during an epileptic seizure.

*Disarming canine teeth of nonhuman primates using the submucosal vital root retention technique. Schofield, J. C., Alves, M. E. A. F., Hughes, K. W., & Bennett, B. T. (Biologic Resources Lab., Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60612). Laboratory Animal Science, 1991, 41, 128-133.
. . Techniques used to disarm the canine teeth of baboons and macaques with a single surgical procedure that would not require further clinical management during the animal's life.


*Clinical evaluation of fainting episodes in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Descoteaux, J. P., McFarlane, C. S., McAuliffe, M., Carr, R., Grzywacz, W., & Horan, S. (531 blvd. des Prairies, C.P. 100, succ L-D-R, Laval, Quebec H7N 4Z3, Canada). Lab Animal, 1991, 20, 31-35.
. . Some newly arrived animals had fainting episodes while in a restraining chair. Fasting blood sugar tests led to use of dextrose injection as a preventive measure.

*Developmental redistribution of photoreceptors across the Macaca nemestrina (pigtail macaque) retina. Packer, O., Hendrickson, A. E., & Curcio, C. A. (Center for Visual Science, 274 Meliora Hall, Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627). Journal of Comparative Neurology, 1990, 298, 472-493.
. . Seven retinas, ranging in age from 2 weeks prenatal to 60 weeks postnatal, and three adult retinas, were examined and mapped. Many graphs, maps, and microphotographs.

*Loss of NMDA, but not GABA-A, binding in the brains of aged rats and monkeys. Wenk, G. L., Walker, L. C., Price, D. L., & Cork, L. C. (Div. of Neural Systems, Memory, & Aging, 384 Life Sciences North, Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724). Neurobiology of Aging, 1991, 12, 93-98.
. . Seven young (4-9 years), 6 adult (20-25 years), and 5 aged (29-34 years)rhesus monkeys were studied. NMDA-displaceable 1-[3 H]glutamate binding was significantly decreased in many neocortical and subcortical regions examined in the aged animals.

*Serum chemistry of the wild caught karyotype I night monkey (Aotus nancymai). Malaga, C. A., Weller, R. E., Buschbom, R. L., & Ragan, H. A. (Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs, Richland, WA 99352). Laboratory Animal Science, 1991, 41, 143-145.
. . Aotus is a multispecific genus with species and subspecies ranging in chromosome number from 2n = 46 to 2n = 56, and with phenotypic, immunologic, and disease susceptibility differences which influence the usefulness of different species in biomedical research. Serum samples from 254 wild-caught animals were analyzed to determine reference intervals for serum chemistry parameters in this species.

*Suppression of luteinizing hormone release by the alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin in the ovariectomized female rhesus monkey. Gearing, M. & Terasawa, E. (E. T., Wisconsin RPRC, 1220 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715). American Journal of Primatology, 1991, 25, 23-33.
. . Results indicate 1) that alpha-1-adrenergic receptors but not alpha-2 receptors are important for pulsatile LH secretion, 2) that varying the dose of prozosin administered does not alter the effect of the drug on LH release within the range of doses tested, and 3) the pituitary is able to respond to LHRH with an increase in LH release during the prazosin-induced suppression period.


*Successful nonsurgical collection of Macaca mulatta embryos. Goodeaux, L. L., Anzalone, C. A., Thibodeaux, J. K., Menezo, Y., Roussel, J. D., & Voelkel, S. A. (Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, P.O. Box 44650, Layfayette, LA 70504). Theriogenology, 1990, 34, 1159-1167.
. . Describes a method of nonsurgical flushing to recover preimplantation embryos from the uterus. Seventy-five embryos, 27 unfertilized ova, and five empty zona pellucidae were found in 176 collections from 38 females.

