Laboratory Primate Newsletter



Articles and Notes

Effect of Group Size on Behavior of Group-housed Female Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta), by D. T. McIntyre & A. J. Petto...... 1

Baboon Vocalizations as Measures of Psychological Well-being, by D. K. Crowell Comuzzie...... 5

Evaluation of an Inexpensive Custom-Made Food Puzzle Used as Primary Feeder for Pair-Housed Rhesus Macaques, by V. Reinhardt...... 7

Time to Ban Imports? A European Perspective, by W. R. Kingston...... 9

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* * *

Effect of Group Size on Behavior of Group-housed
Female Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

Diane Toloczko McIntyre and Andrew J. Petto
University of Massachusetts and New England Regional Primate Research Center


Among the numerous environmental influences that affect the behavior of captive primates, several variables are well known to have persistent positive effects on their well-being. These include space available to each animal (Daschbach et al., 1983; de Waal, 1989; and Southwick, 1967); and opportunities for social interaction either through the presence of a single conspecific companion sharing that space (Ranheim and Reinhardt, 1989; Reinhardt, 1989 and 1990; and Reinhardt et al., 1988) or through group housing. Even when primates are housed socially, group size and the age and sex composition of a group must be considered (Erwin, 1979).

For example, Erwin (1979) found for pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) that group size was an important determinant for the frequency of aggressive interactions in groups of mixed sex and age. In captive conditions, nine or ten females per harem was optimum. Erwin's study pointed out the strong tendency for the presence of an adult male to inhibit agonistic behaviors among females. In the absence of adult males, an adult female may assume this role (Kummer, 1975), but this role change is expected only in stable social groups.

At the New England Regional Primate Research Center (NERPRC) timed mating breeding colony, breeding female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) inhabit 24 all-female social groups. The membership of these groups tends to be stable; however, each female is removed for breeding for up to five days at least every other month. In this paper, we examine the effects of group size on behavioral profiles and any differences in these profiles among the different social groups.

Focal animal observations of aggressive, affiliative, other social, and nonsocial behaviors were collected on females grouped in pens of 4 or 5 individuals in NERPRC's timed mating breeding colony. Use of this colony permitted a cross-sectional study of several groups of unrelated female rhesus housed under similar conditions.

Since both group size and group composition were considered possible explanatory variables for differences in behavioral profiles of individual animals, we further classified the observational data from each animal in two ways. First, they were assigned to a group size variable. All the groups contained either four or five members. Second, they were assigned to one of seven social groups that make up the study. This variable contains variations in group composition.

Erwin (1979) suggested that significantly larger scores for all social behaviors might be expected from animals in pens with more animals, because of the higher "interaction potential" resulting from the greater social density in those groups. The differences in behavioral profiles among these groups might also be a result of unusual activity by a single individual within a group, so we also examined the effects of group composition by computing aggregated means for each individual's behavioral profile.


Housing: During Summer 1989, 120 individually-caged adult female rhesus monkeys were transferred to a newly constructed building containing 24 indoor pens designed for social housing of this population. These painted concrete-block pens measured approximately 3 x 1.5 x 2.5 m. each. The pens contained a cylindrical metal perch bolted to one wall for the length of the pen at a height of 1.5 m; a 1 x 1.5 m fence wire bed; at least one 1.5 x 2 m galvanized wire window on the external wall covered by a removable clear plastic shutter that provided fresh air in good weather; and a thick layer of wood shavings on the floor. Pens located on the building's corners each had two windows.

Animals were fed twice daily with commercial chow placed in a hopper on the pen door. Sunflower seeds, cracked corn, and fruit supplemented their diet several times a week. Two water spigots in each pen supplied water ad libitum.

Subjects: The seven pens used in this study were randomly selected from the colony. They include four pens with four animals each (n = 16), and three pens with five (n = 15). All 31 animals, adult female rhesus macaques, in the seven pens were study subjects.

The pelts of all animals housed in the building were marked by man- ual application of distinctive patterns with permanent black dye (Nyanzol brand, Belmar Co., N. Andover, MA). Identification numbers tattooed across subjects' chests further assured unmistaken identification of each animal.

All females throughout this colony, whenever removed for medical treatment, biological sampling, or mating, were returned to the same pen, unless the history or circumstances within that group indicated a need for alternative arrangements. None of the study subjects was reassigned to any other groups during this study, and no absences exceeded 5 days. During this investigation, every group experienced the temporary removal and reintroduction of some members for breeding purposes. This analysis included only those observation sessions in which all members were present for the entire sample session.

Data Collection: Observations began after at least four weeks of post-introduction social stability and an additional three weeks of habituation to the observer. The habituation period included random observations of all animals in the 120-monkey colony.

