Laboratory Primate Newsletter



Articles and Notes

Guest Editorial: Primate Well-Being Is Not Promoted by Suit, by C. Crockett ...... 1

Comments on Baytril@ Antimicrobial Therapy and Considerations for Intramuscular Antibiotic Therapy in Captive Primates, by A. S. Line ...... 3

Ethics in Primatology, by A. J. Petto & K. D. Russell ...... 4

Toys as Environmental Enrichment for Captive Juvenile Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), by N. Shefferly, J. Fritz, & S. Howell ...... 7

What Really Happened in Rio? by A. Jolly ...... 10

Prediction of Affiliation and Sexual Behavior in Rhesus Monkeys with Previous Familiarity, by D. R. Rasmussen ...... 12

Enrichment for Primates in a Toxicology Facility, by J. McNulty ...... 16

News, Information, and Announcements

Information Requested and Available ...... 6
. . Animal Research "Summaries", Great Ape Introductions

Research Report: Paternity Analysis Using Hair Samples ...... 9

Research and Education Opportunities ...... 16
. . Wildlife Preservation Trust, Earthwatch

News Briefs ...... 17
. . Gorilla births at Calgary, Update on Karisoke Research Center, New SCAW Board Members, House Science Committee Reorganization, New NIH Directors

Meeting Announcements ...... 19
. . Information Requirements Workshop, Ethical Issues of Animal Use, Space Station Utilization Conference, Vertebrate Morphology, Lab Animal Facility Design, Seminars in Primatology, Chimpanzoo Conference, Pithecanthropus Centennial Congress, Symposium on Models for AIDS, International Conference on Orangutans, 1994 ASP/ABS Meeting Announcement

Grants Available ...... 21
. . Research Fellowships in India, Research Grants Program, Alzheimer's Research Grants and Awards, Research Associateships, Postdoctoral Residential Fellowships, Fulbright Scholar Awards, Small Facility Improvement, Small Research Grants Discontinued, Brain and Behavior

Travellers' Health Notes ..... 36
. . Cholera Update, Hepatitis E Warning

The Assignment Was To Do Homework, Boys, Not To Go Ape, by K. Wolman ...... 2

Cartoon Time


Address Changes ...... 15

Positions Available ...... 24
. . Field Assistants, Venezuela, Postdoctoral Position, Animal Resources Technologist, NASA Seeks Veterinarian, Veterinarian, Knoxville, TN, Postdoctoral Research Associate

Recent Books and Articles ...... 26

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Guest Editorial: Primate Well-Being Is Not Promoted by Suit

Carolyn Crockett
Washington Regional Primate Research Center

On February 25, Judge Charles R. Richey of Federal District Court in Washington, D.C., struck down the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal Welfare Rules which were published in February 1991 in the Federal Register. Written in response to the 1985 amendment to the Animal Welfare Act, the regulations cover, among other animal groups, nonhuman primates. The regulations were designed to fulfill the amendment's mandate that research and zoological institutions promote the "psychological well-being" of their captive primates.

The animal rights groups claimed that the USDA, in formulating the regulations, bowed down to the organizations that it is supposed to regulate. The other side of the story is that, given the current state of knowledge, the USDA's 1991 rules represent the best protection of laboratory primates' interests since the enactment of the Animal Welfare Act in 1966.

For several years I have conducted research pertinent to the determination of primate "psychological well-being" in various laboratory environments and conditions. Our lab, like many others around the country, is attempting to collect data that are essential to rational regulation but that were largely lacking when the U.S. Congress passed legislation to promote "psychological well-being" of research primates.

The essential controversy seems to be that the animal rights community wants the animal welfare rules to be "engineering standards," i.e., a specific list of minimum requirements giving the force of law to simplistic ideas of what primates supposedly need to promote their "psychological well-being" (PWB). The USDA, recognizing the lack of scientific knowledge on which to base engineering-style standards, took another route. After an attempt at engineering-type standards in 1989, the agency came out with a 1991 version which included a mixture of engineering standards and "performance standards" whereby, "Dealers, exhibitors, and research facilities must develop, document, and follow an appropriate plan for environment enhancement adequate to promote the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates. The plan must be in accordance with the currently accepted professional standards as cited in appropriate professional journals or reference guides, and as directed by the attending veterinarian (USDA, 1991, Federal Register 56 (32): 6499)." In short, the USDA gave the research community the opportunity to experiment with a variety of approaches and to collect scientific data in order to develop procedures shown to promote "psychological well-being."

The wisdom of that approach became evident as studies were conducted to test conventional opinions of what primates need. The results of some studies have certainly been eye-openers, and I have learned over the past four years how very dangerous it is to be anthropomorphic. For example, while some toy-type enrichments have been found to improve PWB of some primates, there are many examples where no changes in behavior were recorded, and some animals ignored the "enrichment."

The principal "engineering standard" that remained in the 1991 regulations was cage size, which is easy to measure and therefore easy to standardize. The National Institutes of Health's guidelines on cage size, which were developed to be applied in accord with "professional judgment," were transformed into rigid engineering standards with the force of law behind them. But, were there any data to suggest that an animal living in a cage that is one or two inches too short along one dimension suffers from negative PWB?

We recently completed a study on longtailed macaque monkeys' hormonal and behavioral responses to five cage sizes. This monkey species, native to Indonesia, is involved in many research studies. Within cage sizes ranging from 20% to 140% of the legal size, there was no significant difference in appetite, abnormal behavior, or stress hormones collected unobtrusively from urine. Nevertheless, in accord with the 1991 final rule, all U.S. research institutions have been rushing to comply with the cage sizes by the deadline of February 1994. Our institution alone has spent more than $400,000, to increase the size of "substandard" caging, in most cases by an inch or two. Those are wasted dollars.

More vexing has been the engineering-style 1989 rule that has proven potentially detrimental to certain primates. The rule, based on the fact that primates are social animals, assumes that there is a compatible partner for virtually every primate, that it should be located, and that they should be housed together. The rule stated: "Nonhuman primates must be housed in primary enclosures with compatible members of the same species or with compatible members of other nonhuman primate species, in pairs, family groups, or other compatible social groupings," with some very narrow exceptions.

We have completed a study of same-sex pair housing of adult long-tailed macaques. While all of our female pairs were compatible and spent a lot of time in friendly interaction, only 40% of the male pairs were compatible, and if we had not clipped their canine teeth, we would have had many seriously injured animals. Most primates are not only social in nature but also aggressive in nature. Determining compatible social groupings is not presently amenable to engineering standards and will involve exposing some primates to stress and injury. A fight or two doesn't mean that animals are "incompatible," but how much fighting or how little affiliative interaction mean "incompatibility?" Pairing adult male longtailed macaques introduces a risk of trauma that may be too high. How can the USDA write an engineering standard for meeting the "social needs" of adult male long-tailed macaques in a manner that would benefit the animals involved?

Other research at our center compared the "psychological well-being" of infant macaques who lived together in pairs and infant macaques which were singly housed but in a nursery setting. The individually housed monkeys spent 30 minutes in daily socialization with other infant monkeys in a nursery playroom. The pair-living monkeys showed higher rates of mutual clinging, fear, withdrawal and other behaviors that are maladaptive with respect to social development. The single housing of infant macaques, with 30 minutes of playroom socialization, is a much more successful rearing strategy but is illegal under the 1989 rules because social contact is not in the primary enclosure.

Perhaps engineering standards could be a goal, but it is clear that scientists must be allowed to collect more data before such standards can be realistically written. The USDA should not be forced by the courts to do the impossible. It's not fair to the agency, responsible researchers, the primates, or the taxpayer. I would rather see money spent on staff to implement environmental enhancement plans than to make minor changes to stainless steel that will have absolutely no effect on the "psychological well-being" of primates.


Author's address: Washington RPRC, SJ-50, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. This essay, edited from a posting on PRIMATE-TALK computer bulletin board, has been submitted to the Editorial-Opinion section of The Washington Post. The original posting, revised slightly, will appear in the American Journal of Primatology.

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Comments on Baytril� Antimicrobial Therapy and Considerations for Intramuscular Antibiotic Therapy in Captive Primates

Ann S. Line
Bowman Gray School of Medicine

The antimicrobial enrofloxacin (Baytril�, Mobay Corporation, Shaw- nee, KS) is widely used in captive primates as a treatment for bacterial diarrheal diseases. Two Baytril preparations currently marketed for treatment of canine and feline infections are used by primate veterinarians: tablets (5.7 mg and 22.7 mg) and a parenteral formulation (22.7 mg/ml) labelled for intramuscular (IM) administration. Based on a previous pharmacokinetic study of the oral formulation, a 5 mg/kg Baytril dose given once every twenty-four hours has been recommended for treatment of primate shigellosis (Line et al., 1992). Although the initial study of a multiple antibiotic resistant strain of S. flexneri described a ten-day course of Baytril treatment, I have been using a five-day course of therapy for primate shigellosis with equal success. My preference is to use the oral formulation (by orogastric intubation) whenever possible, but once-daily IM injections of 5 mg/kg for five days have also been used. Further work is needed to determine whether five days of Baytril therapy for treatment of Shigella enterocolitis represents the optimal approach, and whether alternate administration techniques, such as subcutaneous injection, are safe and effective. It is worth noting that the injectable preparation of Baytril carries a manufacturer's recommendation to begin therapy with a single IM injection and to continue therapy with tablets given orally.

The potential for increased risk of complications secondary to IM injections in human infants and children with less muscle mass than adults is of concern to pediatricians. Common drugs such as penicillin and cephalothin are recognized irritants that have been associated with neurovascular and muscular complications. A study by Losek and Gyuro (1992) showed that many pediatricians used injection techniques that placed their patients at risk for complications. They propose the following guidelines: 1) Avoid the dorsogluteal area; use the anterio- lateral quadriceps at the junction of the middle and distal thirds: in human infants it is the site least likely to be complicated by neurovascular injuries. 2) Select a needle length not longer than one inch. 3) Limit the volume for IM injection at one site to 0.5 ml (for small human newborns) or 1.0 ml maximum for infants and children less than 2 years), as a means of lowering the risk of sterile abscess formation, muscle contractures and vascular compression injuries. 4) Pinch the muscle with the free hand to stabilize and expose more muscle mass. 5) Insert the needle in an inferior direction at a 45 degree angle to the long axis of the leg. 6) If there is no blood on aspiration, inject with a uniform force over three to four seconds.

Many primate species, size and body weights are comparable to those of human infants or children less than two years old, and procedures and precautions used in human pediatric practice can provide helpful guidelines for concerned primatologists.


Line, A. S., Paul-Murphy, J., Aucoin, D. P., Hirsh, D. C. (1992). Enrofloxacin treatment of long-tailed macaques with acute bacillary dysentery due to multiresistant Shigella flexneri IV. Laboratory Animal Science, 42, 240-244. [See abstract on p. 33 of this issue.]

Losek, J. D. & Gyuro, J. (1992). Pediatric intramuscular injections: Do you know the procedure and complications? Pediatric Emergency Care, 8, 79-81.


Author's address: Dept. of Comparative Medicine, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC 27103.

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Ethics in Primatology

Andrew J. Petto and Karla D. Russell
New England Regional Primate Research Center and New Mexico Regional Primate Research Lab

"The question facing us all is whether it is rational to cultivate an increased awareness of our own acting and thinking" (Dyck, 1977:28).

One major objective in comparative studies of behavior and biology is to understand our place in nature by observing traits among close relatives in the same and different environments. The study of the range of expression of behavioral and biological characteristics among primate taxa seeks to unravel the complex pattern of shared and unique traits that at once unite us into a coherent taxonomic order and at the same time separate us into hundreds of variations on these themes.

Recently this research has also been called upon to address the meaning of the many similarities between human and nonhuman primates and what implications they have for interspecific relationships -- especially for the scientific use of animals (e.g., see Davis and Balfour, 1992). Often these are issues for which we are poorly prepared by our (lack of) training in solving ethical problems and by the lack of emphasis in our professional education on the implications of our scientific research outside the circle of professionals that constitute our primary audience.

To address the questions of professional ethics in primatology, we must ask two main questions of our science. First, what information do we have already in hand that could or should inform the debate on how we treat and relate to other animals? Second, what information could or should we be seeking to resolve conflicting views about the nature of these relationships?

Critical Anthropomorphism

One promising approach to this problem has been called "critical anthropomorphism" (CA [Morton et al., 1990]). CA aims to identify and understand the basis of our empathetic responses to animals we encounter. CA accepts interpretations and professional actions derived from these empathetic responses when they are based on well-documented biological and behavioral similarities among species.

As a result the professional discussion expands from lists of shared (or conflicting) characteristics to one focused on how empathetic responding is expressed among nonhuman primates and how we might recognize, record, and interpret it (e.g., Povinelli et al., 1992; Cheney and Seyfarth, 1990). Ultimately, we might ask how we might study empathetic responding in the way that we study other behavioral characteristics more commonly considered "human" (e.g., "lying," Whiten and Byrne, 1988; or even "ethics," Povinelli and Godfrey, in press) in their various manifestations across primate taxa.

Even if, as it seems likely from this approach, these studies alert us to a potential conflict of moral interests (Davis and Balfour, 1992), application of CA may help us to derive a clearer concept of the ethical implications of particular professional activities. Finally, we must recognize that the ethical issues regarding the appropriate relationship between human and nonhuman animals cannot be resolved by scientific research alone -- i.e. that more, or even better, biology will not answer these questions (Rodd 1990), but must be considered within a professional ethical framework.

Issues in Practice

The role and acceptance of empathy for research subjects varies by the research setting (Arluke, 1990) and also by the ways in which the animals are used (Donnelley et al., 1990). Each scientific use of animals and each research question raises ethical concerns that are often expressed or experienced in their most fundamental and unarticulated form as an empathetic response to the subject.

One potential approach to these issues is called "moral ecology". As defined by Donnelley and colleagues (1990, p.11), moral ecology is the framework for judging the relative "good" of scientific activities based on the study of animals. This framework takes into account the "good" that can be derived from the scientific activity (e.g., basic research, animal testing, education, conservation), the context in which the animal lives (purpose-bred laboratory animals, unhabituated free-ranging groups, provisioned or managed populations), and "proportionality" (the balance of potential harm to animals and their capacity for suffering "harm" with the appropriate attention to scientific merit, research design, and ability of the research staff to carry out the project successfully).

Issues in Education

The empathetic responses of new staff and students may be the best starting point for the consideration of potential ethical questions in our studies of nonhuman primates (e.g., Bowd, 1980; Arluke, 1990). These should have a well-defined place in the professional development and training of academic or applied primatologists.

A general outline of such a program (Hastings Center, 1980) identified four elements necessary to formalize ethical training among professionals. These are 1) an appreciation for the seriousness of the issues; 2) formal exposure to solving ethical problems in preprofessional and professional curricula; 3) practical experience in recognizing ethical issues in research and their resolution; 4) ongoing exploration of these issues as an essential part of professional education and development.


The response to Arthur Dyck's question is that it is rational "to cultivate an increased awareness of our own acting and thinking" (Dyck, 1977:28); however, an important part of this cultivation is that it is firmly rooted in the scientific tradition in which we act and think. This means accepting the information we have gained from past studies, while accepting that what those studies have taught us about nonhuman primates may affect our future ability to carry out those studies. On the other hand, it also means asking how our science can provide us with new scientific information that is still unavailable but necessary for the resolution of outstanding issues in the area of human-nonhuman relations.

In essence, to take up Dyck's challenge is to develop a professional consensus among primatologists about ethical considerations of our work with nonhuman primates--one that extends beyond our legal and statutory responsibilities. This consensus should be based solidly on the scientific data that we uniquely collect (what we do know) and should recognize that our empathy for our subjects may not be just irrational or "uncritical" anthropomorphism (Morton et al., 1990; Lockwood, 1986).

We believe that critical anthropomorphism and moral ecology are two promising approaches to the consideration of ethical interests in primatology. First, both take advantange of the factual knowledge that we have about nonhuman primate behavior and biology. Second, their application is in accordance with the scientific expertise and research methods that are already a major part of our preprofessional training and professional development.