*Dominance rank and mating success in male primates. Cowlishaw, G. & Dunbar, R. I. M. (Dept. of Anthropology, University College, Gower St., London WC1 E6BT, England). Animal Behaviour. 1991, 41, 1045-1056.
. . Review of data from 32 studies, totalling 75 study groups, show a reliable positive relationship between male dominance rank and mating success. The variation in correlation coefficient values is significantly negatively related to the number of males in the group (except in highly dimorphic species, where the coefficient is positively related to the number of females). The relationship between dominance rank and mating success appears to be a function of the level of competition that males face in the group for access to cycling females.


In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest. In many cases, abstracts are those of the authors.

* * *

Directory of Graduate Programs in Primatology and Primate Research (1992)


*Arizona State University, Anthropology Department
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: M. A. and Ph.D. in Anthropology. Within physical anthropology, specializations in primatology are available. Areas of concentration include primate social behavior and ecology, primate positional behavior and functional anatomy, and primate evolution. Facilities include a breeding colony of Galago senegal ensis, extensive fossil casts and skeletal collections, and a variety of specimens for dissection. Faculty interests are in relationships between social organization and ecology, infant socialization, parental behavior, functional anatomy and locomotion. Faculty also maintain an association with the Primate Foundation of Arizona, a private chimpanzee breeding colony. Research on chimpanzee social behavior, growth, and development are underway.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Leanne T. Nash (social behavior and ecology of primates, socialization, galagos, experimental analysis of behavior); Mary W. Marzke (physical anthropology, primate anatomy, paleoanthropology, human evolution, growth and development).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Drs. Leanne T. Nash or Mary W. Marzke, Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-2402 [602-965-6213; Dr. Nash: 602-965-4812; Dr. Marzke: 602-965-6237].

*Primate Foundation of Arizona, in association with Arizona State University.
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: A private, non-profit, breeding colony pursuing research in social behavior and development to improve captive management and the quality of life and reproductive potential of captive chimpanzees. Internships: Minimum of 30 days. No stipend. Study the behavior, biology, and management of captive chimpanzees.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Jo Fritz, Director & Research Director; Susan Maki, Ph.D., Asst. Research Director (social behavior); Leanne Nash, Ph.D., Professor of Anthropology, A.S.U. (social behavior); Mary Marzke, Ph.D., Professor of Anthropology, A.S.U. (physical growth and development); Paul Fritz, Colony Director (general colony management).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Jo Fritz, Director, Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 86, Tempe, AZ 85280.


*University of California, Berkeley, Department of Anthropology
PROGRAM NAME AND DESCRIPTION: Primate Studies Program. A comprehensive program in primate studies emphasizing behavior, development, and ecology and focused on primate species as integrated systems.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Phyllis Dolhinow (development and behavior of human and nonhuman primates, primate evolution); Katharine Milton (energetics, dietary ecology, and digestive anatomy of human and nonhuman primates).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Graduate Office, Dept. of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720.

*University of California, Davis, Psychology Department
PROGRAM NAME: Comparative Psychology and Physiological Psychology are specializations within the Psychobiology program.
FACULTY & THEIR SPECIALTIES: Leo M. Chalupa (central mechanisms of vision, prenatal development of sensory systems in the mammalian brain); Richard G. Coss (developmental psychobiology, evolution, experimental aesthetics, antipredator behavior); Kenneth R. Henry (audition, physiological psychology, behavioral genetics, developmental psychobiology, aging); G. Mitchell (captivity and behavior, comparative primate psychology, the family in public places); Robert M. Murphy (animal behavior, genetic correlates of behavior, psychopathology); Donald H. Owings (communication and antipredator behavior, ground squirrel behavior); Sally P. Mendoza (behavioral endocrinology, physiological basis of primate social relationships, stress and reproduction); Robert Sommer (environmental psychology, abnormal psychology, action research).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Graduate Admissions, Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.


*University of Florida, Psychology Department
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Marc N. Branch (behavioral pharmacology, experimental analysis of behavior).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Marc N. Branch, Psychology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 [904-392-6731].