A focal-animal, modified-frequency sampling technique, known also as "one-zero sampling" (Altmann, 1973), was used for data collection. Each focal-animal session lasted five minutes. Behavior was scored within 15-second intervals. A KaM Products "Animal Research Beeper", an audible metronome, measured the 15-second intervals. Twenty-eight mutually-exclusive qualitative behaviors, listed in Table 1 under "Data-Collection Behavior" were used to score the subjects' activities during the observation sessions.

      |                                                      |
      | Agonistic               Crooktail                    |
      |                         Display                      |
      |                         Give/Receive Displace        |
      |                         Give/Receive Threat          |
      |                         Give/Receive Chase           |
      |                         Give/Receive Physical Attack |
      | Affiliative             Passive Social Rest          |
      |                         Give/Receive Social Grooming |
      |                         Give/Receive Present         |
      |                         Give/Receive Mount           |
      |                         Lipsmack                     |
      | Other Social            Intercage Activity           |
      |                         Directed Visual
      |                         Vocalize                     |
      | Nonsocial               Stereotypy                   |
      |                         Self Groom                   |
      |                         Locomotion                   |
      |                         Visual Explore               |
      |                         Tactile/oral explore         |
      |                         Foraging                     |
      |                         Eat/drink                    |

Table 1. Collapsed and data-collection categories of qualitative behaviors.

The order of observation was randomized by computer by pen number, then by the animals within each pen. This method allowed observation of all animals housed together before moving to another pen. A new randomized order was generated upon the completion of data collection for each list.

Each monkey was evaluated at least twice each week. Over a ten-week period, daily data collection occurred on weekdays between 1300 and 1700 hours. This analysis includes a total of 54.75 hours of observation with a minimum of 85 minutes of focal observation per animal. Some differences in total observation time per individual occurred because this analysis included only samples taken on days when all members of the group were present.

Analysis: This study examined the variation in behavioral profiles between individuals using two different explanatory variables. These explanatory variables were group size and group composition. To allow inclusion of infrequent, yet socially important, behaviors in the statistical analysis, the 28 data-collection behaviors were collapsed into the four categories used as the dependent variables: agonistic, affiliative, nonsocial, and other social (Table 1).

The agonistic category included all behaviors, either given or received, associated with aggressive or defensive social interactions. Affiliative behaviors were those associated with amicable social interactions. The Other-Social category included behaviors that, although social in nature, were difficult to assign either a negative or positive interaction value. Their social value was not neutral, rather it was undetermined. Nonsocial behaviors were those that excluded social interaction with other monkeys.

The aggregated data from all 31 macaques in seven pens were used to analyze variations in behavior between subjects in different sized groups by comparing these aggregated means between conditions. In addition, we further aggregated means of individuals within each group to form a group mean to examine variations related to the particular composition of those pens.

The sample size for each test was always the number of individual monkeys ascribed to a condition category. Alpha was set at 0.05 for all statistical tests. A post-hoc contrast test using one degree of freedom and Duncan's Multiple Range Post-Hoc Test were used on data sets where the ANOVA test revealed significant differences.

  +-----------+-----------+-------------+--------------+---------- +
  +-----------+-----------+-------------+--------------+---------- +
  | Pens of 4 |           |             |              |           |
  |      Mean |   1.682   |    7.019    |    6.012     |   39.361  |
  |      STD  |   0.604   |    2.443    |    1.907     |    2.584  |
  |      n =  |    16     |     16      |     16       |     16    |
  |           |           |             |              |           |
  | Pens of 5 |           |             |              |           |
  |      Mean |   1.720   |    8.391    |    6.269     |   39.688  |
  |      STD  |   1.583   |    4.893    |    1.727     |    7.213  |
  |      n =  |    15     |     15      |     15       |     15    |
  |           |           |             |              |           |
  | ANOVA F=  |   0.008   |    0.994    |    0.154     |    0.029  |
  |   d.f. =  |   1, 29   |    1, 29    |    1, 29     |    1, 29  |
  |      p =  |   0.928   |    0.672    |    0.700     |    0.860  |
  +-----------+-----------+-------------+--------------+---------- +

Table 2. Housing Condition: aggregated mean frequency of scored intervals per session for 4 collapsed behavior categories compared by one-way ANOVA between Pens of 4 and Pens of 5.


There were no significant differences between the two group sizes for any collapsed behavior category (Table 2). Nor were significant differences found between pens for the social behavior categories (Table 3). However, differences between pens for nonsocial behaviors were significant (ANOVA F = 7.89, df = 6, 24; p < 0.001).