The Editors would like to remind readers that a day-long conference on ethics and primatology will be held on August 18, 1993, in conjunction with the 1993 meeting of the American Society of Primatologists (ASP) at Sturbridge, MA. This conference is dedicated to the memory of Allan Schrier, his mother, and his parents-in-law. For more information, contact Andrew J. Petto, at the address on p. 14, or at 508-624-8089 [FAX: 508-624-8190; Bitnet: petto2@husc3].


Arluke, A. (1990). Uneasiness among laboratory technicians. Lab Animal, 19[4], 20-39.

Bowd, A. D. (1980). Ethical reservations about psychological research with animals. Psychological Record, 30, 201-210.

Cheney, D. L. & Seyfarth, R. M. (1990). How Monkeys See the World: Inside the Mind of Another Species. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

Davis, H., & Balfour, A. D. (1992). (Eds). The Inevitable Bond: Examining Scientist-Animal Interactions. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Donnelley, S. (with Dresser, R., Kleinig, J., & Singleton, R.) (1990). Animals in science: The justification issue. In: S. Donnelley & K. Nolan (Eds.), Animals, Science, and Ethics. Hastings Center Report, 20[3]. Supplement, 8-13.

Dyck, A. J. (1977). On Human Care: An Introduction to Ethics. Nashville: Abington.

Hastings Center Project on the Teaching of Ethics (1980). The Teaching of Ethics in Higher Education. Hastings-on-Hudson, NY: Hastings Center Institute of Society, Ethics, and the Life Sciences.

Lockwood, R. (1985) Anthropomorphism is not a four-letter word. In M. W. Fox & L. D. Mickley (Eds.) Advances in Animal Welfare Science (pp. 185-199). Boston: Martinus Nijhoff.

Morton, D. F., Burghardt, G. M., & Smith, J. A. (1990). Critical anthropomorphism, animal suffering and the ecological context. In: S. Donnelley & K. Nolan (Eds.), Animals, Science, and Ethics, Hastings Center Report, 20[3], Supplement. 13-19.

Povinelli, D. J. & Godfrey, L. R. (in press). The chimpanzee's mind: How noble in reason? How absent of ethics ? In M. H. Nitecki & D. V. Nitecki (Eds.), Evolutionary Ethics. Albany: SUNY Press.

Povinelli, D. J., Parks, K. A., & Novak, M. A. (1992). Role reversal by rhesus monkeys, but no evidence of empathy. Animal Behaviour, 43, 269-281.

Rodd, R. (1991). Biology, Ethics, and Animals. New York; Oxford Uni- versity Press.

Whiten, A. & Byrne, R. W. (1988). Tactical deception in primates. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 11, 233-273.


First author's address: Div. of Behavioral Biology, New England Regional Primate Research Center, PO Box 9102, Southborough, MA 01772-9102. This work was funded in part by a grant from the Edna H. Tompkins Trust and by NIH grant # (RR)00168 to the New England Regional Primate Research Center.

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Toys as Environmental Enrichment for Captive Juvenile Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

Nancy Shefferly, Jo Fritz, and Sue Howell
Primate Foundation of Arizona


Object manipulation is an important part of the primate behavioral repertoire and is one of the characteristic features which distinguish primates from other mammals. Providing manipulable objects (toys) to captive primates assists in fostering typical manipulative behaviors and enriches the captive environment (Bayne, 1991). In particular, providing toys for captive chimpanzees(Pan troglodytes) increased activity levels and decreased time spent in stereotypic or pathological behaviors (Berkson & Fitz-Gerald, 1963; Bloomstrand et al., 1986; Fouts et al., 1989).

Toys must be evaluated for safety and effectiveness. They should have no sharp edges, and no possibility of entrapment or strangulation. Within these guidelines, indestructible toys (e.g., hard plastic balls) and destructible toys (e.g., cardboard and paper containers) have both been used to provide enrichment for captive primates (Bayne, 1991; Bloomsmith et al., 1990, 1991). In a study with cynomolgus monkeys, Bryant et al. (1988) showed that destructible objects sustained interest longer than indestructible toys. Recently, Pruetz and Bloomsmith (1992) tested the effectiveness of kraft wrapping paper and rubber toys as enrichment devices and found adult chimpanzees played with the wrapping paper more than the rubber toys, suggesting that the paper was a more worthwhile enrichment object than the indestructible rubber toy.

The present study was designed to compare the effects of destructible and indestructible toys on behavior patterns of socially housed, juvenile chimpanzees, and to document the effectiveness of several toy types for environmental enrichment in young animals. We also address safety and routine colony maintenance.


Subjects: The subjects were eight juvenile chimpanzees in two similarly caged social groups. Group I included three females and two males, all five years old. Group II included two four-year-old males and one five-year-old female.

Groups were housed in chain link cages measuring 1.8 x 1.8 x 3.0 m. Cages were furnished with two wall benches (approximately 1 m long), and a tire suspended horizontally from the cage ceiling by four heavy chains to provide a swinging nest. Cage floors were covered with straw. Details on routine animal care procedures are available in Fritz & Fritz (1979).

Destructible objects evaluated were a light-weight plastic cup, measuring 15.2 cm in height and approximately 10 cm in diameter; an empty, plastic, 2-liter soft drink bottle; and a medium-weight plastic food storage box measuring 12.7 x 12.7 x 17.8 cm. Indestructible objects were polyethylene Boomer Balls� of two different sizes and colors. Group I received a tan ball 25.4 cm in diameter and approximately 1.1 kg in weight. Group II received a yellow ball 15.2 cm in diameter and approximately 0.9 kg in weight.

Procedure: There were six experimental conditions. The first was a five-day control period during which none of the enrichment objects were available. The second and third were a two-week exposure to the indestructible polyethylene ball. The two weeks were divided into the initial two days with the ball, followed by the remainder of the time with the ball. This division allowed a comparison of the effect of an indestructible object and the effect of objects with short life spans. The remaining three conditions were separate exposures to each of the three plastic containers. The order of exposure was cup, bottle, box. The object was left continuously in the subjects' cages until the condition ended, which was when the object's shape was no longer recognizable. Destruction was accomplished by crushing or tearing into pieces. The life span of the destructible toys was approximately two days.

Observations were made Monday through Friday between 0800 and 1100 hours, and between 1300 and 1600 hours. The schedule was designed to balance the number of trials collected from each group at a given time of day. Sampling was by focal group scans at one-minute intervals during 30-minute trials. The behavior of each group member was recorded on intervals, including inactivity, play (social, solitary, with object), affiliative behavior (grooming, embracing), aggression, contact with object, manipulating cage furniture, and abnormal behavior (sucking another animal, rocking).

Analysis: Group I was observed for 34 total observation hours (6.8 hr. per subject) and Group II was observed for 41 total observation hours (13.7 hr. per subject). The number of observations varied slightly between conditions and groups due to differences in the lifespan of the destructible toys. Two of the eight subjects were eliminated from the analysis; one male became ill and a female exhibited signs of social stress that may have affected her reaction to the toys.

The percent of time individuals engaged in various behaviors across conditions was compared using the Friedman two-way analysis of variance. Pair-wise comparisons between conditions were made using two-tailed Wilcoxon matched pairs signed-ranks tests (Friedman Chi-squared and Wilcoxon T values are reported). All alpha levels were at p < 0.05.


The destructible containers often had a greater effect upon behavior than did the balls. Subjects were less "inactive" when destructible objects were present than when there were no toys or when the balls were present (Chi-squared = 20.933; df = 4; p < .001). Differences in time spent in solitary play, social play, affiliative and aggressive behaviors were not significant across conditions.

Although time spent in object play did not vary across conditions, play with destructible objects remained constant throughout the objects' lifespans (about 2 days). In contrast, time spent playing with the balls decreased with time. Further, subjects spent significantly more time in contact with the destructible toys than with the balls (p < .05).

All toys were manipulated and incorporated into social play ("keep away" and "tug of war"), but destructible toys had a wider variety of uses. Subjects carried them in their mouths and groin pockets. The cup and box were used to hold straw, food remains, urine, and feces, and were also frequently "worn" on hands or feet.

Four subjects exhibited abnormal behaviors such as rocking or sucking another animal's appendages (ears or digits). For these subjects, abnormal behaviors were highest when pop-bottles were provided, and lowest when plastic cups were present. However, the differences were not significant.


There were no health problems or injuries associated with the destructible objects. No pieces of plastic were found in feces, indicating that none had been ingested. Juveniles seemed to lose interest in the very small plastic fragments. However, the use of any new kind of toy (destructible or otherwise) should always be closely monitored to prevent injury or illness. We found these particular plastic objects (cups, 2-liter soft-drink bottles--without the caps or metal rings -- and boxes) are appropriate enrichment devices for juvenile chimpanzees. The objects are inexpensive and did not result in additional colony maintenance duties. All objects were washed in hot detergent solution and rinsed in a sanitizing bleach solution prior to being provided to the animals. The pieces of destructible objects were large enough to be quickly swept out of cages and did not clog drains.

The destructible toys were more effective in maintaining the juveniles' interest than was continued exposure to an indestructible toy. These results are similar to those presented by Pruetz and Bloomsmith (1992) for adult chimpanzees and by Bryant et al. (1988) for cynomologus monkeys. Whereas contact with the indestructible toy ball decreased over time, destructible objects maintained a consistent level of interest throughout the toy's lifespan. Since chimpanzees are more responsive to novel stimuli (Welker, 1956), destructible toys may be preferred because they remain novel as they change in shape and size during destruction.

In summary, subjects utilized both destructible and indestructible toys. Provision of both types of toys did not result in significant differences in the time individuals spent in solitary play, social play, affiliative, abnormal, or aggressive behavior. However, destructible objects were preferred, perhaps due to a novelty factor. Where destructible objects cannot be provided, we suggest providing a variety of indestructible objects and changing the objects frequently to maintain novelty and increase their use.


Bayne, K. (1991). Providing environmental enrichment to captive pri- mates. The Compendium of Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian, 1[11], 1689-1695.

Berkson, G. & Fitz-Gerald, F. L. (1963). Eye fixation aspect of attention to visual stimuli in infant chimpanzees. Science, 139, 586-587.

Bloomsmith, M. A., Brent, L. Y., & Schapiro, S. J. (1991). Guidelines for developing and managing an environmental program for nonhuman primates. Laboratory Animal Science, 41, 372-377.

Bloomsmith, M. A., Finlay, T. W., Merhalski, J. J., & Maple, T. L. (1990). Objective evaluation of a behavioral enrichment device for captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Zoo Biology, 5, 293-300.

Bryant, C. E., Rupniak, N. M. J., & Iverson, S. D. (1988). Effects of different environmental enrichment devices on cage stereotypies and autoaggression in captive cynomolgus monkeys. Journal of Medical Primatology, 17, 257-269.

Fouts, R. S., Abshire, M. L., Bodamer, M., & Fouts, D. H. (1989). Signs of enrichment: Toward the psychological well-being of chimpanzees. In E. F. Segal (Ed.), Housing, Care and Psychological Wellbe- ing of Captive and Laboratory Primates (pp.376-388). Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Publications.

Fritz, P. & Fritz, J. (1979). Resocialization of chimpanzees: Ten years of experience at the Primate Foundation of Arizona. Journal of Medical Primatology, 8, 202-221.

Pruetz, J. & Bloomsmith, M. A. (1992). Comparing two manipulable objects as enrichment for captive chimpanzees. Animal Welfare, 1, 127-137.

Welker, W. I. (1956). Some determinants of play and exploration in chimpanzees. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 49, 84-89.


Second author's address: Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027.

1) Boomer Balls , 24171 Route 120, Grayslake, IL 60030.

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What Really Happened in Rio?

Allison Jolly
Princeton University

"Diplomacy will never be the same again," said Maurice Strong, Secretary General of the Earth Summit, in his closing address to the assembled delegates of 153 countries in Rio de Janeiro. What happened in Rio was a quantum shift in relations among the nations, or rather among nations, their peoples, and the Earth. Although the U.S. press focused on President Bush's performance, that was in fact a sideshow. The deeper message is that all nations' presidents are not quite as important as they thought they were--and not as important as they seemed to be two weeks ago.

It is now clear that ecosystems are indeed interdependent. The cycles of atmosphere and ocean, or drinking water and pollutants, are beyond the control of any one nation. It is also clear, as Boutros Boutros Ghali, Secretary General of the United Nations, summed up, that environment and development must never again be treated separately--whether the problem is overdevelopment in the North, the pressure of poverty in Africa, or deforestation and technological change in Southeast Asia, each with its different toll upon the planet. Putting most of the leaders of the world in one room to exchange platitudes about an interconnected Earth was useful. After all, those particular humans had the most personal stake in asserting national sovereignty and are in the hardest position to accept humility.

Even the clash between South and North admitted cross-boundary interdependence. The hardest hitter, President Mahathir of Malaysia, pointed out that "the 25% of the world population who are rich consume 85% of its wealth and produce 90% of its waste. Mathematically speaking, if the rich reduce their wasteful consumption by 25%, worldwide pollution will be reduced by 22.5%. But if the poor 75% reduce consumption totally and disappear from this earth altogether, the reduction in pollution will only be 10%. It is what the rich do that counts, not what the poor do, however much they do it..."

When he sat down, members of delegations rushed over to congratulate him for voicing what so many felt. But President Yoweri Museveni of Uganda countered, "All this division into South and North would make more sense if the atmosphere were in two compartments! It is true that the profit seekers who abuse the environment to make more money are mostly in the north, but most people in the north don't own a factory...and it is not right to say if the north doesn't pay us for saving forests, we'll cut them down. We need the forests for our own climate and water-table and erosion control and medicinal plants. If you cut, who are you hurting? The north, or yourself? We have now ruled that every farm in Uganda should have 10% tree-cover: fruit trees or fuelwood or forest, whatever suits the farmer."

In this context, Bush, like many other heads of state, focused on his own particular country's problems and good deeds. Bush was a big fish with no great insight into the minds of other fish. Much more perceptive was Gro Harlem Brundtland, of Norway: "Conferences like this can only proceed at the rate of the most reluctant in each field. We are going to need much stronger means of international decision making." Or Fidel Castro, who concluded: "With the end of the perceived menace of Communism, what on earth prevents us from doing tomorrow what should have been done long ago?"

But what will actually push the heads of state into doing anything at all tomorrow? People will push them.

The physical set-up of the Rio meetings made it all too clear where the action was. The Global Forum, the People's Summit, was a kaleido- scope of green-and-white tents, Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) stalls, Amazonian Indians in feathers and Californians in saffron robes jostling the CEOs of international conservation bodies. At the center, in the tent run by the Brazilian NGO Planeta Femina and the New York-based Women's Environment and Development Organization, you could discuss the needs of the earth with Bella Abzug of New York, Wangari Maathi of Kenya's Green Belt Movement, Peggy Antrobus of the University of the West Indies in Barbados, Vandana Shiva of the Indian Chipko "Tree-huggers,"", and many, many others. There were plenty of lectures, but also plenty of shouting or giggling back, and a real attempt not just to talk, but also to hear. Bored with speeches, you could wander over to the Nigerian delegation who paid their way by selling indigo-dyed robes that stood out from the body-- the next best thing to wearing nothing at all in the 90~ heat-wave in what should have been Rio's winter.

So equipped, you could go back to hear Gita Sen of Harvard make a metaphor of the Women's Tent itself: green and white plastic segments stretched over a curved aluminum frame, the current northern model of development. The several hundred sweating, wilting women in Sen's audience would, however, have been far better off with the porous cloth roof of a desert nomad's tent--or still better under an openwork shelter of palm-thatch. The standard palliative, to keep a model of hi-tech lifestyle but perhaps develop an AID project encouraging twenty women to make fans to sell the others, does not do much for either the environment or the quality of life. Why not just escape from that suffocating plastic tent?

All around the city, others were questioning basic values. World Parliamentarians met with spiritual leaders to insist that we need real change in sick societies--with speakers as diverse as Senators Gore and Wirth, the Dalai Lama, Dean Morton of St. John the Divine in New York, singer John Denver, and actor Edward James Olmos. Youth groups held their own Summit, concluding explicitly that they must henceforth consider themselves citizens of the world, even before their loyalties to their own countries. Sir Shridath Ramphal, Secretary General of the British Commonwealth, commissioned to write the official book of the conference, even titled his book My Country, the World. And children spoke--children of the Viking ship Gaia, which had sailed from Norway, children of the Rio streets, children as official members of the Dutch delegation.