*Emory University, Department of Psychology
PROGRAM NAME & DESCRIPTION: Psychobiology Program. All faculty hold joint appointments with the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center and do research at either the Main Station on the Emory Campus or at the Field Station 30 miles away in Lawrenceville GA. All students receive full stipend support and tuition for four years. Four students are accepted in Psychobiology each year, usually two in primate research. There are currently 9 primate research students.
FACULTY & THEIR SPECIALTIES: Ronald Boothe (development of primate vision); Harold Gouzoules (primate communication); Frans de Waal (primate social systems & reconciliation); Kim Wallen (primate behavioral endocrinology & development).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Kim Wallen, Program Director, Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 [404-727-4125; e-mail: kim@!].

*Emory University, Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Behavior and Biology of Primates Training Program: Postdoctoral training is available in several sciences that contribute to our understanding of the behavior and biology of primates. These include: primate behavior, including learning, memory, cognition, communication, social behavior and psychopharmacology; reproductive biology and endocrinology; neurobiology, including neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and psychophysics, particularly as related to visual processes; pathology and primate models of human diseases. Training facilities: Training facilities of the Yerkes Center including its Field Station and Language Research Center as well as a wide variety of other laboratories at the Main Station are available. Funding for Research Associates and Research Fellows generally is derived from individual research grants at the center or fellowships awarded by public and private agencies.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Director, Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322.

*University of Georgia, Athens, Psychology and Anthropology Departments
PROGRAM NAMES: Biopsychology with a specialty area in primatology; Biological Anthropology.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Psychology: Irwin S. Bernstein (primatology, social organization, aggression, sex, dominance); Roger K. Thomas (cognition, intelligence, concept use, learning and memory); B. E. Mulligan (sensory psychology, animal communication, human factors psychology); Joseph D. Allen (human psychophysiology, animal learning, adjunctive behavior, laboratory, instrumentation); Dorothy Fragaszy (behavior, cognition, development, motor skills, social behavior); Dawn Rager (psychoneuroimmunology). Anthropology: Carolyn L. Ehardt (biological anthropology, primate social organization, affiliation, kinship, epidemiology); Ben G. Blount (primate communication, socialization); Charles R. Peters (physical anthropology, human origins, ecology, primate diet, Africa). We also enjoy full cooperation with other departments and universities within the University of Georgia System, as well as collaboration with the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center of Emory University and the Atlanta Zoo.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Biopsychology Program, Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602. Graduate Coordinator for Anthropology (Biological Anthropology Program) Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 [404-542-3922].


*University of Chicago, Dept. of Anthropology, Dept. of Ecology & Evolution, Committee on Evolutionary Biology.
PROGRAM NAMES: Doctoral programs, Committee on Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anthropology, Department of Ecology & Evolution.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Stuart Altmann (Evolutionary Biology: behavioral ecology of primates, especially foraging); Jeanne Altmann (Evolutionary Biology: life histories and behavioral ecology, especially maternal behavior and behavioral ontogeny); Martha McClintock (Biopsychology, Evolutionary Biology, Human Development: menstrual synchrony, pheromonal communication); Russell Tuttle (Anthropology, Evolutionary Biology: primate morphology, locomotion, and behavior). Leigh Van Valen (Evolutionary Biology: population biology and evolutionary theory); Michael J. Wade (Evolutionary Biology: population biology and evolutionary theory); Carole Ober (Obstetrics & Gynecology, Anthropology: human and nonhuman primate genetics).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Any of the above at Committee on Evolutionary Biology, University of Chicago, 940 E. 57th St., Chicago, IL 60637.