    |   PEN #:   |  4-1 |  4-2 |  4-3 |  4-4 |  5-1 |  5-2 | 5-3  |
    | AGONISTIC  |                                                |
    |   Pen Mean | 1.750| 1.721| 1.158| 2.100| 3.070| 0.998| 1.091|
    |   Pen STD  | 0.627| 0.688| 0.227| 0.545| 2.184| 0.453| 0.604|
    |   Pen n =  |   4  |   4  |   4  |   4  |   5  |   5  |   5  |
    |   ANOVA F= |             2.484                              |
    |    d.f. =  |             6, 24                              |
    |    p =     |             0.051                              |
    |   Pen Mean | 6.106| 7.309| 8.750| 5.913| 4.670|10.811| 9.691|
    |   Pen STD  | 0.396| 4.020| 1.700| 1.945| 0.839| 4.726| 5.833|
    |   Pen n =  |   4  |   4  |   4  |   4  |   5  |   5  |   5  |
    |   ANOVA F= |             1.912                              |
    |   d.f. =   |             6, 24                              |
    |   p =      |             0.120                              |
    |OTHER SOCIAL|                                                |
    |   Pen Mean | 5.240| 5.132| 7.250| 6.425| 7.270| 5.436| 6.10 |
    |   Pen STD  | 0.548| 2.524| 2.461| 1.170| 1.966| 1.387| 1.581|
    |   Pen n =  |   4  |   4  |   4  |   4  |   5  |   5  |  5   |
    |   ANOVA F= |             1.136                              |
    |   d.f. =   |             6, 24                              |
    |   p =      |             0.372                              |
    |* NONSOCIAL |                                                |
    |   Pen Mean |40.144|37.441|40.211|39.650|47.840|33.860|37.364|
    |   Pen STD  | 1.465| 2.500| 3.269| 2.740| 2.638| 6.151| 2.239|
    |   Pen n =  |   4  |   4  |   4  |   4  |   5  |   5  |   5  |
    |   ANOVA F= |             7.890                              |
    |   d.f. =   |             6, 24                              |
    |   p <      |             0.001                              |

Table 3. Residence Condition: aggregated mean frequency of scored intervals per session for 4 collapsed behavior categories compared by one-way ANOVA among seven cages. * Significant results for Nonsocial Behaviors.

The post-hoc contrast test revealed that all pens had displayed nonsocial behaviors similarly except Pens 5-1 and 5-2. Pen 5-2 was similar to only two pens and differed significantly from all others. Pen 5-1 differed significantly from all pens. A post-hoc contrast, weighing all pens of four and five equally, also confirmed the earlier finding indicating no significant differences in the data between the two housing conditions.

    | Pen #:    / 5-2    5-3    4-2 /  4-4    4-1    4-3    5-1   |
    |          /___________________/                              |
    |                 /                                / /     /  |
    |                /________________________________/ /_____/   |
    |                                                             |

Table 4: Duncan's Multiple Range test results for Nonsocial Behavior. Displays 3 homogenous subsets of pens.

The Duncan's Multiple Range Post-hoc test confirmed the contrast test by disclosing the following results for nonsocial behavior (Table 4). Three homogenous subsets were found, one indicating the similarities of pens 5-2, 5-3, and 4-2; another illustrating the similarity of results for pens 5-3, 4-2, 4-4, 4-1, and 4-3; and a third demonstrating the dissimilarity of pen 5-1 to all other pens.


This study shows that there are no significant effects of group size on social behaviors when comparing groups of four or five adult female rhesus monkeys. Expectations for significant differences between pens were met only by the results for nonsocial behaviors. Most importantly, agonistic behaviors, commonly recognized indicators of stress, were relatively constant among all groups regardless of the composition or the size of the pen.

The small numeric differences found for scored behaviors for groups of four and five individuals raises questions about how increasing group size might affect the potential for social interaction within a group. Differences among groups in social behaviors due to group size may not be detectable in the context of relatively larger effects on these behaviors due to behavioral variability among individuals within the groups. The presence of an additional animal does not simply add one more relationship to the group, it also shapes the amount and type of social interactions with and among other individuals in the group.

Based on these variations in behaviors among pens of the same group size, we conclude that group composition and other unique characteristics of each pen had a larger effect on the behavior of each animal within a group than the group size. Statistical differences were detectable in the Duncan's Multiple Range test for nonsocial behaviors, where the groups clustered differently. Prior social experience and the temperament of each monkey may play a role in the slight differences found for all behaviors.

According to these two sets of analyses, one should expect similar frequencies of "scored intervals per session" (Altmann 1973) for social behaviors for individual female rhesus monkeys, housed in comparable settings, regardless of whether they are housed in groups of four or five. It is unlikely that each monkey is readily interchangeable between groups, however, because of the influence of group composition on behavior.


Altmann, J. (1973). Observational study of behavior: Sampling methods. Behavior, 49, 227-265.

Daschbach, N. J., Schein, M. W., & Haines, D. E. (1983). Cage-size effects on locomotor, grooming and agonistic behaviors of the Slow Loris (Nycticebus coucang). Applied Animal Ethology, 9, 317-330.

Erwin, J. (1979). Aggression in captive macaques: Interaction of social and spatial factors. In J. Erwin, T. Maple and G. Mitchell (Eds.), Captivity and Behavior (pp. 139-171). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Kummer, H. (1975). Primate Societies. Chicago: Aldine.

Ranheim, S. & Reinhardt, V. (1989). Compatible rhesus monkeys provide long-term stimulation for each other. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 28[3], 1-2.

Reinhardt, V. (1989). Behavioral responses of unrelated adult male rhesus monkeys familiarized and paired for the purpose of environmental enrichment. American Journal of Primatology, 17, 243-248.

Reinhardt, V. (1990). Time budget of caged rhesus monkeys exposed to a companion, a PVC perch, and a piece of wood for an extended time. American Journal of Primatology, 20, 51-56.