Thirty kilometers outside Rio, along the corniche road that is incised into granite mountains above the wild surf, protected by sol- diers and tanks and heliocopters, the official delegates met in a frigid and windowless room. It was grey concrete, with grey upholstery, white semi-circular rows of official desks, and serried ranks of dark suits and ties. Bent heads listened through earphones to some- one with bent head at a podium reading his written speech. A few female Heads of State and West Africans in their embroidered robes showed up like cardinals and macaws strayed among the penguins on an ice-floe.

In their cold room, the Heads of State seemed somehow on the defensive, isolated from the world, instead of speaking for the world.

Inevitably, less was accomplished for the environment itself than many hoped, though more than many others desired. The two international conventions on Climate Change and on Biodiversity have been signed by 153 heads of state each, out of 180 countries. (Twelve nations--six each, signed only one of the two, including the USA with its reservations about biodiversity.) Agenda 21, the weighty agenda of actions which was eighteen months in the making, ended with last-ditch battles during three all-night sessions until Tommy Koh of Singapore brought his gavel down for the last time in the small hours of Sunday morning. President Collor de Mello of Brazil, who put his nation's prestige, wealth, hospitality, and even traffic patterns on the line, formally accepted Agenda 21 in the final plenary, along with the statement of principles henceforth known as "The Rio Declaration." My neighbor along the white desk passed a note: "The 21st century began at 10:55 am Rio time on Sunday, June 14, 1992--and we were there."

Then, after the signing, Strong's closing address lifted the meeting back to its proper plane of urgency and idealism. He characterized the significance of all the different Rio conferences when he said, "Diplomacy will never be the same." The parallel summits of leaders and people, of indigenous peoples and women and youth and children, and perhaps above all of the media, not as bystanders but as participants, mean that millions of people all over the world know something about what happened at Rio. And the people may be table to keep their leaders honest. Somehow, at Rio, the Earth proved larger than any nation, and there is reason to hope that Earth's people are outgrowing their nations.


Author's address: Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ 08544-1003. Dr. Jolly wrote this on June 16, 1992.

* * *

Prediction of Affiliation and Sexual Behavior in Rhesus Monkeys with Previous Familiarity

D. R. Rasmussen
Animal Behavior Research Institute and Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center


Familiarity, or the amount of time individuals spend together, influences the social behavior of nonhuman primates and is of both theoretical and applied importance. Familiarity may be a primary proximate mechanism for the matrilineal associations observed in natural and semi-natural groups of macaques (Sackett & Fredrickson, 1987). In captivity, previous familiarity may influence macaques' affiliative, agonistic and sexual interactions (Erwin et al., 1975; Michael & Zumpe, 1978; Williams & Bernstein, 1983).

The degree to which previous familiarity predicts affiliative and sexual behavior is reported in this study. The analyses are part of a study conducted on differences among a nonreproductive and a reproductive group of rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta. Experimental studies of previous familiarity have been conducted on individuals or pairs (Erwin et al., 1975; Sackett & Fredrickson, 1987). This study differs by assessing behavior within groups.

Interactions between individuals within a group of 11 pigtail macaques (M. nemestrina) have been related to their rearing in one of three groups (Capitanio & Reite, 1984). The pigtails strongly preferred those with whom they had been raised. These results are expanded on here by the assessment of the magnitude of covariation between previous familiarity and affiliative and sexual behavior.

In these previous experimental studies of kinship and familiarity, individuals had either spent over 80% of the days of their lives together or were total strangers. This study extends these by analysis of individuals who had a continuous range in degree of previous familiarity.


Housing, Group Composition, and Subjects

The two groups were housed in identical 6.7 x 2.5 x 2.6 m indoor pens. One was composed of a 5-year-old vasectomized male, a 4-year-old vasectomized male, an intact 2-year-old male, four 4-year-old females, one 3-year-old female and three 2-year-old females. The other group was sex and age matched but all males were intact. All females were nulliparous. The 4-year-old and 5-year-old males in both pens ejaculated and consorted with females.

Sampling Methods

The groups were formed on December 10, 1986. Data were collected from January 2, 1987 to June 1, 1987, the day before the birth of the first infant in the control group. I conducted sampling sessions for 14 min on individual focal subjects. Subjects were sequentially selected for sampling from a list of all individuals in both groups. An auditory cue that preceded the 2 min intervals by 15 s was used to signal the next instantaneous sample. The analyses are based on 163 hours of 2 min interval samples.

Variables: Definitions and Sampling Methods

Previous familiarity was assessed by the days individuals spent together from birth until data collection was initiated. The mean previous familiarity between individuals in dyads was 17.6% (SD=23.6%, range = 0 to 94%).
Neighbor distances: The coded distances of the focal subject to the nearest male and the nearest female within 2 m was instantaneously estimated at the beginning of each 2 min interval (codes: contact=0, not touching to 1/3 m = 1, 1/3 - 2/3 m = 2, 2/3 - 1 m = 3, 1 - 4/3 m = 4, 4/3 - 5/3 m + 5, 5/3 - 2 m = 6, greater than 2 m = 7). Two measures of mean distance were calculated: Nearest neighbor distance (NN) was the mean coded distance between a given dyad across all samples. Close neighbor distance (CN) was the mean coded distance between a dyad during intervals when members of the dyad were nearest neighbors.
ALF: Approach, leaves and follows were strongly correlated so they were combined in a composite variable, ALF. All approaches, leaves and follows involving the focal subject were recorded during the 2 min intervals.
Grooming was defined as picking the hair or skin of another with fingers or teeth. Grooming between all group members was concurrently assessed (Chapais, 1986) with 1/0 sampling (Rasmussen, 1984) during the 2 min intervals.
Grooming Presents: An "A => B" grooming present was defined as occurring when A approached B and exposed a body part at 1/3 m or less from B's hands or mouth. All grooming presents involving the focal subject were recorded during the 2 min intervals.
Presents: An "A => B" present was scored when A oriented its anogenital region towards the face of B when B was within 2 m of A. The frequency of all presents involving the focal subject was recorded during the 2 min intervals.
Mounts: An "A => B" mount was scored when A climbed on top of B, placed both hands on B's back and anogenital regions of A and B were aligned as during copulation. The frequency of mounts in the group was concurrently assessed during the 2 min intervals.
Consorts occurred when a male was the nearest neighbor of a female for at least 5 min and the female's sexual skin indicated she was near middle of her menstrual cycle (Czaja et al., 1977). All consorts that occurred during a sampling session were recorded at the end of the session.
Threatening Away (Zumpe & Michael, 1970) was scored for A when A and B were in consort, separated by less than 1 m and A directed a threat away from B. The frequency with which individuals threatened away was concurrently assessed during 2 min intervals.
Ejaculation was recorded if a male paused after several penis thrusts into a female's vagina and maintained a rigid posture for a 5 s or more or if, after intromission, fresh ejaculate was observed on his penis or around the female's vagina. The frequency of ejaculations was concurrently assessed during the 2 min intervals.
Number of Liaisons were used to assess variation in selectivity of heterosexual sexual and affiliative partners. This variable is the number of unique heterosexual dyads who engaged in a pattern of affiliative or sexual behavior. Number of liaisons between neighbors was measured by the number of pairs who were ever close neighbors. Number of liaisons was assessed with nine variables.

Statistical Analyses

Data from the nonreproductive and reproductive groups were pooled since the objective here is to assess how previous familiarity influences affiliative and sexual behavior across groups.

Descriptive Statistics: NN and CN distances were calculated for dyads. Rates of threatening away were calculated for individual subjects. Rates of directional dyadic interactions were calculated for all the other variables.

The variables were regressed on previous familiarity. Transforma- tions were used when necessary to normalize the residuals (Table 1). Threatening away, consorts, and ejaculations occurred between only a few dyads. Individuals were excluded from calculations if both they, and those to whom they were matched in the other group, did not engage in sexual behavior. Dyadic interactions were matched by the age and sex of the subjects within the dyads. Threatening away was scored for individuals so individuals were matched by age and sex between groups. Threatening away was regressed on the mean number of days individuals spent before the experiment with consort partners. The relationships examined were therefore between the sexual behavior of individuals who did engage in sexual behavior or whose matches engaged in sexual behavior and their degree of previous familiarity.

Inferential Statistics: For the dyadic variables, the regressions on previous familiarity include repeated measures on individuals. The significance of the relationships was therefore tested with a nonpar- ametric method (Rasmussen, 1983). First, all the dyads involving a given individual were selected. Second, the Spearman rank order correlation was calculated between interactions in these dyads and their previous familiarity. This procedure was repeated for all group members. Third, a two-tailed binomial test was used to see if more of the correlation coefficients were positive than expected by chance. The correlations for the 5 subjects who were never housed with any group member were excluded from the test. Consorts and ejaculations could not be tested for significance with this method. There were only four correlations that could be calculated: These were the correlations for the four mature males.

Standard Spearman rank correlations were calculated on threatening away and number of liaisons. The Spearman correlation was calculated between threatening away rate for the four subjects who threatened away and the mean number of days they spent with consort partners. The Spearman rank order correlation was calculated between number of liaisons and mean previous familiarity for the nine variables in the two groups. Mean previous familiarity was calculated across pairs who formed liaisons for all variables except threatening away. For threatening away, the mean number of days individuals spent with consort partners was determined.


Affiliation and sexual behavior increased as a function of previous familiarity for all variables except ejaculation (Table 1). NN, CN, ALF, and grooming were significantly associated with previous familiarity.

|Variable        | Transformation  | Correlation |  Number of +,-  | P< |
|                |                 |             |Rank Correlations|    |
|NN              |      None       |    -.31     |      3, 14      |.01*|
|CN              |     Lg(F+1)     |    -.39     |      2, 15      |.01*|
|ALF             |     Lg(D+1)     |    +.24     |     13,  4      |.05*|
|1/0 Grooming    | Lg(F+1) Lg(D+1) |    +.27     |     16,  1      |.01*|
|Grooming Present|     Lg(F+1)     |    +.14     |     12,  5      |.15 |
|Present         |     Lg(F+1)     |    +.22     |      6, 11      |.34 |
|Mount           |     Lg(F+1)     |    +.22     |     12,  5      |.15 |
|1/0 Consort     |     Lg(F+1)     |    +.13     |      1,  3      |    |
|Threaten Away   |      None       |    +.51     |                 |.16@|
|Ejaculation     |      None       |    -.17     |      1,  3      |    |
|No. Liaisons    |Ranked D Ranked F|    +.10     |                 |.71@|
|Lg = Log to base 10   * significant  @ P of Spearman Rank Correlation  |

Table 1: Correlations between the dependent variables (D) and previous familiarity (F), the transformation(s) used to normalize the residuals, the number of Spearman rank order correlation coefficients of positive and negative sign and the P value of the correlations.


The variables found to be significantly associated with familiarity are often used to assess affiliation. The other variables, not significantly associated with familiarity, may, however, assess sexual and agonistic aspects of behavior. For example, threaten away is very closely associated with copulation and agonistic behavior directed away from the consort pair (Zumpe & Michael, 1970).

Degree of previous familiarity significantly predicted many aspects of affiliation in the two rhesus groups. Without appropriate control, differences between experimental and control groups, such as those in this study, may therefore be influenced by previous familiarity.


Capitanio, J. P. & Reite, M. (1984). The roles of early separation experience and prior familiarity in the social relations of pigtail macaques: A descriptive multivariate study. Primates, 25, 475-484.

Chapais, B. (1986). Why do adult male and female rhesus monkeys affiliate during the birth season? In R. G. Rawlins, & M. J. Kessler, (Eds.), The Cayo Santiago Macaques: History, Behavior and Biology (pp. 173-200). Albany: State University of New York Press.

Czaja, J. A., Robinson, J. A., Eisele, S. G., Scheffler, G., & Goy, R. W. (1977). Relationship between sexual skin colors of female rhesus monkeys and mid-cycle plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 49, 147-150.

Erwin, J., Maple, T., & Welles, J. F. (1975). Responses of rhesus monkeys to reunion. In: S. Kondo, M. Kawai & A. Ehara (Eds.), Contemporary Primatology (254-262). S. Karger, Basel.

Michael, R. P., & Zumpe, D. (1978). Potency in male rhesus monkeys: Effects of continuously receptive females. Science, 200, 451-453.

Rasmussen, D. R. (1983). Correlates of patterns of range use of a troop of yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus). II. Spatial struc- ture, cover density, food gathering, and individual behavior pat- terns. Animal Behaviour, 31, 834-856.

Rasmussen, D. R. (1984). Functional alterations in the social organi- zation of bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) induced by ovariectomy: An experimental analysis. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 9, 343-374.

Sackett, G. P. & Fredrickson W.T. (1987). Social preferences by pig- tailed macaques: Familiarity versus degree and type of kinship. Animal Behaviour, 35, 603-606.

Williams, L. E., & Bernstein, I. S. (1983). Introduction and dominance manipulations involving old rhesus males. Folia Primatologica, 40, 175-180.

Zumpe, D., & Michael, R. P (1970). Redirected aggression and gonadal hormones in captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Animal Behav- iour, 18, 11-19.


Author's address: Animal Behavior Research Inst., 314 S. Randall St, Madison, WI 53715. Dr. V. Reinhardt vasectomized the males and helped select subjects. Dr. S. Sholl wrote the program, COMX, used to transfer data between computers. P. DuBois programmed my data collection method for use on laptop computers. Support was provided by a NIMH National Research Senior Service Award, 1 F32 MH09419-01 RERA and NIH. This is publication number 23 of the Animal Behavior Research Institute.

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Enrichment for Primates in a Toxicology Facility

Judi McNulty
Hazleton Laboratories

At Hazleton Laboratories, cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) and rhesus (M. mulatta) monkeys are given single ice cubes of diluted P.R.A.N.G.(1) to provide enrichment without adversely affecting stud- ies. P.R.A.N.G. is a powdered electrolyte used to rehydrate primates. This simple treat, made in refrigerator trays, takes little time to prepare and results in no cleanup for staff. A product analysis, which can be reviewed for possible study-related interferences, is packaged with P.R.A.N.G.

The P.R.A.N.G. cubes can be made with any flavor or dilution, depending on the budget. Our results show an adequate dilution is one scoop (20 g) of P.R.A.N.G. to approximately 44 oz of water. (Environmental enrichment is the objective here, rather than nutrition, since the animals receive fresh fruit daily for extra vitamin C).

Each animal receives a cube at midday twice a week in its cage. Some animals lick them, while others chew them up in seconds. Still other animals tend to play with the cubes until they melt. We have also tried grapes frozen with water in the trays, which is still very economical.

This treat has been given to hundreds of monkeys, and we have found no ill effects (e.g., broken teeth). The ice treats have proven to be easy to make and apparently enjoyable for the monkeys. After the initial investment of trays, supplies, and freezer space, the idea is very economical. It only costs a few cents per monkey, and provides excellent environmental enrichment.


Author's address: Hazleton Laboratories, P.O. Box 7545, Madison, WI 53707-7545. (1)Prima-line P.R.A.N.G., Kaplan Lab. Animal Supplies & Services, San Jose, CA 95118.

* * *

Information Requested and Available

Animal Research "Summaries">

The Foundation for Biomedical Research is offering "animal sheets", a set of seven one-page summaries highlighting the ways different species have contributed to animal research. Each set contains summaries for each of the following species: rats, mice, rabbits, cats, dogs, primates, and miscellaneous animals. The cost is $3 per set for up to 9 sets. For 10 or more sets, the cost is $2.50 per set. Shipping and handling is included. Order, with payment, from: Foundation for Biomedical Research, 818 Connecticut Ave NW, Suite 303, Washington, DC 20006.