*Boston University School of Medicine, Dept. of Anatomy and Neurobiology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Doctoral and post-doctoral training in anatomy. The Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology offers a Ph.D. in anatomy. In addition there is an active post-doctoral training program, with emphasis on neuroanatomy. While a variety of species is utilized in the research projects conducted within the department, a number of members of the faculty (Drs. Pandya, Rosene, Moss, Peters, and Feldman) have programs focused on the rhesus monkey.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: D. N. Pandya (the organization and thalamocortical relations of the cerebral cortex of rhesus monkeys); D. L. Rosene (organization of the limbic system in the rhesus monkey, particularly the connections and histochemistry of the hippocampus and amygdala); M. B. Moss (neuronal plasticity and neurobiology of memory); A. Peters (the intrinsic and ultrastructural organization of cerebral cortex and aging changes in monkey cerebral cortex); M. F. Feldman (aging in brain stem auditory nuclei and cochlea of the rhesus monkey).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Alan Peters, Chairman, Department of Anatomy, Boston Univ. Sch. of Med., Boston, MA 02118.


*University of Mississippi Medical Center, Department of Anatomy
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Ph.D. in Anatomy. The program is intended to provide a broad background in biomedical science, to provide expertise in a selected area of research, and to develop the skills and insights necessary to become an effective teacher and independent investigator. The core curriculum consists of human gross anatomy, microscopic anatomy, and neuroanatomy. Faculty members conduct active research in a variety of areas, including sen sory and motor systems neurobiology, and the role of cells and extracellular matrix in cell, developmental, and cardiovascular biology.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: There are 21 faculty members associated with the department, including the following working with pri mates: Duane E. Haines (cerebellar interconnections with somatic and visceral relay centers); James C. Lynch (functional organization of association cortex); Terence P. Ma (neural control of primate eye movements); Paul J. May (neural control of extraocular and intraocular musculature); Gregory A. Mihailoff (role of the basilar pons in motor control); Susan Warren (neural basis of somatosensory information processing).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Paul J. May, Anatomy Graduate Coordinator, Department of Anatomy, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, MS, 39216-4505 [601-984-1662, Dr. May; 601-984-1640, main Department office; 601-984-1655, FAX].


*University of New Mexico
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Doctoral study in primatology through the Biological or Biosocial Graduate Programs of the Department of Anthropology. Program focus is on either primate systematics and paleobiology or primate socioecology and the evolution of primate behavior.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Jeffery W. Froehlich (primate evolution, systematics, and biogeography, Indonesia, Central America); Jane B. Lancaster (primate social behavior, evolution of human behavior, parental investment theory).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Graduate Secretary, Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 [505-277-4524].


*City University of New York, Anthropology Department
See under: The New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology

*Columbia University, Anthropology Department
See under: The New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology

*Cornell University, Ecology and Systematics Section of the Division of Biological Sciences; Department of Anthropology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Human Biology Program: Primate studies appear in Cornell University's Section of Ecology and Systematics of the Division of Biological Sciences, and in the Department of Anthropology. The primate studies are in both the Human Biology Program for undergraduates and in the graduate program. There are courses, laboratories, and seminars in comparative primate anatomy, primate evolution, primate ecology, and primate paleontology.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Kenneth A. R. Kennedy (primate comparative anatomy, paleontology, and evolution). We curate collections for teaching and research purposes of skeletal material, casts of fossil nonhuman and human primates, and some brains. There are faculty members in the Department of Psychology at Cornell University who have research and teaching programs in primate studies. Persons to contact in Psychology are Drs. Robert Johnston and Barbara Finlay, Uris Hall, Cornell University.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Kenneth A. R. Kennedy, Ecology and Systematics, Division of Biological Sciences, Corson Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 [607-255-6582] and Meredith Small, Department of Anthropology, McGraw Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 [607-255-5137].