Reinhardt, V., Houser, D., Eisele, S., Crowley, D., & Vertein, R. (1988). Behavioral responses of unrelated rhesus monkey females paired for the purpose of environmental enrichment. American Journal of Primatology, 14, 135-140.

Southwick, C. H. (1967). An experimental study of intragroup agonistic behavior in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Behavior, 28, 182-209.

de Waal, F. B. (1989). The myth of a simple relationship between space and aggression in captive primates. Zoo Biology, Supplement 1, 141-148.


First author's address: Department of Anthropology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01010. This study was supported in part by NIH grant RR00168 to NERPRC.

* * *

Baboon Vocalizations as Measures of Psychological Well-being

Diana K. Crowell Comuzzie
Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research

Many researchers have developed environmental enrichment programs intended to promote the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates under their care (see reviews by Bloomsmith et al., 1991, and Fajzi et al., 1989). However, more quantitative assessments of the effectiveness of enrichment devices are still needed (Novak & Suomi, 1988). In particular, studies that evaluate enrichment over long periods of time would be especially helpful. This pilot study is aimed at developing a method to ascertain whether enrichment devices are improving psychological well-being and how long these devices continue to be effective. The method reported here uses commonly produced vocalizations (grunts and barks) as indicators of "well-being" in baboons.

Vocalizations are an important component of social structure in many species (Marler, 1965) and, as such, would be expected to be reliable indicators of the psychological health of group members. Although visual signals such as facial expressions may constitute a greater proportion of the natural communication repertoire of baboons (Hall & DeVore, 1965), vocal signals were used in this study because:
* they could be recorded when the experimenter was not present, thus eliminating the need to habituate the animals to the experimenter;
* calls could be recorded when the signalling animal was not in full view of the observer;
* calls can be more easily measured and quantified than visual signals.


Three adult male olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) were individually housed in cages where they could see, hear, and smell, but not touch, each other. These animals had lived in a similar cage environment with other baboons for several years prior to the experiment, but were moved into a separate room together for behavioral testing. All enrichment devices, including radio music and food treats, were removed one week before recording began. The subject animals were conditioned to regular feeding at 0900 hours, followed by routine cleaning and maintenance within the next hour. The test subjects were generally left alone for the rest of the day, although they could hear sounds of other primates in the building.

The baboons' vocalizations were recorded from 0830 until 0930--from thirty minutes before feeding until 30 minutes after the beginning of feeding. Since the animals were conditioned to feeding at 0900 hours, this provided a standardized time period for counting vocalizations.

After 12 days in a nonenriched environment, food treats (oranges) were given and radio music was played for two days before recording began again. This enrichment was continued for the final five days of the experiment. The food treats were given in the afternoon and were not associated with the timing of the morning recordings. Radio music was turned off during recording although, as it was playing in other rooms, it may have been faintly heard by the test subjects.

A Uher microphone and a cassette tape recorder were positioned directly in front of the three cages. Recordings were made for five days in the nonenriched environment and five days in the enriched environment. Only three of the recordings in the nonenriched environment were analyzed due to errors in feeding times. Therefore, only the first three days in the enriched environment were used. The recordings were analyzed for frequency of occurrence of barks and grunts and the counts were evaluated by a two-tailed paired-sample t test.


Frequencies of occurrence of barks and grunts are shown in Table 1. Barks were only produced prior to feeding, and grunts were produced mostly in the 15-20 minute period after (not while) the baboons ate. Barks did not occur more or less frequently in the enriched environment than in the nonenriched. Grunts occurred much more often when enrichment was provided, but this difference was only significant at the 0.10 level (mean-X = 49.33, s-square = 508.33, t = 2.188, n = 3). Review of the data indicates that the effect of small sample size is probably masking a real increase in grunting in enriched animals.

       |   Day    | Nonenriched Week | Enriched Week |
       |  BARKS   |                  |               |
       |    1     |       20         |     22        |
       |    2     |        8         |      7        |
       |    3     |       21         |     13        |
       |          |                  |               |
       |  Mean    |      16.3        |    14.0       |
       | GRUNTS   |                  |               |
       |    1     |       14         |     65        |
       |    2     |        7         |     78        |
       |    3     |       38         |     64        |
       |          |                  |               |
       |  Mean    |      19.7        |    69.0       |

Table 1: Frequencies of occurrence of barks and grunts in a nonenriched and an enriched environment. Recordings were during a one-hour period centered around a standardized feeding time.


Barks are short, one-syllable explosive vocalizations that are given by free-ranging baboons when startled by the sudden appearance of a snake, scorpion, or predator (Coelho & Bramblett, 1989; Hall & DeVore, 1965). Grunts are short, quiet vocalizations that are given in friendly circumstances while free-ranging baboons are feeding close together in thick bush or at night in sleeping groups (Andrew, 1963; Coelho & Bramblett, 1989; Hall & DeVore, 1965). In the study reported here, the function of barks is unclear, but the function of grunting seems to be a means of maintaining contact. The increased grunting associated with the enriched environment may imply friendly relationships with the other two members of the group. Although this suggests improved psychological well-being, further study using physiological and behavioral measures is required before a final determination can be made. The next phase of the research project is to correlate increased grunting with decreased physiological stress as measured by heart rate and blood pressure. Further acoustic analyses of the recordings are also being conducted. Acoustic parameters being evaluated are signal duration, fundamental frequency, and spectral shape.