Great Ape Introductions

"Published material describing methods used to introduce unfamiliar great apes to each other or to existing groups is scarce. I am interested in compiling an anecdotal record of great ape introductions. Please send me any previously unpublished accounts and information regarding individual or group introductions at your facility. It would be most helpful if accounts included techniques and methods employed. For example, information regarding initial meetings between individuals (e.g., through bars), criteria used to decide when individuals were ready to meet, and length of time of first and subsequent encounters should be included. Please share both your successes and failures. These accounts will be compiled in a published report. Thank you for your cooperation." -- Carole Noon, Dept. of Anthropology, 1350 Turlington, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 [FAX: 904-392-6929] .

* * *

Research Report: Paternity Analysis Using Hair Samples

Investigators at UC-San Diego, led by David S. Woodruff, have developed a noninvasive technique of molecular genotyping, based on DNA extracted from hair specimens. Genetic analysis is integral to management of primate colonies, enabling researchers to monitor and maintain genetic variation in the group, establish precise pedigree relationships, and identify hybrids in colonies in which subspecies have been mixed inadvertently. According to Woodruff, the new technique is superior to existing methods, because it is fast (1 or 2 days), cheap (about half the cost), samples are easy to get, store, and transport (shed hairs can be used, rather than blood samples), and very replicable.

Woodruff suggests that molecular genetic data will lead to a major review of chimpanzee colony management in this country. "Captive chimpanzees show a surprisingly high infant mortality even under the best available care, and I suspect that some of it is due to outbreeding depression, a problem that occurs when you cross two animals that are too distantly related genetically." Phillip A. Morin is using Woodruff's techniques to study wild chimpanzees. He has distinguished three subspecies of common chimpanzees that originate in west, cen- tral, and east Africa, respectively. -- From a report by Mary Ann Moon in the Research Resources Reporter, 1993, 17[1], 7-8.

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Address Changes

G. Agoramoorthy, 169 Guang-Yuh North St., Yang-Mei Town, Taur-Yuan Town, Taiwan 32606, R.O.C.

Norman H. Altman, Univ. of Miami School of Med., Div. of Comp. Path. (R-46), P.O. Box 016960, Miami, FL 33101.

Jane E. Beirise, 405 Tregaron Pl., St. Louis, MO 63131.

Glenn D. Bissell, Drawer 524, 419 Mason St., Suite 126, Vacaville, CA 95688.

N. R. Brewer, 10800 Tara Rd., Potomac, MD 20854.

Neal Clapp, UT/MARCOR, 110 Badger Ave, Oak Ridge, TN 37830.

Gerald W. Cortright, Dept. Anatomy & Cell Biology, Univ. of Michigan, Med. Sci. II, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0616.

Thomas M. Ford, 670 Green Briar Lane, Lake Forest, IL 60045.

Ron Forino, Bio-Devices Labs, 2118 W. Collins Ave, Orange, CA 92667.

Elizabeth Gard, 12861 Travilah Rd, Potomac, MD 20854.

IUCN Library, Rue Mauverney 28, CH-1196 Gland, Switzerland.

David K. Johnson, Assoc. Dir., L.A.R., Sterling Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, 9 Great Valley Pkwy, Malvern, PA 19355.

Steven L. Leary, Asst Vice-Chancellor for Vet. Affairs, Div. of Comp. Med., Washington Univ. School of Med., Box 8061, 660 S. Euclid Ave, St. Louis, MO 63110.

Robert W. Maher, Dupont Merck, Stine Haskell Res. Ctr, 5320/307, P.O. Box 30, Newark, DE 19714-0030.

Irving McConnell, Immunobiology Research Inst., Route 22 East, Annandale, NJ 08801-0999.

Louis R. Nelson, USFHSC MDC Box 20, 12901 Bruce B. Downs Blvd, Tampa, FL 33612-4799.

Cheri Reid-Quinn, R.C. Davis, Inc., 4310 13th St. N.E., Washington, DC 20017-3827.

Conrad B. Richter, Chief Vet. Med. Officer, 15E, Dept. Veterans' Affairs, 810 Vermont Ave, N.W., Washington, DC 20420.

Thomas M. Shehan, Director, Div. Animal Resources, Room 3081, 700 Olney Rd, Norfolk, VA 23507.

Kerry L. Stevens, P.O. Box 184, Oxford, GA 30267.

John Stuhler, Park B, Marion Park Dr., Kansas City, MO 64134.

Robert A. Whitney, Jr., Deputy Surgeon General, U.S. P.H.S., Parklawn Bldg, Rm 18-67, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857.

Axel V. Wolff, NIH Animal Ctr, Bldg 100, P.O. Box 56, Poolesville, MD 20837.

Carey Yeager, Louis Calder Center of Fordham, Drawer K, Armonk, NY 10504.

* * *

Research and Education Opportunities

Wildlife Preservation Trust

The Wildlife Preservation Trust develops and maintains captive breeding programs worldwide, as well as conducting research, educational programs, and professional training. Their Training Program is a 10 or 16 week internship, on the Isle of Jersey, designed to give postgraduates and zoo personnel intensive training in propagation techniques with a variety of species. For applications and further information, contact Training Program, Wildlife Preservation Trust International, 3400 W. Girard Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19104 [215-222-3636; FAX: 215-222-2191]. Deadline for application for 1994 positions is July 1, 1993. The three week Summer School is suitable for undergraduates and zoo and veterinary staff at all levels who wish to study animal behavior and the role of captive breeding programs in conservation. For details on the 1994 course, write to Mr. Chris Clark, Assistant Training Officer, Summer School Coordinator, Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Les Augres Manor, Trinity, Jersey JE3 5BF, Channel Islands, GB [FAX: 011-44-534-865161].


Earthwatch provides volunteers and funds to scholars doing fieldwork. Among the projects (and scholars) in their 1993 catalog are studies of orangutans (B. Galdikas), Kenyan wildlife (D. Harper & R. North; T. Odhiambo), human origins in Uganda (N. Boaz & P. Williamson), toque macaques in Sri Lanka (W. Dittus), capuchin and howler monkeys in Costa Rica (C. Becker), and the Brazilian rainforest (A. Keuroghlian). Volunteers, who pay their own transportation expenses plus a share of the costs of the expedition, learn to participate in fieldwork. Interested scientists may submit a two-page outline of their research subject and design, dates, budget, and plans for the use of volunteers to the Center for Field Research, 680 Mt Auburn St., Box 403, Watertown, MA 02272 [617-926-8200; FAX: 617-926- 8532]. Volunteers apply to the same address.

* * *

News Briefs

Gorilla births at Calgary

While it had been in the -20 to -35 C temperature range for the preceeding three weeks in Calgary, the temperature in the Calgary Zoo's Ape House had been considerably higher, and the air filled with anticipation. On Tuesday morning, January 12, at 1:03 am, Tabitha, lady gorilla, gave birth to her first offspring in the company of two other female members of the troop, Julia and Donge. After 31 years of keeping gorillas at Calgary, the Zoo personnel were enormously excited over this occurrence. Both mother and infant are progressing normally. Tabitha, who was mother-raised in a social group of gorillas at the Metro Zoo in Toronto, is so far showing herself to be an excellent mother. On January 15, the infant was determined to be male. The Zoo ran a contest (their usual procedure) to find him a name, and decided on "Mbundi."

It was also announced that Julia, aged 22, was pregnant for the first time, and would probably give birth in April. Almost 100 volunteer gorilla "groupies," who staged a 24-hour watch before Tabitha's baby was born, expected to again maintain a sometimes-tedious gorilla watch. Julia, however, seems to have put one over on her merely human keepers. She gave birth to an infant on Sunday morning, February 28th, at 11:06 am. Early stages of labor were noted by keepers at 7 am. There were no complications; both mother and infant are doing fine. They were separated from the rest of the group, to rejoin them until later in the week. The Chinook had been blowing for 6 days, and Monday was a magnificent 14 degrees (Celsius of course), so the first day of life for the second gorilla baby of the year was very comfortable -- the older gorillas even were allowed out to play in the melting snowbanks. The primate house was closed to the public at the time, but the gorillas have access to the outside during warm weather, and the indoor areas are probably open by this printing. Mbundi continues to thrive, and has been introduced to his father through the wire mesh. It is uncertain when the adult male will be readmitted to the group. It seems that a gorilla population explosion is beginning at Calgary. The chief stud is Kakinga, age 14, who is on breeding loan from the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust. Now that he is a proven reproductive male, he may be in greater demand. He is a calm, placid, but firm male, and seems to be highly favoured by the ladies.

There have been no indications of any other pregnancies, so this may be the end of the birth season. The sex of the newborn has not yet been confirmed, but tentatively has been announced as male. -- Jim Paterson, Univ. of Calgary

Update on Karisoke Research Center

On February 18, armed military personnel of the Rwandese Patriotic Front entered Karisoke Research Center causing the eight remaining Rwandan staff to flee on foot. While fleeing, the staff crossed the trail of Group 5, a well known research group of mountain gorillas. "A large quantity of blood was identified by our staff along the mountain trail," explained Karisoke Director, Dieter Steklis, who had telephone contact with two of the staff members. The evidence of blood heightened previous concerns about the safety of the mountain gorillas. Military personnel have apparently ignored assurances that the Parc National des Volcans and the indigenous wildlife would not be caught up in military actions between the Rwandese Patriotic Front and the government. Five scientists (two British, one German and two Americans) were safely evacuated from the area on February 13.

Group 5 has been recognized for over 20 years, the longest documented history of the three current research groups. It is the second largest gorilla group with 36 members. Military presence in the park poses a very dangerous situation for the gorillas and other animals accustomed to human protection. Obviously this fighting has major consequences for mountain gorillas, but also for the human population in the area. Large numbers of people have been killed in the fighting. Apparently tens, if not hundreds, of thousands of people in the region are fleeing toward the capitol.

More recently, Dr. Steklis, who has returned to the Anthropology Dept at Rutgers University, writes: "I am sad to say that as of today no one has been able to return to the Karisoke Research Center, as active fighting in the area continues. With each passing day, the threat to the welfare of the mountain gorillas mounts, as poachers continue to move into the park and shelling and gunfire continue in the area. I remain in touch by fax and phone with our Rwandan staff who have had to flee to nearby towns. Just today I received additional information from them, which confirms that Karisoke has been thoroughly looted by the Rwandese Patriotic Front military, although the Center itself is not occupied by the military. Fortunately, the blood on the trail of group 5 is apparently related to a birth in that group; all group members are accounted for and well. We know nothing of the fate of our other research group--Beetsme's group, or the tourist groups. Until military activity ceases in the region and troops withdraw, we will not be able to return. This is the first time in its history that the Center has been completely abandoned, leaving the gorillas and other wildlife completely unprotected. A very serious and urgent situation indeed, and we hope that international attention will lead to a speedy resolution of the conflict and we can go back to work."

For additional information, contact Rich Block at the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund, 45 Inverness Dr. East, Suite B, Englewood, CO 80112-5480 [303-790-2349; FAX: 303-790-9460; e-mail: [email protected]].

New SCAW Board Members

The Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, a nonprofit educational organization concerned with promoting both good science and the responsible and humane use of animals in testing, research, and education, has announced the recent election of new members to its Board of Trustees. The new members are Kathryn A. L. Bayne, who has directed the laboratory animal environmental enrichment and socialization programs at the NIH for the past five years, Stanley E. Curtis, G. F. Gebhart, Charles R. McCarthy, and Ernest D. Prentice.

House Science Committee Reorganization

The American Institute of Physics' Public Information Division has produced a free brochure, "Communicating With Congress," which provides tips on meeting with a Member of Congress. If you would like a copy, send a stamped, self-addressed business-size envelope to: AIP Office of Government and Institutional Relations, 1630 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 750, Washington, DC 20009. This Office has also informed us that the House Science, Space and Technology Committee has been reorganized. Its six subcommittees have been reduced to five. It retains unchanged its subcommittees on Science, Space, Energy, and Investigations and Oversight. The Environment subcommittee was eliminated, and most of its jurisdiction taken over by the Technology and Competitiveness subcommittee, now renamed the Subcommittee on Technology, Environment, and Aviation. Rep. George E. Brown, Jr. (D-California) was re-elected by the House Democratic Caucus to chair the Science Committee. Brown has chaired the committee for the last two of his 26 years in the House. Robert S. Walker (R-PA), is the Ranking Republican. Rick Boucher, (D-VA) is Chairman of the Subcommittee on Science.

New NIH Directors

Gary B. Ellis, Ph.D., has accepted the position of Director, Office for Protection from Research Risks, NIH. Dr. Ellis has considerable experience in the ethical issues involved in the rights and welfare of human research subjects and the care and use of laboratory animals. Dr. Ellis began this new position in January, 1993. He was previously the Director of the Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Inst. of Medicine, NAS, and a lecturer and tutor in Health Policy in the Stanford-in-Washington Program of Stanford University. Previously, he served in the Office of Technology Assessment.

Dr. Richard G. Wyatt has been appointed Acting Director of the Office of Animal Care and Use at NIH. Dr. Wyatt previously served as Assistant Director for Intramural Affairs, NIH, and will replace Dr. Robert A. Whitney, Jr., who was appointed Deputy Surgeon General, U.S.P.H.S. -- From the SCAW Newsletter, Winter, 1992, 14[4].

* * *

Meeting Announcements

Information Requirements Workshop

The Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) of the National Agricultural Library (NAL) will present a 1 1/2 day workshop designed for individuals who are responsible for providing information to meet the mandate of the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act (AWA). The Act requires that investigators provide Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees with documentation demonstrating that thorough literature searches were conducted regarding alternatives. An alternative is any procedure that results in the reduction in the number of animals used, refinement of techniques, or replacement of animals. The objectives of the workshop are to provide:
* an overview of the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations;
* a definition of "alternatives" and the information requirements of the AWA;
* a comprehensive introduction to NAL and AWIC;
* instruction on the use of existing information databases/networks;
* on-line searching experience.

The workshop will be presented on June 3-4, 1993; additional workshops are being planned for the fall and winter. For more information, contact AWIC, NAL, Room 205, 10301 Baltimore Blvd, Beltsville, MD 20705-2351 [301-504-6212].

Ethical Issues of Animal Use

The NIH Office for Protection from Research Risks announces another in its continuing series of workshops on implementing the PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Hahnemann and Drexel Universities will sponsor a workshop in Philadelphia on June 21-22, 1993, on the topic: Ethical Issues of Animal Use in Academe and Industry. Issues addressed will include
*Investigator training
*Animal use in teaching
*Euthanasia and death as an endpoint
*Allegations of noncompliance.
Ample opportunities will be provided to exchange ideas and interests, through question and answer sessions and informal discussions. For further information on this or future NIH/OPRR Animal Welfare Education workshops, contact Roberta Sonneborn, Exec. Asst. for Education, Animal Welfare Div., OPRR, NIH, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bldg 31/5B59, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-7163; FAX: 301-402-2803].

Space Station Utilization Conference

There will be a NASA Space Station Freedom (SSF) Utilization Conference at the San Francisco Hilton, June 21-24, 1993. This conference and hardware exhibition is for researchers who want to learn more about past accomplishments, present activities, and future plans and opportunities for space-based research. Space Station Freedom research capabilities, and opportunities for commercial research will also be detailed. Research discipline sessions will cover recently completed or planned space-related experiments in, among other fields, life sciences and biotechnology. For registration information, contact Charlene Fines, BDM Federal Inc., 409 Third St. S.W., Suite 350, Washington, D.C. 20024 [202-479-5280; FAX: 202-863-8407, ATTN: SSF Utilization Conference; e-mail: [email protected]].

Vertebrate Morphology

The 4th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology is planned for July 31 - Aug 4, 1994 at the University of Chicago. In addition to contributed papers and posters, there will be plenary speakers (Sharon Emerson, Brian Hall, J.-P. Gasc, Lou Guillette, R. Holland), workshops (amphioxus, teaching comparative anatomy, and 3-D reconstruction) and symposia. The ICVM is now being established as a formal organization for membership and ongoing activities. For information on the Chicago meeting and membership in the ICVM ($5), please contact: Sue Herring, Chair, ICVM Organizing Committee, Dept of Orthodontics, SM-46, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 [206-543-3203; FAX: 206-685- 8163; e-mail: [email protected]].