*New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology (NYCEP)
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: NYCEP is a new graduate training program funded by NSF, beginning Fall, 1992. It consists of 3 degree-granting institutions--City University of New York (CUNY), Columbia University (CU), and New York University (NYU)--in collaboration with the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) and Wildlife Conservation International (WCI), a division of the New York Zoological Society (the Bronx Zoo). Students will take courses at all three universities, attend seminars that draw on staff of all five cooperating institutions, and may engage in original research in laboratories, museums, and in the field. Members of groups underrepresented in science are especially encouraged to apply. In addition, the graduate programs of the collaborating universities offer full financial aid programs with regular fellowships as well as special opportunities for minority students and all highly qualified applicants regardless of nationality. NYCEP will further offer lab and field internships, special funds for summer research and meeting participation, and additional funds for minority support. Appropri- ate undergraduate majors for NYCEP applicants include biological anthropology and other life sciences. Students apply jointly to NYCEP and to one or more cooperating university.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: (CUNY) Patricia S. Bridges (skeletal biology and paleopathology of human populations); Tim Bromage (paleoanthropology and developmental morphology); Eric Delson (paleoanthropology; catarrhine systematics and evolution, biochronology); Warren G. Kinzey (behavior, ecology, and morphology of South American primates); Jeffrey T. Laitman (paleoanthropology, evolution of speech); John F. Oates (ecology and behavior of catarrhine primates, tropical forest conservation); Frank Spencer (history of biological anthropology); Sara Stinson (population biology of living humans); Frederick S. Szalay (morphology, paleontology, and systemics of primates and other mammals); (AMNH) Ross D. MacPhee (development and systematics of primates and other mammals); Michael Novacek (systematics of mammals and early primates); Ian Tattersall (systematics and evolution of lemuriform primates and hominids); John A. Van Couvering (geochronology and stratigraphy of the Old World Cenozoic); Ward Wheeler (molecular systematics); (CU) Marina Cords (primate behavior, especially African cercopithecids); Ralph L. Holloway (paleoneurology, human evolution); Don J. Melnick (population genetics and molecular evolution of higher primates); (NYU) Terry Harrison (catarrhine systematics, comparative morphology and primate paleontology); Clifford J. Jolly (genetics, systematics, and comparative morphology of primates) (WCI) Mary Pearl (conservation biology, Asian monkeys); John G. Robinson (conservation biology, neotropical primates); Amy Vedder (conservation biology, gorillas and other great apes); (WCI field adjuncts) Marcio Ayres (conservation biology and ecology of neotropical primates, Brazil); Elizabeth Bennett (conservation biology and leaf monkey ecology, Malaysia).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Eric Delson, Department of Vertebrate Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 [212-769-5992; FAX: 212-769-5233].

*New York University, Anthropology Department
See under: The New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology


*Duke University, Department of Biological Anthropology and Anatomy
PROGRAM NAME: Graduate Study in Biological Anthropology and Anatomy.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Kenneth E. Glander (ecology and social organization); William L. Hylander (functional and evolutionary morphology of the masticatory apparatus); Richard F. Kay (anthropoid phylogeny, based especially on cranial and dental anatomy, through paleontological field research); Mary Maas (mammalian evolution, dental functional morphology); Elwyn L. Simons (primate paleontology); Kathleen K. Smith (vertebrate evolutionary morphology); John W. Terborgh (tropical forest ecology); Carel P. van Schaik (socioecology); Frances J. White (behavioral ecology).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Biological Anthropology & Anatomy, Director of Graduate Studies, Box 3170 Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710.


*Kent State University, Psychology Department
PROGRAM NAME: Experimental psychology
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: F. Robert Treichler (primate learning and retention mechanisms; retention of concurrently learned tasks; interference effects in complex retention).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Psychology, Kent State Univ., Kent, OH 44242.