The results reported here show that vocal signals change when envi- ronmental enrichment is provided. With minimal training, caregivers can learn to use vocal signals to evaluate animal welfare. Unlike assessments of pathological behavior, vocalizations encompass many types of species-typical behavior, and therefore provide a better overall view of the social structure of the group. In addition, this method is noninvasive, inexpensive, and easily quantifiable. Thus vocalizations may provide a useful tool for evaluating enrichment programs designed to promote baboon, and perhaps other nonhuman primate, psychological well-being.


Andrew, R. J. (1963). Trends apparent in the evolution of vocalization in the Old World monkeys and apes. In J. Napier & N. A. Barnicot (Eds.), The Primates (pp. 89-101), Symposium No. 10. London: Zoological Society of London.

Bloomsmith, M. A., Brent, L. Y., & Schapiro, S. J. (1991). Guidelines for developing and managing an environmental enrichment program for nonhuman primates. Laboratory Animal Science, 41, 372-377.

Coelho, A. M. & Bramblett, C. A. (1989). Behaviour of the genus Papio: Ethogram, taxonomy, methods, and comparative measures. In P. K. Seth & S. Seth (Eds.), Perspectives in Primate Biology, Volume 3 (pp. 177-140). New Delhi: Today & Tomorrow's Printers & Publishers.

Fajzi, K., Reinhardt, V., & Smith, M. D. (1989). A review of environmental enrichment strategies for singly caged nonhuman primates. Lab Animal, 18, 23-35.

Hall, K. R. L. & DeVore, I. (1965). Baboon social behavior. In I. DeVore (Ed.), Primate Behavior: Field Studies of Monkeys and Apes (pp. 53-110). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Marler, P. (1965). Communication in monkeys and apes. In I. Devore (Ed.), Primate Behavior: Field Studies of Monkeys and Apes (pp. 544-584). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Novak, M. A. & Suomi, S. J. (1988). Psychological well-being of primates in captivity. American Psychologist, 43, 765-773.


Author's address: Dept of Lab. Animal Medicine, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, P.O. Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78228-0147.

* * *

Evaluation of an Inexpensive Custom-Made Food Puzzle Used as Primary Feeder for Pair-Housed Rhesus Macaques

Viktor Reinhardt
Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center


Converting ordinary food boxes into food puzzles, by remounting them on the front of the cage away from the access holes, offers an inexpensive but effective method of promoting foraging activities in nonhuman primates (Reinhardt, 1993). A preliminary study with 8 adult rhesus macaques has shown that offering the standard biscuit ration in such custom-made "food puzzles" instead of ordinary food boxes results in a more than 100-fold increase in time devoted to retrieving the food (Reinhardt, 1993), with no undesirable behavioral effects.

The present follow-up study includes a larger pool of animals and examines the overall usefulness of the food puzzle as primary feeder for pair-housed rhesus macaques. The study addresses the following questions:
* What is the percentage of randomly selected pairs that readily accept the food puzzle as primary feeder?
* Does daily foraging for the standard biscuit ration affect the animals' body weight maintenance?
* What distinguishes those pairs that do not readily accept the food puzzle as primary feeder?


The subjects were 119 adult (older than 5 years) and 39 subadult (2 to 4 years old) rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). They were housed as 79 compatible pairs in 85 cm deep, 170 cm wide and 85 cm high cages. The 79 pairs were randomly selected; physical and behavioral health and absence of both pregnancy and nursing were the only criteria for inclusion in the study. There were 29 adult female-female pairs, 17 adult male-male pairs, 27 adult-subadult pairs, and 6 sub-adult-subadult pairs. Seven of the adult animals were classified as aged because they were at least 20 years old.

Each cage was equipped with two ordinary feed boxes, each 14 cm wide, 7 cm deep, 17 cm high, mounted 40 cm above the cage floor over a 73 x 47 mm access hole cut into the mesh on the front of each half of the cage. Water was available ad libitum. Two perches and two gnawing sticks served as inanimate environmental enrichment; a privacy panel provided optional visual seclusion. Room temperature was maintained at 20-22~C, with a relative air humidity of approximately 50%, and a 12-h light-dark cycle.