Lab Animal Facility Design

A conference on "Approaches to Design and Development of Cost Effective Laboratory Animal Facilities" is scheduled for June 9-11, 1993 by the Canadian Council on Animal Care at the Citadel Hotel, Ottawa. The focus will be on planning, design, construction, and/or renovation of laboratory animal facilities. Contact the Canadian Council on Animal Care, 1000-151 Slater Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5H3 [613-238-4031; FAX: 613-238-2837].

Seminars in Primatology

The New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology and the New York Regional Primatology Group announce that the speaker at their Wednesday, 22 April 1993, lecture will be Art Mitchell of the Dept of Anthropology at Yale University, speaking on "The ecology of Hose's langur (Presbytis hosei) in logged dipterocarp forest of northeast Borneo." Lectures are at 7:45 pm in Room 1100 of the CUNY Graduate Center, 33 W. 42nd Street (between 5th and 6th Avenues). For further information, contact M. Cords [212-854- 7337; e-mail: [email protected]].

Chimpanzoo Conference

The 1993 Annual Chimpanzoo Conference will be held May 8-12, 1993, at Fort Worth, TX. It will be sponsored by the Fort Worth Zoological Soc. For more information, contact Virginia Landau, Jane Goodall Inst., PO Box 41720, Tucson, AZ 85717 [602-325-1211; FAX: 602-325-0220] or the Fort Worth Zoo [817-871-7000].

Pithecanthropus Centennial Congress

An International Scientific Congress and Exhibition, "Human Evolution in its Ecological Context," will be held in Leiden, The Netherlands, under the auspices of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, 26 June - 1 July, 1993. It will celebrate the centennial of the discovery of Pithecanthropus erectus near Trinil on Java, Indonesia. Scientists are invited to attend the Congress, present papers, and participate in the discussions. 1 April 1993 is the final date for submission of abstracts, and 1 May 1993 is the final date for reduced registration fee. More information on the Congress and Exhibition, copies of the Final Announcement, and registration forms can be obtained from: Secretariat Pithecanthropus Centennial, Pieter de la Court Bldg, P.O. Box 9555, 2300 RB Leiden, The Netherlands [31-71-27 34 69; FAX:31-71-27 36 19].

Symposium on Models for AIDS

The 11th Annual Symposium on Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS will be held September 19-22, 1993, in Madison, WI, hosted by the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center and the University of Wisconsin Medical School. The opening speaker will be Dr. Robert Gallo on "Crucial Needs in AIDS Research". The closing speaker will be Dr. Dani Bolognesi on "How the Nonhuman Primate Model Supports the Development of Vaccines Against HIV-1 in Man". There will be scientific sessions on:
*Transmission and Epizootiology
*Vaccine Development and Testing
*Host Factors in Pathogenesis
*Viral Factors in Pathogenesis
*Opportunistic Pathogens and Intervention Strategies.
The deadline for abstract submission is June 1, 1993. For registration and abstract information, mail or FAX your name and address to Marie Ellingson, Conference Services, Wisconsin Union, 800 Langdon St, Madison, WI 53706 [608-262-2755; FAX: 608-262-5487].

International Conference on Orangutans

There will be an international conference on orangutans, 7-8 March 1994, at California State University, Fullerton, and 9-10 March 1994, San Diego Zoo and Wild Animal Park. Papers on ecology, population, distribution, social behavior, reproduction, genetics, demography, cognition, nutrition, veterinary medicine, health and conservation will be presented. For more information, contact: Norman Rosen, Dept of Anthropology, California State Univ., Fullerton, CA 92634 [FAX: 310-798-0576].

1994 ASP/ABS Meeting Announcement

The Regional Primate Research Center at the University of Washington will host the 1994 meetings of the Animal Behavior Society and the American Society of Primatologists. The dates for these meetings are: ABS: 23 - 28 July 1994; ASP: 27 - 30 July 1994. Thursday, 28 July, will be a joint meeting, with an emphasis on the behavior of primates. Each society will maintain separate ice-breaker, poster, and banquet sessions, following their traditions. However, we hope to encourage a stronger interaction between animal behaviorists of all taxonomic persuasions and primatologists of all research areas. In addition, the dates for these meetings provide an excellent opportunity to travel from Seattle to Bali, Indonesia for the International Primatological Society meeting (3-8 August 1994). For more information, contact: James C. Ha (ABS) or Carolyn Crockett (ASP), Primate Center SJ-50, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 [206-543-1440; e-mail: [email protected] and crockett@u.].

* * *

Grants Available

Research Fellowships in India

The Indo-U.S. Subcommission on Education and Culture is offering up to eight long-term (6-10 months) and up to nine short-term (2-3 months) awards for 1994-1995 research in India. These grants will be available in all academic disciplines, except clinical medicine. Applicants must be U.S. citizens and hold the PhD or comparable professional qualifications. The fellowship program seeks to open new channels of communication between academic and professional groups in the United States and India and to encourage a wider range of research activity between the two countries than now exists. Scholars and professionals with limited or no prior experience in India are especially encouraged to apply. The application deadline is August 1, 1993. For application forms and further information, contact the Council for International Exchange of Scholars at the address above.

Research Grants Program

The National Geographic Society provides grants-in-aid for basic, original, scientific field research covering a broad spectrum of disciplines from astronomy to marine zoology. Particular emphasis is placed on multi-disciplinary projects of an environmental nature. Collectively, all of the research projects fostered through this program have a geographical scope.

Applications may be submitted at any time. For more information contact: Steven S. Stettes, Secretary, Committee for Research and Exploration, National Geographic Soc., 17th & M Sts, NW, Washington, DC 20036 [202-857-7439].

Alzheimer's Research Grants and Awards

The Alzheimer's Association, Inc., announces the following programs for 1993. These grants and awards are available to qualified investigators from nonprofit institutions. Proposals are rated for innovativeness, scientific rigor, and relevance to Alzheimer's disease and related disorders.

The Pilot Research Grant program is intended to provide small, one-year grants for worthwhile research proposals, with preference given to investigators new to research into Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. PRG objectives are (1) To stimulate interest of new investigators, (2) to enable new and established investigators to test the feasibility of new ideas on a small scale, (3) to enable investigators to generate pilot data to support proposals to NIH, foundations, or the Alzheimer's Association for larger grants. The maximum grant will be $25,000 for one year only, not renewable. Applications are due Thursday, July 1, 1993, for funding beginning December 1993.

The Zenith Awards will be granted to talented scientists who have already contributed substantially to the advancement of Alzheimer's research, and who are likely to continue to make significant contributions for many years to come. Awardees will receive a grant of $100,000 for two years, with a provision for possible competitive renewal upon review of research progress. Applications are due Friday, August 13, 1993 for funding to begin December 1993.

Send name, mailing address, and application desired to: Medical & Scientific Affairs, Alzheimer's Assn, 919 North Michigan Ave., Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60611-1676 [312-335-5779].

Research Associateships

The National Research Council announces the 1993 Resident, Cooperative, and Postdoctoral Research Associateship Programs to be conducted on behalf of 30 federal agencies or research institutions throughout the United States. The programs provide opportunities for PhD scientists and engineers of unusual promise and ability to perform research on problems largely of their own choosing yet compatible with the research interests of a sponsoring laboratory. Approximately 350 new full-time Associateships will be awarded on a competitive basis in 1993 for research in fields including biological, health, and behavioral sciences and biotechnology. Most of the programs are open to both U.S. and non-U.S. nationals and to both recent PhD degree recipients and senior investigators. Awards are made for one or two years, renewable up to three years; senior applicants who have held the doctorate at least five years may request a shorter period.

Financial support is provided for allowable relocation expenses and for limited professional travel during the award period. The host laboratory provides the Associate with programmatic assistance including facilities, support services, necessary equipment, and travel necessary for the conduct of the approved research program.

Applications to the National Research Council must be postmarked no later than January 15, April 15 and August 15 for reviews in February, June and October respectively. Information on specific research opportunities and participating federal laboratories, as well as application materials, may be obtained from: Associateship Programs (GR430/D2), National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Ave, N.W., Washington, DC 20418 [FAX: 202-334-2759].

Postdoctoral Residential Fellowships

Each year the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences awards up to fifty residential postdoctoral fellowships to scientists and scholars from the U.S. and abroad. Fields which have been represented include anthropology, biology, medicine, psychiatry, psychology, and sociology. Nominations may be submitted at any time. For more information contact: Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, 202 Junipero Serra Blvd., Stanford, CA 94305 [415-321-2052].

Fulbright Scholar Awards

The Fulbright Scholar Program for 1994-95 includes some 1,000 grants for research, combined research and lecturing, or university lecturing in nearly 135 countries. Opportunities range from two months to a full academic year; many assignments are flexible to the needs of the grantee. Nearly one-third of Fulbright grants are targeted for research and many lecturing awards offer research opportunities; multicountry research is also possible in many regions.

Virtually all disciplines and subfields participate. Specific openings exist in almost every area of the humanities, sciences, and arts. Many offerings in the program allow scholars to propose their own lecturing or research projects.

The basic eligibility requirements for a Fulbright award are U.S. citizenship and PhD or comparable professional qualifications. For lecturing awards, university or college teaching experience is expected. Language skills are needed for some countries, but most lecturing assignments are in English.

Applications are encouraged from professionals outside academe and from independent scholars. Fulbright seeks good teachers as well as active researchers. There is a single deadline of August 1, 1993 for research or lecturing grants to all world areas. Other deadlines are in place for special programs. For further information and applications, contact the Council for International Exchange of Scholars, 3007 Tilden St, NW, Suite 5M, Box NEWS, Washington, DC 20008-3009 [202-686-7877].

Small Facility Improvement

The National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) encourages the submission of individual animal resource improvement grant applications from small biomedical research institutions. Domestic public and private institutions, organizations, and associations are eligible to apply for this grant if they meet the following two requirements: (1) The institution must have one or more research projects supported by the Public Health Service (PHS) that involve the use of laboratory animals, and (2) The institution must have received less than $1,500,000 (direct costs) of PHS support for research projects during the most recently completed Federal fiscal year (October 1, 1991 through September 30, 1992).

The major objectives of this program are to upgrade animal facilities, develop administratively centralized programs of animal care, and enable institutions to comply with the USDA Animal Welfare Act and DHHS policies related to the care and use of laboratory animals. These awards do not require matching funds from the awardee institution. Support is limited to alterations and renovations to improve laboratory animal facilities, and purchase of major equipment items for animal resources, diagnostic laboratory, transgenic animal resources, or similar associated activities.

For information and applications, contact Cynthia L. Pond, D.V.M., Director, Lab. Animal Science Program, Comparative Medicine Program, NCRR, Westwood Bldg, Room 857, 5333 Westbard Ave, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-5175; FAX: 301-480-0868].

Small Research Grants Discontinued

Beginning with the June 1, 1993, application receipt date, the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) will no longer accept new and amended applications for the Comparative Medicine Program Announcement for Laboratory Animal Small Research Grants as described in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts (Vol. 21, Number 29, August 14, 1992). This activity is also described as "Small Grants Program in Laboratory Animal Sciences" in the NIH publication entitled "NIH Small Grants Program (R03)," dated August 1992. For further information, contact Cynthia L. Pond, D.V.M., at the address given above.

Brain and Behavior

The National Institute of Mental Health will fund projects in a research area defining a comparative framework for understanding the neural substrates of behavior, its principles, organization, and disorders. Applicants are encouraged to consider the advantages of using animal species representing different evolutionary levels. Mechanisms of support will include, among others, regular research projects, small grants, individual pre- and post-doctoral fellowships, and career development awards.

NIMH is interested in funding the following approaches to behavioral neuroscience research:
*The use of comparative studies for understanding human behavior: Consideration of both similarities and differences at all levels of organization among both closely and distantly related species, including invertebrate species.
*The exploration of the substrates of naturally occurring behaviors: Observations in an animal's species-typical setting, and complementary laboratory studies.
*Promotion of interdisciplinary bridges in behavioral neuroscience research: Studies that combine, as necessary, field and laboratory methods in modeling, ecology, social processes, individual behavior, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and biophysics.

Applications may include any of a wide array of methods and approaches, including the development of enabling technologies for behavioral neuroscience.

For further information, contact Israel I. Lederhendler, Ph.D., Div. of Neuroscience and Behavioral Science, NIMH, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rm. 11-102, Rockville, MD 20857 [301-443-1576; FAX: 301-443-4822; e-mail: ILU@nihcu or [email protected]]

* * *

What Do Biohazard Levels Mean, Anyway?

Phil Tillman
University of California, Davis

BioSafety level:  How to get sick:        Prevent by:

BSL 1             You can't.              Don't worry about it.

BSL 2             Eat it, drink it, or    Good lab practices
                  inject yourself; that   and protective
                  is, smoke in the lab,   clothing.
                  don't wash your hands,	
                  be sloppy with sharps.

BSL 3             All the above, PLUS     Biosafety cabinets,
                  it can routinely infect respirators,
                  people by aerosols.     special training.

BSL 4             You will get sick and   These agents are not
                  may die if you walk     studied in our facility,
                  into the same room      period.
                  with it.

* * *

Positions Available

Field Assistants, Venezuela

Field assistants are needed for an ongoing study of red howler monkey demography and behavior in Venezuela. Main duties will be to record census and social behavior data. Applicants must be healthy and capable of working long hours under difficult field conditions. Assistants must stay for six months to one year starting June, 1993. Living expenses in the field can be covered, but travel expenses cannot. To apply, send a letter detailing your interests and field experience, resume, and one letter of recommendation to Dr. G. Agoramoorthy, 169 Guang-Yuh North Street, Yang-Mei, Taur-Yuan 32606, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Postdoctoral Position

A postdoctoral position is available at the National Center for Toxicological Research. Duties will include using operant behavioral techniques to study aspects of brain function (i.e., learning, shortterm memory and attention, motivation, time estimation, etc.) in rhesus monkeys and rodents. Familiarity with, and a primary interest in, operant analyses of behavior is essential. Salary will be at least $33,000. For more information contact: Dr. Merle G. Paule, Head, Behavioral Toxicology Lab., Div. of Neurotoxicology, HFT-132, N.C.T.R., Jefferson, AR 72079- 9502 [501-543-7147; FAX: 501-543-7720; e-mail: [email protected]].

Animal Resources Technologist

A position is available as a full-time chimpanzee trainer at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, in Bastrop, Texas. The animal training program is designed to enhance the voluntary cooperation of chimpanzees with management routines and medical procedures, decrease stress to the animals, and increase the efficiency of animal handling. Major duties include: training chimpanzees, emphasizing positive reinforcement techniques; coordinating training activities; writing progress reports; teaching training techniques to other staff members; and maintaining information to document the program. A bachelor's degree and three years of animal care experience or an equivalent combination of education and experience is required. Annual base salary is $22,584, negotiable based on qualifications.

Interested persons should contact Lydia Elliott, U. T. M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Dept. of Veterinary Resources, Rt. 2, Box 151-BI, Bastrop, TX 78602 [512-321-3991] (a Tobacco Free/ Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer, in full compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act).

NASA Seeks Veterinarian

The Bionetics Corporation, a contractor providing research animal care and support services to NASA's Ames Research Center at Moffett Field, CA, wishes to recruit a qualified individual to serve as the Flight Payloads Project Veterinarian (FPPV). The FPPV will be a technical advisor for the Rhesus Project activities and other Space Life Sciences flight projects. Animals used in these projects include rhesus and squirrel monkeys, small rodents, and amphibians. The FPPV manages protocol or standard operating procedure development, tests and evaluates newly developed hardware, interfaces with international collaborators, assists in the development and conduct of animal training and restraint procedures, data acquisition and analysis, and ensures that requirements for animal health and welfare are met. The position also involves opportunities for clinical work in association with operations in NASA/Ames' Animal Care Facility and for independent or collaborative research. The FPPV's understanding of comparative medicine and spaceflight is expected to provide the authority to recommend cancelling or reorienting experimental objectives as circumstances dictate. A successful candidate should be able to operate well with only general direction, be a good coordinator, and be able to think creatively, synthesizing information from often conflicting sources into effective and productive programs. Candidates must have a DVM and be experienced in the care and use of animals, particularly nonhuman primates, in a research environment. Board certification/ eligibility in laboratory animal medicine and research experience in a relevant life science discipline (e.g., Animal Physiology) are highly desirable. The salary offered will be competitive and commensurate with training and experience. Bionetics provides an attractive fringe benefits package and is an equal opportunity employer. Send a copy of your resume to Dr. Dennis O. Johnsen, Project Manager/Clinical Veterinarian, Animal Care Facility, NASA/Ames Research Center, Mail Stop 261-1, Moffett Field, CA 94035 [415-604 6612; FAX: 415-604 0046].