*The Ohio State University, Anthropology Department
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Graduate work in primatology is part of the specialization of the Ph.D. program in physical anthropology. Students are expected to receive training in primate ethology, primate evolution and primate conservation.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Frank E. Poirier (primate ethology, particularly socialization; conservation of endangered species; primate evolution); Paul Sciulli (primate dentition, primate evolution, primate genetics). Additionally, students are advised to take courses in the departments of psychology and zoology and the School of Natural Resources, all of which have faculty interested in primatology.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Frank E. Poirier, Dept. of Anthropology, Lord Hall, The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH 43210


*Oregon Regional Primate Research Center
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: We do not have a formal program in primatology, but we do train pre- and postdoctoral students in using primates for biomedical research. The Oregon Regional Primate Research Center is one of seven federally funded centers designed to advance knowledge about human health problems through research with nonhuman primates. The ORPRC encourages scientists and students from the Northwest and other regions to make use of its unique research opportunities in several disciplines, including reproductive biology and behavior; neuroscience; perinatal physiology; and infectious diseases. The Oregon Health Sciences University in Portland is the host institution of the Center. It provides an academic affiliation, and many ORPRC scientists have faculty appointments at the OHSU School of Medicine. The Center staff includes about 48 scientists with Ph.D., M.D., or D.V.M. degrees, as well as 126 technical, support, and service employees. Among the services provided are veterinary care, surgery, pathology, electron microscopy, radioimmunoassays, flow cytometry, data processing, bibliographic and other library searches, and medical illustration.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: The Center employs four full-time veterinarians who are involved in the daily care for 2,024 nonhuman primates and small laboratory animals.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Oregon Regional Primate Research Center, 505 N.W. 185th Ave., Beaverton, OR 97006. (503) 645-1141.


*University of Pennsylvania, Departments of Anthropology, Biology, and Psychology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Students may enroll for a Ph.D. with a specialization in Primatology in any of the three sponsoring departments; their graduate program will conform in structure and content to the requirements of each department. A group of core interdisciplinary courses is also offered for Primatology students, in addition to courses that pertain to their specialty (e.g., cognition, ecology, behavior). Other resources include the Veterinary School, the Medical School, the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, and the Philadelphia Zoo.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Dorothy L. Cheney (Biology: behavior, communication, cognition); Robert S. O. Harding (Anthropology: ecology, behavior); Robert M. Seyfarth (Psychology: behavior, communication, cognition).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Contact the appropriate person at the department of interest, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA 19104, or [email protected]; [email protected]. edu; or [email protected].


*Vanderbilt University, Dept. of Psychology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: The Psychology Department offers a Ph.D. program where research activities concentrate on sensory and cognitive aspects of primate behavior and the anatomical and physiological substrates for such behavior. Special interests are in the development and evolution of complex sensory-cognitive systems in primates. Research efforts are on Prosimians and several species of Old World and New World monkeys. Methods include computer assisted studies of behavior, microelectrode recordings from behaving animals, and current anatomical and physiological procedures.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: V. A. Casagrande (development of the visual system, behavior, anatomy, and neurophysiology); S. Florence (development of somatosensory system); P. Garraghty (somatosensory system); J. H. Kaas (plasticity of sensory motor systems; normal organization, evolution of complex systems); A. Morrel (auditory system); J. Schall (neural activity during behavior, visuomotor systems).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Jon H. Kaas, Ph.D., Dept. of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, 301 Psychology Building, Nashville, TN 37240.


*University of Texas, Austin, Anthropology Dept.
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: M. A. and Ph.D. degrees are offered in anthropology, with specialization in physical anthropology, including primate anatomy, evolution, and behavior.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Claud A. Bramblett (physical anthropology, primate behavior, osteology); John Kappelman (physical anthropology, paleobiology, primate evolution, functional morphology); Robert M. Malina (physical anthropology, child growth, human adaptability); Liza Shapiro (primate evolution and functional morphology, locomotion).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Anthropology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712.