Figure 1: Drawing of monkey at feeder

All 79 pairs were subjected to the following experimental protocol:
Day 1: Body weights were recorded of all 158 animals. All feed boxes were changed into food puzzles by remounting them a few centimeters to the left or right so that they no longer covered the access hole (Figure 1). Food placed in food puzzles has to be retrieved with skillful foraging techniques (Reinhardt, 1993). Healthy incisors were required to break protruding parts of biscuits or to pull them through the mesh.
Day 1-7: Each pair received its daily ration of 66 biscuits (Purina Monkey Chow No. 5038) equally distributed into the two feed boxes at 7:30. This was supplemented with apples, bananas, oranges, bread or whole peanuts at 15:00. Biscuits that were not retrieved within a day were removed prior to the next morning feeding.
Day 8-12: Same feeding as on days 1-7. Biscuits that were not retrieved within a day were counted, and each pair categorized as follows: * 1. Food puzzle accepted: at least 75% of biscuit ration (50-66 biscuits) were retrieved on each of the five test days. * 2. Inadequate foraging: less than 50% of biscuit ration (less than 33) were retrieved on each of the five test days.
Day 12: All animals received dental check-ups. Notations were made of individuals having dental problems which could compromise the retrieval of biscuits; such problems included missing/extracted, broken, loose, or decayed incisor(s), and advanced periodontitis. Food puzzles were reconverted into ordinary feed boxes for all pairs in category 2 (inadequate foraging).
Day 60: Body weights of all animals in category 1 (food puzzles accepted) were recorded. The difference in body weight between day 60 and day 1 was calculated and expressed in percentage.


Sixty-seven of the 79 pairs (85%) accepted the food puzzles. These pairs remained on food-puzzle feeding for the entire 2-month study period. Body weight during that time ranged:
from -5.5% to +13.1% with a mean of +1.7-4.8% in 100 adults,
from +2.2% to +19.0% with a mean of +9.3-8.4% in 34 subadults.

Working for food rather than having free access to it had little effect on overweight: Two nine-year-old males, Max and Sam, weighed 15.96 kg and 16.61 kg, respectively, at the beginning of the study. Max showed a 0.9% increase (16.10 kg), Sam a 1.3% decrease (16.40 kg) in body weight at the end of the 2-month study.

Twelve of the 79 pairs (15%) showed inadequate foraging. Ten of these pairs had one or both partners either aged or with dental problems. The remaining 2 pairs showed no obvious reasons for being unable to use the puzzle feeders; neither partner was aged nor did either have dental problems. The food boxes of all 12 pairs were moved back to the opening to guarantee free access to biscuits.

A total of 9 subjects had dental problems. Eight (89%) of them were in category-2 pairs (inadequate foraging). Only one animal was in a category-1 pair; that subject was an adult female who was missing two lower incisors but foraged adequately, increasing her body weight by 1.7% during the 2-month study period. Of the 7 aged animals, 6 (86%) belonged to category-2 pairs. Only one, a 22-year old female who increased her body weight by 1.4% in the course of the study, was in a category-1 pair.


The present findings indicate that paired rhesus macaques readily adapt to foraging for their standard biscuit ration from a simple food puzzle. Working for their standard food rather than collecting it from freely accessible food boxes did not impair the animals' body weight maintenance, suggesting that their general health was not jeopardized by the new feeding technique.

The few pairs that did not accept the food puzzle were distinguished in most of the cases by one or both partners having dental problems or being aged. Unhealthy and age-related worn-down teeth probably make pulling the biscuits though the mesh of the cage a painful experience which discourages this foraging behavior. Aged animals and subjects with dental problems should therefore not be required to feed from these food puzzles. Foraging devices -- such as commercial or custom-made puzzle feeders (Line & Houghton, 1987; Murchison, 1991) -- that do not require healthy teeth are suitable alternatives. Such alternatives are also indicated for those exceptional pairs (2.5% in this study) that for no obvious reason do not accept the food puzzle.


Murchison, M. A. (1991). PVC-pipe food puzzle for singly caged primates. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 30[3], 12-14.

Line, S. W. & Houghton, P. (1987). Influence of an environmental enrichment device on general behavior and appetite in rhesus macaques. Laboratory Animal Science, 37, 508.

Reinhardt, V. (1993). Enticing nonhuman primates to forage for their standard biscuit ration. Zoo Biology, in press.


Author's address; Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715.
Supported by USPHS, NIH grant RR-00167.
Drawing by Anne M. Richardson.

* * *

Time to Ban Imports? A European Perspective

W. Robin Kingston

The British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection is campaigning for a total ban on the use of nonhuman primates in medical research. As an immediate first step, they urge prohibiting the importation of wild-caught primates. They have gained the support of a number of members of Parliament. An account recently appeared in a prestigious British magazine, Country Life (October, 1992). The cruelty and waste occuring in capture, selection, housing, and transport are emphasized, along with a response from a spokeswoman for the Research Defence Society. The latter emphasizes the importance of primates for key research programs while admitting that cruelty and wastage sometimes occur in commercial trapping and importation. She adds that, although scientists would prefer to use purpose-bred primates, they are very difficult to breed and it would take years to set up a breeding program.

I do not agree that the lack of breeding programs arises from any real difficulty in breeding the species of major interest to current research, with the possible exception of chimpanzees. The real reason for the lack of progress in this direction, especially in Europe, is that neither commercial nor institutional organizations have been prepared to invest the required capital. They have continued to take the easier option of buying from commercial importers.