Veterinarian, Knoxville, TN

The University of Tennessee-Knoxville is seeking applications and nominations for the position of Assistant Director of Laboratory Animal Care. This full-time, non-tenure track position is part of an expanding laboratory animal care program at The University of Tennessee-Knoxville. This position involves participation in all aspects of the University's laboratory animal care and use program. Duties include providing clinical veterinary care, animal health monitoring, training laboratory animal facility personnel and graduate students in the biomedical and life sciences, teaching veterinary students and participating in compliance functions such as semi-annual reviews and the IACUC and AAALAC accreditation. This position is under the Director of The University of Tennessee Office of Laboratory Animal Care, College of Veterinary Medicine, which serves three other colleges and a medical center. The College of Veterinary Medicine, the College of Liberal Arts, the College of Human Ecology, and the Medical Center have AAALAC accredited facilities. ACLAM board certification or eligibility is required.

Applicants should submit a letter of interest, Curriculum Vitae, and a list of 3 people who may be contacted as references. Applications will be accepted and reviewed until the position is filled. If you are interested, have further questions, or wish to nominate a candidate, please contact: Edward C. Schroeder, DVM, MS, Director, Univ. of Tennessee Office of Lab. Animal Care, College of Veterinary Med., PO Box 1071, Knoxville, TN 37901-1071 [616-974-5728; FAX: 616-974-5640; e-mail: Bitnet: eschroed@utkvx! Internet: [email protected]]. The University of Tennessee is an Equal Opportunity, Affirmative Action, Title IX, Section 504 institution.

Postdoctoral Research Associate

A position will be available with Joan Richtsmeier (Johns Hopkins Univ. Sch. of Med.) and Subhash Lele (Johns Hopkins Univ. Sch. of Hygiene and Public Health) as a postdoctoral research associate effective 1 July 1993. The area of research is developmental morphology and involves quantitative and morphometric studies of postnatal growth of the primate craniofacial skeleton and its relation to evolutionary change. The successful applicant should have a PhD or equivalent degree in biological sciences or bio-statistics. Knowledge of 3-D morphometric methods, craniofacial anatomy, and primate biology characterize the preferred applicant. Familiarity with PCs and Macintosh computers is necessary and general knowledge of the UNIX environment is preferred but not required. The appointment is for one year with a possible second year.

Interested applicants should submit a letter of application including a description of their background and training, a statement of long-term research interests and three confidential letters of recommendation. For additional information and to apply, contact: Joan Richtsmeier, Dept of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Johns Hopkins Univ. Sch. of Med., 725 N. Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD 21205 [410-955-7892; FAX: 410-955-4129; e-mail: [email protected]] .

* * *

Famous monkey cartoon here

* * *

Travellers' Health Notes

Cholera Update

Epidemic cholera continues to spread throughout Central and South America. In 1992, 339,561 cholera cases and 2321 cholera-related deaths were reported from 21 countries in the Western Hemisphere, bringing to 731,312 cases and 6323 deaths the total numbers reported since the epidemic began in January 1991 in Peru. In 1992 Peru had 206,565 cases; Ecuador, Brazil, Bolivia, Guatemala, and Colombia had between 15 and 32 thousand cases each; El Salvador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Venezuela, and Panama had from 2 to 15 thousand cases each; Argentina, Honduras, Guyana, Belize, and the United States, had more than 100 cases each; Chile, French Guyana, Surinam, and Costa Rica had less than 100 cases each, while Canada had none. During this epidemic, no cases of cholera have been reported from countries in the Caribbean; however, because all adjacent Lantin American countries have been affected, spread to the Caribbean is likely to occur as the epidemic continues.

Because persons who have returned from travel in cholera-affected countries may seek medical care in other areas, health-care providers should consider cholera as a possible diagnosis in any patient with watery diarrhea who has recently returned from a cholera-affected country. Stool specimens from patients with suspected cholera should be cultured on thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose agar, and suspected cases should be reported to local and state health departments. Effective treatment of cholera requires rapid and appropriate replacement of fluid and electrolytes. -- From Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1993, 42, 89-91.

Hepatitis E Warning

Outbreaks of hepatitis E (i.e., enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis) have occurred in some parts of the world and have generally been related to contaminated water supplies. Between 1989 and 1991 four persons returned to the United States from international travel, and were diagnosed with acute HEV infections. Three of these persons had traveled in India, Pakistan, and Nepal, and one had traveled in Mexico. Hepatitis A is the most common cause of viral hepatitis among U.S. residents who travel abroad...particularly among persons who have traveled to countries with endemic hepatitis A and who have not received prophylactic immune globulin. Immune globulin prophylaxis for prevention of hepatitis A is recommended for U.S. residents who travel to developing countries. However, prophylaxis with immune globulin prepared from plasma collected in the U.S. is unlikely to prevent HEV infection, and travelers must diligently avoid food and water that is potentially contaminated with human feces.

HEV infection should be considered in any person who has traveled abroad but is negative for serologic markers for hepatitis A, B, or C...even through seroconversion to anti-HCV may not be detected until 6 months after onset of symptoms. Health-care professionals should obtain a detailed history regarding sources of drinking water, uncooked food, and contact with persons with hepatitis from all international travelers returning to the U.S. who have signs and symptoms of viral hepatitis. From Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1993, 42, 1-4.

* * *

The Assignment Was To Do Homework, Boys,
Not To Go Ape

It's a wonder they ever get anything done.
Ben's brought his friend Kenny up to the house
to work on a school play: but 10 minutes later,
the gibbering starts: the pant-hooting and shrieks
that make my computer room sound like
a Jane Goodall TV special.

I'm thinking of looking for Goodall's address,
thinking of calling a Geographic camera crew,
having them come to New Jersey
to see for themselves for another time
-- or maybe to be baby-sitters for the decade
while my wife and I escape to Belize
("Ben, Kenny, this is your new Auntie Jane,
and she will sit here, take a few pictures,
and ask you some questions") --
how little the celebrated near-match
of chimp and human DNA can say to you
when it's your kid and his best friend standing on chairs
and grooming themselves between bouts of writing.

As the two of them gibber and squeak,
I realize I hope I remembered the fresh fruit,
and that they won't want to play Baboon Baseball.

Kenneth Wolman, March 12, 1993

* * *

Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors)


* Handedness, Cerebral Dominance and Brain Asymmetry in Nonhuman Primates: A Bibliography, 1985-1991. S. Cohen. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1992. (180 citations; primate index). [Price: $6.50. Stock #92-001. Order from PIC, RPRC, SJ-50, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195]

* Aged Primate Learning and Behavior: A Bibliography, 1940-1991. J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1992. (203 citations; primate index). [Price: $6.50. Stock #92-002. Ordering information same as above]

* Parkinson's Disease: Studies in Nonhuman Primates. Annual Update, March 1992. A Bibliography. J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1992. (207 citations; primate index).[Price: $6.50. Stock #92-003. Ordering information same as above]

* Homosexuality in Nonhuman Primates: A Bibliography, 1940-1992. J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1992. (153 citations; primate index). [Price: $6.50. Stock #92-005. Ordering information same as above]

* Conservation of Orang Utans (Pongo): A Bibliography, 1980-1992. J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1992. (153 citations; subject index). [Price: $6.50. Stock #92-006. Ordering information same as above]

* Gorilla Conservation: A Bibliography, 1980-1992. J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1992. (278 citations; subject index). [Price: $6.50. Stock #92-007. Ordering information same as above]

* Conservation of Chimpanzees and Bonobos: A Bibliography, 1980-1992. J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1992. (263 citations; subject index). [Price: $6.50. Stock #92-008. Ordering information same as above]

* Conservation of Marmosets, Tamarins and Callimico (Callitrichidae): A Bibliography, 1980-1992. J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1992. (322 citations; species and subject indexes). [Price: $6.50. Stock #92-009. Ordering information same as above]

* Primate Welfare, Well-being and Enrichment Studies and Legislation: 1991-1992 Update. A Selective Bibliography. M. McLean. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1992. (182 citations; primate and subject indexes). [Price: $6.50. Stock #92-010 Ordering information same as above]

Magazines, Newsletters, and Reports

* The Newsletter. 1993, 4[3]. (Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027)
. . This issue contains "A grass foraging device for captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)", by S. P. Lambeth & M. A. Bloomsmith; and "Juvenile and adolescent chimpanzee behavioral development in complex groups," by K. A. Pazol & M. A. Bloomsmith.

* Asian Primates: A Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group. September, 1992, 2[2]. (A. A. Eudey, 164 Dayton St., Upland, CA 91786)

* Pan paniscus/Bonobo News, December, 1992, 2[2]. [E. O. Vineberg, 10603 Sunset Ridge Dr., San Diego, CA 92131-2378]

* Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter, 1992, 3[4]. (N.A.L., A.W.I.C., Rm. 205, Beltsville, MD 20705)
. . This issue contains two articles of special interest, "Air transport and animal welfare," by J. Chan, and "Animal transportation," by S. Taylor.

* Gorilla Gazette, 1992, 6[3]. (Columbus Zoo, 9990 Riverside Dr., Box 400, Powell, OH 43065-0400)
. . This issue contains, among other articles, "Body weight in captive lowland gorillas," by S. R. Leigh.

* 1992 NABR Report. (818 Connecticut Ave, N.W., Suite 303, Washington, DC 20006)

* Lion-Tales: Lion-Tailed Macaque Newsletter. Winter 1992, 8[1,2], Final Issue. (H. Fitch-Snyder, Zoo. Soc. of San Diego, Research Dept, Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112)

Special Journal Issues

* Madagascar. Zoo View, Winter 1992, 26[4]. (GLAZA, 5333 Zoo Dr., Los Angeles, CA 90027).
. . Special articles are: "Zoos helping zoos", by D. Anderson & H. S. Morland; "Zoo care: Lemurs and sifakas", by J. McNary; and "Malagasy memories", by F. Woods.

Animal Models

* Large-scale functional reorganization in adult monkey cortex after peripheral nerve injury. Garraghty, P. E. & Kaas, J. H. (Dept of Psychology, 301 Wilson Hall, Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN 37240). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 1991, 88, 6976-6980.
. . In adult monkeys, peripheral nerve injuries induce dramatic examples of neural plasticity in somatosensory cortex. The possibility that a cortical distance limit exists and that the amount of plasticity that is possible after injury is constrained by this limit was investigated by depriving a relatively large expanse of cortex by transecting and ligating both the median and ulnar nerves to the hand. Electrophysiological recording in 3 adult squirrel monkeys no less than 2 months after nerve transection has revealed that cutaneous responsiveness is regained throughout the deprived cortex and that a roughly normal topographic order is reestablished for the reorganized cortex.

* Fetal and maternal endocrine responses to reduced uteroplacental blood flow. Shepherd, R. W., Stanczyk, F. Z., Bethea, C. L., & Novy, M. J. (M. J. N., Oregon RPRC, 505 NW 185th Ave, Beaverton, OR 97006). Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1992, 75, 301-307.
. . In five baboons, placental hypoperfusion with fetal hypoxemic stress resulted in elevated maternal and fetal E1 and E2 levels, which represent increased production of fetal androgen. Fetal adrenal activation during hypoxemic stress is probably mediated by ACTH, but not by PRL or LH.

* Psychosocial factors impair vascular responses of coronary arteries. Williams, J. K., Vita, J. A., Manuck, S. B., Selwyn, A. P., & Kaplan, J. R. (Dept of Comparative Med., Bowman Gray School of Med., 300 S. Hawthorne Rd, Winston-Salem, NC 27103). Circulation, 1991, 84, 2146-2153.
. . In 33 adult male cynomolgus monkeys the combination of a high-cholesterol diet and an unstable social condition resulted in larger plaques and relative constriction of coronary arteries in response to acetylcholine compared with nonatherosclerotic controls; the combination of a low-cholesterol diet and an unstable social condition resulted in relatively small plaques but vascular responses similar to those of unstable monkeys consuming a high-cholesterol diet; the combination of low-cholesterol diet and a stable social condition also resulted in relatively small plaques but vascular responses similar to those of nonatherosclerotic controls; the vascular responses to acetylcholine of unstable and stable monkeys consuming a low-cholesterol diet were significantly different despite similar TPC concentrations, HDLC concentrations, plaque sizes, baseline heart rates, and blood pressure. Chronic "stressors" may impair endothelium-dependent vascular responses of coronary arteries.

* Clinical features and predictive markers of disease progression in cynomolgus monkeys experimentally infected with simian immunodeficiency virus. Putkonen, P., Kaaya, E. E., Bottiger, D., Li, S.-L., Nilsson, C., Biberfeld, P., & Biberfeld, G. (Dept. of Immunology, Nat. Bacteriological Lab., S-105 21 Stockholm, Sweden). AIDS, 1992, 6, 257-263.
. . Of 33 monkeys experimentally infected with SIVsm, 29 died within 26 months. Clinical, virological, immunological, and pathological manifestations were similar to those of human AIDS.

* The effect of FK506 treatment on pancreaticoduodenal allotransplantation in the primate. Ericzon, B.-G., Wijnen, R. M. H., Tiebosch, A., Kubota, K., Kootstra, G., & Groth, C. G. (Dept of Transplantation Surgery, Huddinge Hospital, Karolinska Inst., S-141 86 Huddinge, Sweden). Transplantation, 1992, 53, 1184-1189.
. . The immunosuppressive effect of FK506 as a monotherapy is sufficient to prevent the rejection of single pancreatic allografts in cynomolgus monkeys. Only one of 5 treated animals showed evidence of a moderate-to-severe rejection at 90 days, while one had a mild rejection. Side effects in two animals were reversed by reducing the dose.

* The importance of non-human primates for preclinical testing of immunosuppressive monoclonal antibodies. Jonker, M. (Inst. for Appl. Radiobiology & Immunology ITRI-TNO, Dept of Chronic & Infectious Diseases, Lange Kleiweg 151, 2280 HV Rijswijk, Netherlands). Immunology, 1990, 2, 427-436.
. . Because of the restricted reactivity of human specific MAb, nonhuman primates are the only species available for efficacy and safety studies. Illustrations are given of the usefulness of such studies in rhesus monkeys and chimpanzees for the testing of T cell specific MAb and other MAb interfering with the immune response in transplantation and autoimmunity.

* Stress and sodium hypertension in baboons: Neuroendocrine and pharmacotherapeutic assessments. Turkkan, J. S. & Goldstein, D. S. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Med., 617 Traylor Bldg, 720 Rutland Ave, Baltimore, MD 21205). Journal of Hypertension, 1991, 9, 969-975.
. . Salt loading and stress increased systolic blood pressure (SBP) of four baboons. The hypertension was resistant to antihypertensive drugs (a beta-adrenoceptor blocker and a thiazide diuretic) commonly used clinically.

* Recognition memory deficits in a subpopulation of aged monkeys resemble the effects of medial temporal lobe damage. Rapp, P. R. & Amaral, D. G. (Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, P.O. Box 85800, San Diego, CA 92186-5800). Neurobiology of Aging, 1991, 12, 481-486.
. . Three of 10 aged rhesus monkeys performed delayed-matching-to-sample tasks for delays from 15 sec to 10 min as well as much younger animals, while the other seven only performed well at the shortest delays (15 and 30 sec), suggesting that recognition memory is only compromised in a subpopulation of aged monkeys.

* Circulatory changes following premature delivery in a baboon model of hyaline membrane disease. Kinsella, J. P., Gerstmann, D. R., & Delemos, R. A. (Children's Hospital, Div. of Neonatology, Box B070, 1056 E. 19th Ave, Denver, CO 80218). American Journal of Physiology, 1991, 261, H1148-H1154.
. . Premature animals demonstrated over the first 96 hours of life significant hemodynamic changes that included decreased systemic vascular resistance, increased systemic, intestinal, and hepatic blood flow, and resolution of L-R patent ductus arteriosus shunting. Blood flow and oxygen transport to the kidneys and cerebrum did not significantly increase in that time. It is suggested that low renal and cerebral blood flow in the 140-day premature baboon are manifestations of multisystem immaturity and may represent persistent physiological distur- bances distinct from the severity of underlying lung disease seen in these animals.