*University of Washington, Department of Psychology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: The Animal Behavior Program at the University of Washington is dedicated to providing the best possible graduate training in scholarly knowledge, research techniques, theory and actual investigative work with animals both in the laboratory and in their natural habitat or zoos. The program leads to the Ph.D. in Psychology, with special training in animal behavior (including primate social behavior). It is administered by the core faculty in animal behavior, listed below. One of the great assets of the Animal Behavior Program is the interest and competence of faculty in departments other than Psychology. Cordial and cooperative relationships exist with behavior-oriented colleagues in Zoology, Sociology, Anthropology, Wildlife Science (College of Fisheries and Forest Resources), the Institute for Environmental Studies and the Regional Primate Research Center. Excellent relations and research potential also exist with the Woodland Park Zoo in Seattle.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Joan S. Lockard (primate social behavior, human ethology, zoo animal behavior, neurobehavior); Michael D. Beecher, (animal communication, avian sociobiology and ecology); Gene P. Sackett (primate development and behavior); David P. Barash (sociobiology, behavioral ecology, animal behavior and evolution); Robert C. Bolles (animal behavior, learning, and motivation); Eliot A. Bremowitz (animal behavior, neuroethology, neuroendocrinology, animal communication).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Joan S. Lockard, Ph.D., Dept. of Psychology NI-25, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95.


*University of Wisconsin, Madison, Psychology, Anthropology and Zoology Departments
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Several Departments have programs related to primatology in addition to the Primate Center. Facilities for captive research include rhesus macaques, squirrel monkeys, cotton-top tamarins and pygmy marmosets. Active field research programs are current in Colombia, Brasil, and Rwanda. A masters program in Conservation Biology and Sustainable Development has a strong emphasis on primate conservation.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Walter Leutenegger (Anthropology: evolutionary biology, morphological adaptations); Karen B. Strier (Anthropology: primate behavioral ecology); Christopher Coe (Psychology: Director, Harlow Primate Laboratory, psychoimmunology); Charles T. Snowdon (Psychology and Zoology: communication, reproductive biology and behavior); Timothy Moermond (Zoology: Director, Conservation Biology and Sustainable Development, behavioral ecology, foraging behavior, community ecology)
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Contact the faculty members listed for each program, or the Admissions Secretary of the appropriate department: University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.

University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Department of Anthropology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Ecology, population genetics, comparative anatomy, and aging in primates, especially African monkeys. DNA analysis for paternity determination of non-human primates. Evolution, behavior, and functional morphology of non-human primates. More than 500 embalmed and skeletonized specimens of Cercopithecus aethiops, C. ascanius , Cercocebus albigena, Papio cynocephalus, Saimiri sciureus Cebus albifrons, and Saguinus nigricollis. The Department of Anthropology has graduate programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Fred Anapol (primate functional morphology, muscle biology, skeletal analysis); Trudy R. Turner (DNA analysis, nonhuman primate population genetics, ecology and evolution, medical genetics); Neil C. Tappen, emeritus (primate anatomy, ecology, and evolution; structure and function of bone and muscle).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201.

*University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Students may conduct research at the Center by enrolling in an appropriate academic department at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and by choosing a faculty advisor with Center affiliation. Appropriate departments for graduate students hoping to do research at the Center include Psychology, Zoology, Anthropology, Physiology, Pathology, Veterinary Science, and Meat and Animal Science, as well as such interdisciplinary programs as the Endocrinology-Reproductive Physiology Program and the Neuroscience Training Program. For information about these departments and programs, potential students should write to The Graduate School, Bascom Hall, UW-Madison, Madison, WI 53706.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Ph.D. level staff (* indicates joint faculty appointment at UW-Madison). David Abbott* (natural regulation of fertility); Barry Bavister* (fertilization and embryonic development); William Bridson* (gonadotropic physiology); Philippa Claude (cellular response to trophic factors and hormones); Christopher Coe* (behavioral endocrinology, adrenal-immune interactions); Donald Dierschke* (endocrinology of ovaries and pituitary); J. Stephen Gartlan (field ecology and behavior); Thaddeus Golos (hormone action and gene expression); Robert Goy* (behavioral endocrinology); John Hearn* (developmental and reproductive physiology); Joseph Kemnitz (behavioral and physiological regulation of energy balance); Miroslav Malkovsky* (immunology and virology); David Pauza* (mucosal immunity); Kevin Schultz* (virology/ microbiology); Ei Terasawa (reproductive neuroendocrinology); James Thomson (experimental Embryology); Hideo Uno (comparative pathobiology).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: John P. Hearn, Director, Wisconsin Primate Center, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715.