The All Party Animal Welfare Group of the House of Commons met, on 17 November 1992, to discuss a recent TV program about conditions and practices at Shamrock Farms, the major primate importer in the U. K. (owned and managed by Charles River, Inc.). Members of Parliament had visited the establishment in October. They announced in a press release that improvements had taken place since the program was screened, but that they were still unhappy with conditions there and with the whole procedure of importing wild-caught primates. They made a number of recommendations, the major one being that the importation of wild-caught primates should cease as soon as possible and be totally banned throughout the EEC. They also wanted:
*Improved caging, allowing for more exercise
*A tightening of licensing procedures for work with primates
*More rigorous inspection of premises by veterinarians
*Every effort to find acceptable alternatives to the use of primates in medical research
*A fixed date for the phasing out of the use of primates altogether.

It is undeniable that cruelty and unacceptable wastage does occur in commercial trapping and importation. This is caused not so much by deliberate non-caring as by efforts to cut costs. It is my personal opinion that commercial trapping and imports should be phased out as soon as possible, but that the World Health Organization or the Pan-American Health Organization should establish non-commercial trapping efforts to allow vital research to continue. At the same time immediate steps should be taken to set up breeding colonies in countries in which the desired species occur. They should be set up and managed as development of a natural resource, perhaps with funding from IMF/World Bank, with advisors and perhaps managers contracted by United Nations agencies. Done in a business-like manner, it would be nowhere near as impossibly expensive as some claim. Within five years of establishment, sufficient captive-bred stock should be available to allow a total ban on importing wild-caught primates. Naturally any currently successful breeding programs in user countries should continue under properly enforced regulations. I believe, however, that costs are always going to be prohibitive in highly developed countries in temperate zones because of the much higher costs of building, labor, and food, as well as the need for artificial heating. Perhaps Callitrichids, with their small size and high reproductive rates, are an exception.

The time has surely come for research workers to face up to the situation. As has been said many times, they would be horrified at the suggestion that they use wild rodents or rabbits in research, on the grounds that they could be diseased, were of unknown age and relationship, and that "uniformity is essential for meaningful results." Yet for the highest levels of research, and where the best models for human beings are sought, they are content to use just such wild animals. I entirely agree that primates, and in fact all animals, should be replaced by alternatives at the first possible opportunity. In the meantime, surely on the grounds of both validity of results and animal suffering, purpose-bred primates should be the only ones acceptable. -- Editors' Note: In the United States the seven federally designated N.I.H. Regional Primate Research Centers now breed most monkeys used in their research. Many North American commercial companies breed macaques, both here and in Asia. There is also substantial chimpanzee and baboon breeding in the U.S. The E.C. or W.H.O. might model breeding programs after these existing ventures. Captive breeding in user and source countries can work.


Author's address: The Old Smithy, Bishops Frome, Worcester WR6 5BA, U.K.

* * *

Grants Available

NATO Collaborative Research Grants

These grants support joint projects being carried out between research teams in universities or research institutions in different NATO countries; they principally provide travel and living expenses of investigators visiting the partner institutions abroad. All fields of science are eligible; emphasis is given to fundamental aspects rather than technological development, however. Preference is given to projects in areas where the expertise, facilities and data sources of the research teams are complementary. Visits are usually of one to four weeks' duration. Awards are for an initial period of one year; funds can be carried over to a second year, if necessary. For further information, contact NATO, Scientific Affairs Division, B-1110 Brussels, Belgium [728-4866/4637; Telex: 23-867 (NATOHQ)]. The deadlines for application are August 15 and November 30, 1993.

Young Investigator Awards

The Office of Naval Research (ONR) is seeking applications to help outstanding young faculty pursue research careers relevant to ONR's scientific interests. Areas supported include the biological, cognitive, and neural sciences. Awards are $75,000 a year each for three years. ONR plans to make 16 awards. U.S. citizens who hold tenure-track positions at U.S. universities and colleges and who received their graduate degrees on or after Dec. 1, 1988 may be eligible. A program brochure is available from Office of Naval Research Special Programs Office, Code 11SP/YIP94, 800 N. Quincy St., Arlington, VA 22217-5660 [703-696-4108]. The deadline for application is September 15.

Multidisciplinary Research

Many important problems in basic neuroscience require multiple approaches from different disciplinary perspectives for their solution. The neuroscience program in NSF's Division of Integrative Biology and Neuroscience will allocate approximately $3 million to foster support for new projects that involve the application of different types of research techniques to single focused problems in neuroscience. Investigators are encouraged to submit one proposal that involves two or more investigators, including small groups, for collaborative multidisciplinary studies focused on a single problem. Investigators are not required to be affiliated with the same institution. Target dates for the Neuroscience program are January and July 15. For further information about this multidisciplinary collaborative research, contact one of the following program officers: Neuroendocrinology: Dr. Kathie Olsen [301-357-7041]; Computational Neuroscience: Dr. Donald Edwards [301-357-7041]; Developmental Neuroscience: Dr. Steven McLoon, [301-357- 7042; Neuronal and Glial Mechanisms: Dr. Sanya Springfield [301-257-7471]; and Sensory Systems: Dr. Christopher Platt [301-357-7482].