* Veto cells induce long-term kidney allograft tolerance in primates without chronic immunosuppression. Thomas, J. M., Carver, F. M., Cunningham, P., Olsen, L., & Thomas, F. T. (Dept of Surgery, Transplant, East Carolina Univ., School of Med., 4S-10 Brody Bldg, Greenville, NC 27858). Transplantation Proceedings, 1991, 23, 11-13.
. . These studies focus on the role of bone marrow cells in inducing allograft tolerance in a rhesus model. Results support the hypothesis that a type of suppressor cell or fraudulent antigen-presenting cell inactivates self-directed cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursor clones, causing specific unresponsiveness to alloantigens.

* Reduction in thrombus formation by placement of endovascular stents at endarterectomy sites in baboon carotid arteries. Krupski, W. C., Bass, A., Kelly, A. B., Hanson, S. R., & Harker, L. A. (L. A. H., Div. of Hematology-Oncology, Emory Univ. School of Med., P.O. Drawer AR, Atlanta, GA 30322). Circulation, 1991, 84, 1749-1757.
. . Treatment of symptomatic stenotic artherosclerotic vascular disease by surgery produces thrombogenic sites that accumulate platelets, fibrin, and other blood cells that can occlude the sites. Placing self-expanding stainless steel wire endoprostheses at these sites appears to reduce the thrombogenic effects of flap formation, tearing, dissection, and vasospasm in endarterectomized carotid arteries.

* Polymorphonuclear leukocytes occlude capillaries following middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion in baboons. del Zoppo, G. J., Schmid-Schonbein, G. W., Mori, E., Copeland, B. R., & Chang, C.-M. (Dept of Molecular & Experimental Med., Scripps Clinic & Research Fnd., 10666 N. Torrey Pines Rd., La Jolla, CA 92037). Stroke, 1991, 22, 1276-1283.
. . The finding of capillary-obstructing polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the microvascular bed following middle cerebral artery reperfusion in focal ischemia in this model satisfies an essential requirement for postulating their role in early microvascular injury and the "no-reflow" phenomenon.

* Effect of erythropoietic stress on donor hematopoietic cell expression in chimeric rhesus monkeys transplanted in utero. Duncan, B. W., Harrison, M. R., Crombleholme, T. M., Clemons, G., Tavassoli, M., & Zanjani, E. D. (E. D. Z., V. A. Med. Center, 1000 Locust St., 151B, Reno, NV 89520). Experimental Hematology, 1992, 20, 350-353.
. . Chimeric animals, developed by in utero transplantation of fetal hematopoietic stem cells, demonstrated normal reticulocytosis and reconstituted their hematocrit after hemorrhage at the same rate as controls. In utero transplantation results in stable engraftment of donor erythropoietic progenitors, which appear to be fully integrated within the recipient's regulatory system. Fetal transplantation bypasses immunologic reactions and resultant abnormalities seen in postnatal transplantation.

* The effects of chronic buprenorphine treatment on cocaine and food self-administration by rhesus monkeys. Mello, N. K., Lukas, S. E., Kamien, J. B., Mendelson, J. H., Drieze, J., & Cone, E. J. (Alcohol & Drug Abuse Research Ctr, Harvard Med. School-McLean Hospital, 115 Mill St, Belmont, MA 02178). Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1992, 260, 1185-1193.
. . Daily buprenorphine administration selectively reduced cocaine self-administration, and this effect persisted for as long as 120 days.

* Plasma corticotropin-releasing factor concentrations in the baboon during pregnancy. Goland, R. S., Wardlaw, S. L., Fortman, J. D., & Stark, R. I. (Dept of Med., Columbia Univ. College of Physicians & Surgeons, 630 W. 168th St, New York, NY 10032). Endocrinology, 1992, 131, 1782-1786.
. . High levels of placental CRF are present in the systemic circulation of the maternal and fetal baboon during pregnancy. In contrast to human pregnancy, which is characterized by an exponential rise in maternal CRF concentrations in the final weeks before delivery, an exponential rise in maternal baboon CRF concentrations occurs early in pregnancy.

* Spontaneous hypercholesterolemia in cynomolgus monkeys: Evidence for defective low-density lipoprotein catabolism. Spilman, C. H., Hart, K. L., Dinh, D. M., & Vidmar, T. J. (Metabolic Diseases Research, Upjohn Co., 301 Henrietta St, Kalamazoo, MI 49001). Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1992, 1128, 26-34.
. . Five of 92 cynomolgus monkeys were found, upon screening, to be spontaneously hypercholesterolemic (SH). This hypercholesterolemia is associated with defective LDL catabolism; two animals appear to have functionally defective LDL receptors, and two to have functionally defective LDL. One was not available for study.

* Cleavage of chimpanzee secretory immunoglobulin A by Haemophilus influenzae IgA1 protease. Cole, M. F. & Hale, C. A. (Dept of Microbiology, Georgetown Univ. School of Med., Washington, DC 20007). Microbial Pathogenesis, 1991, 11, 39-46.
. . Chimpanzee SIgA1 is susceptible to cleavage by the IgA1 protease of a human mucosal pathogenic bacterium, opening up the possibility of directly studying the role of IgA1 proteases as virulence factors and in the pathogenesis of disease.

* The effect of amoxycillin on vaginal colonization resistance and normal vaginal flora in monkeys. Herthelius-Elman, M., Mollby, R., Nord, C. E., & Winberg, J. (Dept of Bacteriology, Nat'l Bacteriology Lab., S-105 21 Stockholm, Sweden). Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 1992, 29, 329-340.
. . The hypothesis that the effect of amoxycillin results from elimination of parts of the normal flora was tested by flushing 9 monkeys vaginally with amoxycillin daily for 6 days. It was concluded that amoxycillin disturbs vaginal colonization resistance by eliminating at least part of the normal vaginal flora, thereby promoting periurethral colonization with enterobacteria.

* Dietary lipid modulation of ventricular fibrillation threshold in the marmoset monkey. McLennan, P. L., Bridle, T. M., Abeywardena, M. Y., & Charnock, J. S. (Cardiac Research Unit, C.S.I.R.O., Div. of Human Nutrition, Majors Rd, O'Halloran Hill, SA 5158, Australia). American Heart Journal, 1992, 123, 1555-1561.
. . Programmed electrical stimulation was used to examine the ability of long-term dietary lipid modulation to influence myocardial vulnerability to the induction of ventricular fibrillation in adult callithrix jacchus. Myocardial vulnerability to arrhythmic stimuli is increased during ischemia in this model, but dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid can reduce vulnerability under both normal and ischemic conditions. Reduced dietary fat intake alone was without effect.


* Food-associated calls correlate with food preferences in cotton-top tamarins. Elowson, A. M., Tannenbaum, P. L., & Snowdon, C. T. (Dept of Psychology, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706). Animal Behaviour, 1991, 42, 931-937.
. . Vocal behavior of Saguinus oedipus was investigated in food- and nonfood related conditions. Great variations occurred within and between individuals in the number of calls elicited by different food types. All individuals had a transitive food preference hierarchy and each individual had a different preference hierarchy. Correlations between food preference rank and rate of calling were positive for 8 of 9 animals, and the overall correlation of food preference with calling rate was significant, suggesting that cotton-tops use their calls to communicate about their own food preferences.

* The differential use of cheek pouches in a troop of Papio ursinus. Hayes, V. J., Henzi, S. P., Freedman, L., & Gaynor, D. (Dept of Anatomy & Human Biology, Univ. of Western Australia, Nedlands 6009, Western Australia). Primates, 1992, 33, 477-500.
. . At Mkuzi Game Reserve in Natal, S.A., 165 hours of observation revealed that body size, dominance, and energetic demands appeared to be the most significant factors underlying differences in cheek pouch use for storing food.

* Functional analysis of social staring behavior in an all-male group of mountain gorillas. Yamagiwa, J. (Primate Research Inst, Kyoto Univ., Inuyama, Aichi, 484 Japan). Primates, 1992, 33, 523-544.
. . Analysis of the functions of "social staring" in gorillas, with comparisons to staring and gaze aversion in other African apes, macaques, and baboons.

* Adoption in free-ranging red howler monkeys Alouatta seniculus of Venezuela. Agoramoorthy, G. & Rudran, R. (169 Guang-Yuh North St., Yang-Mei Town, Taur-Yuan Town, Taiwan 32606, R.O.C.). Primates, 1992, 33, 551-555.
. . Details and possible reasons for three observed cases of adoption.

* Costs and benefits of allomothering in wild capped langurs (Presbytis pileata). Stanford, C. B. (Dept of Anthropology, USC, Los Angeles, CA 90089). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 1992, 30, 29-34.
. . The hypothesis that allomothering is a selfish behavior by nulliparous or pregnant females to enhance maternal skills at the expense of mothers is not supported by this 15-month field study. Rather, allomothering may have adaptive significance as altruistic behavior among group females, enabling lactating females to increase feeding time.


* Effects of visitors and cage changes on the behaviors of mangabeys. Mitchell, G., Herring, F., Obradovich, S., Tromborg, C., Dowd, B., Neville, L. E., & Field, L. (Dept. of Psychology, Univ. California, Davis, CA 95616-8686). Zoo Biology, 1991, 10, 417-423.
. . Three groups of golden-bellied mangabeys were studied in three cage locations, differing in the number of visitors. Results support the view that it is the pattern of behavior changes during enrichment that is important in assessing attempted enrichment. Aggressive and affiliative behaviors are affected quite differently by different environmental stimuli in the zoo.

* A practical assessment of a non-human primate exercise program. Wolff, A. & Ruppert, G. (NIH, Vet. Resources Branch, Animal Center Section, P.O. Box 56, Poolesville, MD 20837). Lab Animal, 1991, 20[2], 36-39.
. . Examination of a group exercise program for rhesus, cynomolgus, and capuchin monkeys which had been singly housed for years. Caging, changes in animals' behavior, and effects on animal care staff are addressed.


* Waist-deep in silverbacks. S. Symington. Discover, March, 1993, 14[3], 22.
. . More male than female gorillas are being born in American zoos, creating a surplus in this polygynous species. Some zoos are experimenting with "bachelor groups." See "News Brief" on p. 17 of this issue.


* Development from birth to sexual maturity in a semi-free-ranging col- ony of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) in Gabon. Wickings, E. J. & Dixson, A. F. (Centre Internat. de Recherches Med. de Franceville, BP 769, Franceville, Gabon). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 1992, 95, 129-138.
. . Data collected over 7 years on a breeding group of 14, increasing to 45, mandrills maintained in a rainforest enclosure. Marked individual age differences occurred with regard to the onset and completion of sexual development, suggesting possible interactions between social environment and physical maturation.

* Defensive behaviors in infant rhesus monkeys: Ontogeny and context-dependent selective expression. Kalin, N. H., Shelton, S. E., & Takahashi, L. K. (Dept of Psychiatry, Univ. of Wisconsin, 600 Highland Ave, Madison, WI 53792). Child Development, 1991, 62, 1175-1183.
. . Infants in 4 age groups were briefly separated from their mothers and tested under 3 conditions: alone, with a human who averted his gaze, and with a human staring at them. Infants as young as 0-2 weeks displayed defensive behaviors but did not selectively respond to the human or the direction of his gaze. By 9-12 weeks, infants modulated their responses in relation to the parameters of the threat. At this age, infant rhesus undergo cognitive and emotional changes associated with brain development similar to those in human infants 7-12 months old.

* Life history of captive gray-cheeked mangabeys: Physical and sexual development. Deputte, B. L. (Lab. de Primatologie-Biologie evolutive, CNRS URA 373, 35380 Plelan le Grand, France). International Journal of Primatology, 1992, 13, 509-531.
. . Body-weight growth was analyzed in 15 males and 7 female Cercocebus albigena and correlated with developmental features of social behavior. Developmental parameters were compared to those described in baboons and macaques.


* AIDS epidemic has its origins in African monkeys. Allan, J. (Dept. of Virology & Immunology, Southwest Fnd. for Biomed. Research, 7620 NW Loop 410, P.O. Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78228-0147). Progress in Biomedical Research, 1992, 42[4], 3-7.
. . A review of current theories about the origins and prospects for changes in the viruses causing AIDS and SAIDS.

* AIDS and the polio vaccine. Koprowski, H. (Wistar Inst., Philadelphia, PA 19107-6799). Science, 1992, 257, 1024, 1026.
. . Letter citing evidence against the theory that the AIDS epidemic originated from a contaminated polio vaccine in 1958.

* Monkey-human viral hybrid is new weapon in AIDS fight. Cohen, J. Science, 1992, 257, 478.
. . Report and discussion of a SIV/HIV hybrid which has infected 4 cynomolgus monkeys.

* AIDS vaccines: Is older better? Cohen, J. Science, 1992, 258, 1880-1881.
. . Background and discussion of controversy about attenuated viruses versus engineered proteins as AIDS vaccines.

* Protective effects of a live attenuated SIV vaccine with a deletion in the nef gene. Daniel, M. D., Kirchhoff, F., Czajak, S. C., Sehgal, P. K., & Desrosiers, R. C. (R. C. D., NERPRC, Harvard Med. School, One Pine Hill Dr., Box 9102, Southborough, MA 01772). Science, 1992, 258, 1938-1941.
. . Rhesus monkeys vaccinated with live SIV deleted in the auxilliary gene nef were completely protected against challenge by intravenous inoculation of live, pathogenic SIV.

* Simian immunodeficiency virus needlestick accident in a laboratory worker. Khabbas, R. F., Rowe, T., Murphey-Corb, M., Heneine, W. M., Schable, C. A., George, J. R., Pau, C.-P., Parekh, B. S., Lairmore, M. D., Curran, J. W., Kaplan, J. E., Schochetman, G., & Folks, T. M. (Retrovirus Diseases Branch, MS-G03, CDC, 1600 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30333). Lancet, 1992, 340, 271-273.
. . Seroreactivity to SIV developed within 3 months of a needlestick accident, with antibody titers peaking from the 3rd to the 5th month and declining thereafter. Polymerase chain reaction for SIV sequences and cultures of peripheral-blood mononuclear cells failed to show infection. Inoculation of an SIV-negative monkey with blood from the worker did not cause infection.

* Acquired immunodeficiency without evidence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2. Laurence, J., Siegal, F. P., Schattner, E., Gelman, I. H., & Morse, S. (Lab. for AIDS Virus Research, Cornell Univ. Med. College, New York, NY 10021). Lancet, 1992, 340, 273-274.
. . There have been 3 published cases of acquired immunodeficiency in which no evidence for infection with HIV types 1 and 2 was found. Here 5 other individuals, from the NY City area (4 who have known risk factors for HIV infection), with profound CD4 depletion and clinical syndromes consistent with definitions of AIDS or AIDS-related complex are identified. None had evidence of HIV-1, 2 infection, as judged by multiple serologies over several years, standard viral co-cultures for HIV p24 Gag antigen, and proviral DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction.

* Epidemiology of cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus) infection and shedding in a large breeding cohort of rhesus macaques. Weigler, B. J., Hird, D. W., Hilliard, J. K., Lerche, N. W., Roberts, J. A., & Scott, L. M. (Dept of Companion Animal & Special Species Med., College of Veterinary Med., 4700 Hillsborough St, Raleigh, NC 27606). Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1993, 167, 257-263.
. . A colony of 157 rhesus were evaluated for 16 months by serial physical exams, a behavioral substudy, and repeated diagnostic testing. Detailed information, important to all macaque users, is reported here. The most important modes of transmission were venereal and trauma.

* Immunity in hepatitis C infection. Prince, A. M., Brotman, B., Huima, T., Pascual, D., Jaffery, M., & Inchauspe, G. (NY Blood Center, 310 E. 67th St, New York, NY 10021). Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1992, 165, 438-443.
. . Reexposure to even moderate doses of HCV results in most cases in reinfection as determined by reappearance of viremia, anamnestic serologic responses, and often also hepatitis. Chronically infected chimpanzees may be similarly reinfected. There is no statistical difference of response between animals infected with the original infecting strain and those challenged with heterologous strains.