*University of Calgary, Department of Anthropology
PROGRAM NAME AND DESCRIPTION: Master of Arts in Anthropology. The Department awards an MA in Anthropology for primatology studies (in addition to more traditional anthropological fields). The orientation is towards behavioral and behavioral ecological approaches, but work in primate anatomy and in palaeoprimatology are also acceptable. The program is nominally of two years duration, and requires completion of coursework (3 full course equivalents / 6 term credits), a formal research proposal defence, research which is normally in the form of field work, the preparation and defence of a thesis. Students in the department have conducted field research on howler monkeys, captive gorillas, captive bonobos, and Japanese macaques. Special relationships exist with the South Texas Primate Observatory (Arashiyama RAS troop). A PhD program is in preparation, but special PhD applications will be considered by the Dean of Graduate Studies.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Pamela J. Asquith (Japanese primatology, cultural effects on science); Usher Fleising (sociobiology, methodology, ecology); Mary McDonald Pavelka (behavior, social dynamics, Japanese macaques); James D. Paterson (behavioral ecology, thermobiology, allometry and bioenergetics, postural studies, evolutionary and taxonomic theory, computers, methodology and data acquisition).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: U. Fleising, Head, Department of Anthropology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive N.W., Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4 [E-mail: uncamult.bitnets or uncamult. bitnet].


*University of Toronto, Department of Anthropology
PROGRAM NAME: Physical Anthropology; Primate Studies.
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Primate studies are part of the program of the sub-field of Physical Anthropology. Undergraduate and graduate courses in primate studies include social behavior, demography, ecology, and anatomy. Ph.D. dissertations have dealt with Macaca spp.; Cercopithecus, and Papio. Graduate students follow the M.A. program (four courses and a comprehensive exam) and specialize thereafter.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Frances D. Burton (social behavior, cognition; macaques -- currently hybrid macaques of Kowloon. Becky Sigmon (paleoanthropology, primate anatomy); David R. Begum (primate evolution; Miocene hominoids).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Prof. F. D. Burton, Dept. of Anthropology, University of Toronto, 100 St. George St., Toronto, P.O., M5S 1A1.


*Universities of Edinburgh, St Andrews and Stirling
PROGRAM NAME AND DESCRIPTION: Scottish Primate Research Group. Increasing collaboration over recent years has led to the formation of this research group with a core membership of fieldworkers from the 3 universities. Each institution provides funds to facilitate regular attendance at joint research meetings. Field studies are carried out at several African sites, especially in Gabon, Kenya, and Tanzania.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Elizabeth Rogers (Zoology, Edinburgh: Feeding ecology of African apes); William C. McGrew (Psychology, Stirling: Socio-ecology of wild apes, especially chimpanzees, laterality of function); Richard Byrne (Psychology, St Andrews: Deception in primates, manual skill and laterality, foraging behavior); Andrew Whiten (Psychology, St Andrews: Developmental behavioral ecology, social learning, cognition).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. D. Milner, Postgraduate Admissions, Dept. of Psychology, Univ. of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9JU, Scotland; Dr. W. C. McGrew, Dept. of Psychology, Univ. of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, Scotland.

* * *

All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. (Phone: 401-863-2511)


The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
Service Grant RR-00419 from the Animal Resources Program,
Division of Research Resources, N.I.H.

Cover photo of a 33-year-old male rhesus (Macaca mulatta)
with a companion juvenile, by Viktor Reinhardt,
University of Wisconsin, Madison

Copyright @1992 by Brown University

Editor: Judith E. Schrier, M. Sc.
Associate Editor: James S. Harper, D.V.M.
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar, D.V.M.
Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen, B. A.
Founding Editor: Allan M. Schrier, Ph.D.