* Ankylosing spondylitis in nonhuman primates: The drill and the siamang. Swezey, R. L., Cox, C., & Gonzales, B. (Arthritis & Back Pain Center, Swezey Inst., 1328 16th St, Santa Monica, CA 90404). Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, 1991, 21, 170-174.
. . A siamang and two drills with the classic radiographic features of ankylosing spondylitis, namely a bamboo spine and sacroiliac joint fusion, are reported.

* Pathogenic potential of filoviruses: Role of geographic origin of primate host and virus strain. Fisher-Hoch, S. P., Brammer, T. L., Trappier, S. G., Hutwagner, L. C., Farrar, B. B., Ruo, S. L., Brown, B. G., Hermann, L. M., Perez-Oronoz, G. I., Goldsmith, C. S., Hanes, M. A., & McCormick, J. B. (Mycotic Diseases Branch, Div. of Bacterial & Mycotic Diseases, Nat'l Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30333). Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1992, 166, 53-63.
. . The pathogenic potential of filoviruses was compared in 16 Asian (Macaca fascicularis) and 16 African (Cercopithecus aethiops) monkeys, using African filoviruses from Zaire (Ebola virus) and Sudan or Asian filoviruses (Reston and Pennsylvania). African filovirus infections resulted in earlier death, had a shorter duration of disease and median incubation period, and had earlier peak viremia. African green monkeys showed significantly higher survival than cynomolgus, and some were asymptomatic, as have been humans accidentally infected with Asian filovirus. Rechallenge experiments showed that protection in survivors of filovirus infections against fatal challenge with Ebola virus is unpredictable. The minimal clinical disease observed in humans infected with the Reston strain is consistent with host- and virus-dependent pathogenicity.

* Filovirus seropositivity in prospective organ donor baboons. Lecatsas, G., Neethling, F. A., De Klerk, W. A., & Gridelli, B. (B. G., Liver Transplantation Dept, Hospital Maggiore-Policlinico, via F. Sforza, 33, 20122 Milano, Italy). Transplantation Proceedings, 1992, 24, 617-618.
. . Nine of 44 Chacma baboons were found to be positive for Marburg and/or Ebola viruses, indicating that the animals may harbor closely related agents. The danger to patients and hospital staff must preclude the use of seropositive baboons in xenotransplantation until more information on the nature of the viruses harbored can be obtained.

* Chromobacteriosis (Chromobacterium violaceum) in three colobus monkeys (Colobus polykomos). Kornegay, R. W., Pirie, G., Brown, C. C., & Newton, J. C. (Dept of Veterinary Pathology, School of Veterinary Med., L.S.U., Baton Rouge, LA 70803). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 1991, 22, 476-484.
. . Three of 11 monkeys in a zoo group died within 6 weeks after a fulminating illness with lesions of a bacteremia/septicemia. Details of necropsies and of husbandry of the group, including therapy, are given.

* Occurrence of severe leptospirosis in a breeding colony of squirrel monkeys. Perolat, P., Poingt, J.-P., Vie, J.-C., Jouaneau, C., Baranton, G., & Gysin, J. (Lab. des Leptospires, Inst Pasteur, BP 61, Noumea, New Caledonia). American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 1992, 46, 538-545.
. . Report of a number of severe cases of icterohemorrhagic leptospirosis among a colony of 109 Saimiri sciureus in French Guiana. Ten animals died, and 26% of the remaining animals were seropositive. Newly trapped feral squirrel monkeys were also found to have agglutinins against serogroups of Leptospira. A vaccine, prepared from one of the strains isolated, was used in addition to antibiotic prophylaxis to control the enzootic disease.

* Uncommon Campylobacter species in infant Macaca nemestrina monkeys housed in a nursery. Russell, R. G., Kiehlbauch, J. A., Gebhart, C. J., & DeTolla, L. J. (Dept of Pathology, School of Med., Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201). Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1992, 30, 3024-3027.
. . Isolates cultured from 13 of 18 infant pigtailed macaques could not be identified as either Campylobacter jejuni or C. coli. Phenotypic tests, DNA hypridization, and analysis of DNA coding for rRNA identified the isolates as C. butzleri, C. hyointestinalis, and C. fetus or C. fetus-like organisms.

* Enrofloxacin treatment of long-tailed macaques with acute bacillary dysentery due to multiresistant Shigella flexneri IV. Line, A. S., Paul-Murphy, J., Aucoin, D. P., & Hirsh, D. C. (Dept of Comparative Med., Bowman Gray School of Med., Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC 27103). Laboratory Animal Science, 1992, 42, 240-244.
. . Thirty-four cases of acute bacillary dysentery occurred within 90 days among the approximately 250 long-tailed macaques at the California RPRC. Once daily administration of 5 mg/kg enrofloxacin by gastric intubation produced 24-hour serum concentrations above the MICs for the Shigella isolates from this outbreak. [See article on p. 3 of this issue.]

* Femoral artery pseudoaneurysm in a monkey. Stetter, M. D., Wells, S. K., Kerstein, M. D., Soroyan, M., & Schwedler, M. (Audubon Park Zoo, 6500 Magazine St, New Orleans, LA 70118). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 1992, 201, 1091-1092.
. . Pseudoaneurysm formation as a complication of routine blood collection was diagnosed in a colobus monkey. Damage to the femoral artery resulted in hematoma formation with secondary organization, encapsulation, and vascular communication. Progressive lameness and muscular atrophy were the primary clinical signs. Surgical correction of the artery defect helped resolve the lameness and muscle atrophy.

* Choroidal coloboma in a cynomolgus monkey. Kuhlman, S. M., Rubin, L. F., & Quander, R. V. (Hazleton Washington, 9200 Leesburg Tpk., Vienna, VA 22182). Progress in Veterinary & Comparative Ophthalmology, 1992, 2, 95-101.
. . Description of the clinico-pathological features of an atypical coloboma in a 3.5-year-old, wild-caught female cynomolgus monkey.

* Prevalence of ophthalmic lesions in wild-caught cynomolgus monkeys. Kuhlman, S. M., Rubin, L. F., & Ridgway, R. L. (Address same as above). Progress in Veterinary & Comparative Ophthalmology, 1992, 2, 20-28.
. . Report on examinations of 2100 apparently healthy wild-caught cynomolgus monkeys, over a 4-year period, using an indirect ophthalmoscope.

* An epidemic of toxoplasmosis in a captive colony of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Cunningham, A. A., Buxton, D., & Thomson, K. M. (Veterinary Science Research Group, Inst. of Zoology, Zoological Soc. of London, Regent's Park, London NW 1 4RY, UK). Journal of Comparative Pathology, 1992, 107, 207-219.
. . An epidemic of acute, disseminated toxoplasmosis caused 30% mortality and an apparent 100% morbidity in a captive colony of squirrel monkeys. The similarity of the disease in these monkeys with that in immunocompromised humans is an observation worthy of further investigation.

* A distinct African lentivirus from Sykes' monkeys. Hirsch, V. M., DaPolito, G. A., Goldstein, S., McClure, H., Emau, P., Fultz, P. N., Isahakia, M., Lenroot, R., Myers, G., & Johnson, P. R. (Lab. of Infectious Diseases, NIAID, Rockville, MD 20852). Journal of Virology, 1993, 67, preprint.
. . Asymptomatic infection with SIV has been demonstrated in Cercopithecus mitis albolugaris (Sykes' monkey), and virus isolation confirmed infection with a novel SIV (SIVsyk). SIVsyk represents a new group that is distinct from the 4 previously recognized primate lentivirus groups: HIV-1, SIVsmm (from sooty mangabeys) and HIV-2, SIVagm (from green monkeys), and SIVmnd (from mandrills). The genetic differences between SIVsyk and SIVagm, isolates derived from monkeys of the same genus, underscore the potential for other distinct SIVs, which have yet to be isolated and characterized.

* Simian T-cell leukemia virus type I infection in captive baboons. Mone, J., Whitehead, E., Leland, M., Hubbard, G., & Allan, J. S. (J. S. A., Dept of Virology & Immunology, Southwest Fnd. for Biomedical Research, 7620 NW Loop 410, San Antonio, TX 78228). AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 1992, 8, 1653-1661.
. . In a colony of 3200 baboons, 329 were analyzed for the presence of STLV-I. An overall seroprevalence rate > 40% was found, with rates increasing dramatically with age to > 80% over age 16. DNA analysis indicates that STLV-I in this colony is closely related to (human) HTLV-I. Twenty-seven cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma have been identified in STLV-I+ baboons in the colony, no cases in STLV-I- baboons. Detailed study of this large population of naturally infected baboons may shed some light on the complex processes required for the induction of disease associated with HTLV-I infection in humans.

* The genetic fate of molecularly cloned simian immunodeficiency virus in experimentally infected macaques. Johnson, P. R., Hamm, T. E., Goldstein, S., Kitov, S., & Hirsch, V. M. (Wexner Inst., Rm W309, Children's Hospital, 780 Children's Dr., Columbus, OH 43205). Virology, 1991, 185, 217-228.
. . Examination of genetic variation of the SIV in 4 macaques inoculated with virons derived from molecular clones of proviral DNA demonstrated that the SIV genome is capable of rapid and extensive genetic variation. This variation was especially large in the env gene, while there was a lack of variation in the region analogous to the V3 loop in the HIV-1 Env protein.

* Different susceptibilities to attenuated poliovirus of cynomolgus monkeys from the Philippines and other southeast Asian countries. Chino, F., Eto, K., Ohkawa, T., Muto, T., & Komatsu, T. (Dept. of General Biologics Control, NIH, Kamiosaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141). Japanese Journal of Medical Science & Biology, 1992, 45, 9-17.
. . The lesion-inducing virus dose (LID-50) of attenuated poliovirus in the spinal cords of inoculated monkeys varied as much as 10,000-fold, depending on the birthplace of the monkey (Indo-China/Malaysia, Indonesia, or the Philippines), with values in monkeys from the Philippines much lower than those in the monkeys from the other two areas.


* Group composition in wild and commensal Hamadryas baboons: A comparative study in Saudi Arabia. Biquand, S., Biquand-Guyot, V., Boug, A., & Gautier, J.-P. (Natl Wildlife Research Ctr, Box 1086, Taif, Saudi Arabia). International Journal of Primatology, 1992, 13, 533-543.
. . Papio hamadryas were observed at altitudes ranging from 0 to 2300 m. No variation in group size was found with altitude, but commensal populations are only found above 850 m. Differences in group numbers and composition are discussed in terms of food availability and predator pressure, and are compared with results obtained on other populations.


* Stamps and the order Primates. Mueller, M. D. (3201 Wisconsin Ave, N.W., Apt. 401, Washington, DC 20016). American Philatelist, 1993, 107, 132-141.
. . An up-to-date layman's review of primate taxonomy, illustrated with postage stamps.

Instruments & Techniques

* Chronic blood pressure radiotelemetry in rhesus macaques. Sadoff, D. A., Fischel, R. J., Carroll, M. E., & Brockway, B. (Div. Comparative Med., Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455). Laboratory Animal Science, 1992, 42[1], 78-80.
. . Although use of a jacket and tether system for chronic blood pressure measurement is common, tethering has been associated with sympathetic nervous system arousal in macaques. A device is described that has been implanted in 3 rhesus monkeys for periods up to one year. The transmitter that was removed from one animal had no thrombus formation on any part of the catheter. No lesions, edema, or loss of function has been observed.


* Sex ratio and mortality in a laboratory colony of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Rothe, H., Darms, K., & Koenig, A. (Inst. of Anthropology, Univ. of Gottingen, 3400 Gottingen, Burgerstr. 50, Germany). Laboratory Animals, 1992, 26, 88-99.
. . Detailed retrospective study of 735 infants in 294 litters. Normal socialization of the infants in a stable social environment, and the avoidance of pairing the animals before they are fully adult, are considered important factors in good breeding success and infant survival.

* Role of lymphokines in immunoregulatory function of mucosal T cells in humans and nonhuman primates. James, S. P., Mullin, G. E., Kanof, M. E., & Zeitz, M. (Div. Gastroenterology, Rm. N3W62, Univ. of Maryland, 22 S. Greene St, Baltimore, MD 21201). Immunologic Research, 1991, 10, 230-238.
. . Lymphocytes in the intestinal lamina propria differ from lymphocyte populations in the circulation or in other tissue sites in a number of ways. It appears that T cells in the lamina propria are pleomorphic, but are highly enriched for subpopulations of activated memory cells that are geared for effector functions. These functions are likely to be critical in maintaining normal host defense in the mucosal environment.

* Insulin-like growth factor-I in non-insulin-dependent diabetic monkeys: Basal plasma concentrations and metabolic effects of exogenously administered biosynthetic hormone. Bodkin, N. L., Sportsman, R., DiMarchi, R. D., & Hansen, B. C. (Obesity & Metabolism Lab., Univ. of Maryland, School of Med., Med. School Teaching Facility, Room 6-00, 10 S. Pine St, Baltimore, MD 21201). Metabolism, 1991, 40, 1131-1137.
. . Spontaneously obese middle-aged and older rhesus monkeys were studied. Basal plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) were significantly decreased with the development of type II diabetes, and this decrease was associated with both increased age and decreased glucose tolerance. There was a consistent and sustained glucose-lowering effect of IGF-I when 200 mg/kg was administered subcutaneously to spontaneously obese type II diabetic monkeys.

* Characterization of cardiac alterations in nonsedated cynomolgus monkeys. Macallum, G. E. & Houston, B. J. (Parke-Davis Research Inst., Mississauga, Ontario L5K 1B4, Canada). American Journal of Veterinary Research, 1993, 54, 327-332.
. . Spontaneous variations in ECG and continuous Holter monitor recordings of a colony of 31 male and 31 female cynomolgus monkeys were characterized. Ventricular ectopic beats and sinus arrythmia can occur without apparent cause in clinically normal monkeys. Higher prevalences of these abnormalities are identified by Holter monitoring relative to routine ECG procedures.


* Reversible contraception in nondomestic animals. Kirkpatrick, J. F. & Turner, J. W., Jr. (Deaconess Research Inst., 2520 17th St W., Billings, MT 59102). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 1991, 22, 392-408.
. . Reversible fertility control is a potentially powerful management tool for both captive exotic and free-roaming wildlife. Reversible contraceptive agents reviewed here include nonhormonal compounds, nonsteroidal hormones, steroid hormones, barrier methods, and immuno-contraception.

* Observations on reproduction, hormones, copulatory behavior, and neonatal mortality in captive Lemur mongoz (mongoose lemur). Perry, J. M., Izard, M. K., & Fail, P. A. (109 W. Edgewood Dr., Durham, NC 27704). Zoo Biology, 1992, 11, 81-97.
. . A study of 50 captive- and wild-born animals suggests that a number of factors, including housing, behavior, and photoperiod, may be relevant to successful captive propagation of these endangered prosimians.

* Serum concentrations of progesterone and estrogens during the reproductive cycle of owl monkeys (Aotus trivirgatus). McConnell, I. W., Atwell, R., Renquist, D., & Gunnels, R. (Johnson & Johnson, Rt. 1, P.O. Box 2400, New Brunswick, NJ 08903). Georgia Journal of Science, 1990, 48, 96-101.
. . Data from six adult female owl monkeys, collected over 45 days, suggest that serum progesterone and estrogen levels can be used to indicate cycling and noncycling animals, as well as to detect pregnancy.


In many cases, the original source of references in this section is the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest.

* * *

All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853,
Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912.
Phone: 401-863-2511
FAX: 401-863-1300


The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
Service Grant RR-00419 from the Comparative Medicine Program,
National Center for Research Resources, N.I.H.

Cover drawing of Japanese "snow" monkeys (Macaca fuscata)
by Anne M. Richardson

Copyright �1993 by Brown University Editor: Judith E. Schrier, M.Sc.
Associate Editor: James S. Harper, D.V.M.
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar, D.V.M.
Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen, B.A.
Founding Editor: Allan M. Schrier, Ph.D.