AmFAR Grants Available

The American Foundation for AIDS Research (AmFAR) awards Research Grants for biomedical and humanistic investigations, short-term Travel Grants, three year Scholar Awards and Pediatric AIDS Foundation grants. Letters of intent are due August 3, 1993. For further information and applications, contact AmFAR Research, Grants Department, 5900 Wilshire Boulevard, Second Floor, East Satellite, Los Angeles, CA 90036-5032 [213-857-5900].

* * *

Information Requested and Available

IATA Live Animals Regulations

The International Air Transport Association has published the 19th Edition of IATA Live Animals Regulations in English, French, and Spanish. These regulations are mandatory standards for airlines, and are used by shippers, freight forwarders, container manufacturers, service suppliers, laboratories, and government veterinary inspectors as reference for packaging and transporting live animals. The IATA Live Animal Regulations are recognized by CITES, the EEC, and other bodies as the official guidelines for transporting live animals by air. Copies are available at 95 (for English) or 97 (for French or Spanish) Swiss Francs from: Publications Assistant, International Air Transport Association, IATA Centre, 33, route de l'Aeroport, P.O. Box 672, CH-1215 Geneva 15 Airport, Switzerland.

Animal Protection Organizations

WARDS (Working for Animals used in Research, Drugs and Surgery) has published an 18-page Directory of Animal Protection Organizations. The organizations listed are from all parts of the animal rights/animal welfare/animal research spectrum, and their points of view are described in the listings. WARDS "believes in the necessity for biomedical research for the benefits it provides to both human and animal health. However, WARDS believes it is absolutely essential for both scientific and moral reasons that proper care and handling is provided for these research subjects." For one free copy of the Directory, or more information about WARDS, contact WARDS, 1660 L Street, NW, Suite 612, Washington, DC 20036 [202-785-0423].

Educational Slide Sets

The Library at the Wisconsin RPRC has put together 3 sets of seventy-two primate slides each, with texts, bibliographies, and suggestions for classroom activities in grades 6-12. The titles of the sets are:
* The Primates: Conservation of Endangered Species,
* The Primates: Behavior of Social Animals,
* The Primates: Taxonomic Classification. L. Luttrell, R. Hamel, and L. McMahon are the producers. They may be borrowed from the Wisconsin RPRC, 1220 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715-1299, for a nominal fee.

Comparative Medicine Bulletin Board

compmed is a Bitnet/Internet mailing list for discussion of comparative medicine, laboratory animals (all species), and related topics. It is limited to participants who actually make a living in some aspect of biomedical research, e.g. veterinarians, technicians, and researchers. To subscribe send e-mail to: listserv@wuvmc (Bitnet) or [email protected] (Internet) with the body of the mail consisting of the following (the command must be in the body, not the subject line): subscribe compmed Yourfirstname Yourlastname For more information, contact Ken Boschert ([email protected]) .

Veterinary Pathology Computer Link

The Department of Veterinary Pathology of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP, Washington, DC 20306) has established a computer bulletin board service (BBS) for veterinary pathologists and residents. The system was established to provide a forum for veterinary pathologists to talk with their colleagues about various topics. Additionally, the BBS contains the latest AFIP Wednesday Slide Conference comments, abstracts from the 1992 AFIP Pathology of Laboratory Animals Course, and other files available for download. The BBS runs 24 hours a day at 2400 baud, 202-576-2911.

GPO Electronic Access

The Senate (on March 22) and the House of Representatives (on May 25) have passed S. 564, the Government Printing Office Electronic Information Access Enhancement Act of 1993 (H. Rept. 103-108). This act will provide direct electronic access to public information through an online system established at the Government Printing Office--free of charge through Depository Libraries, and at the incremental cost of dissemination to others. This bill, which is to be signed by the President, provides for online access to the Congressional Record, the Federal Register, and other publications distributed by the Superintendent of Documents, and provides for the establishment of an electronic directory of federal public information stored electronically, among other provisions. -- from Irene Pepperberg and the ABS Public Affairs Committee.

Gorilla Ethograms.

A compilation of about 50 gorilla ethograms is available from the Gorilla Behavior Advisory Group for $10. Send a check (made out to Zoo Atlanta) to Ken Gold, Conservation ARC, Zoo Atlanta, 800 Cherokee Ave. S.E., Atlanta, GA 30315. A copy on disc (Wordperfect) can be obtained from D. Hardy, Ph.D. c/o Psychology Dept., Cal. State Univ., Northridge, CA 91335. Enclose a blank 3 1/4" disc and a disc mailer with correct postage.

* * *

Editors' Notes

Generous Donation

David M. Taub, of LABS (Laboratory Animal Breeders & Services), has sent a generous donation to help defray our costs of postage. Our grant nearly, but not quite, covers all the expenses of publishing and mailing the LPN, and we are always grateful for donations to help fill the gap. We are still looking for an approximately $900 annual grant from somewhere to completely pay for mailing the Newsletter to the nearly 150 foreign subscribers. These subscribers now pay $6 each, creating a major bookkeeping job.

LABS, by the way, received full and complete accreditation at AAALAC's January, 1993 meeting.

Back Issues

We have found ourselves with a modest surplus of a few back issues of the LPN. While back issues are ordinarily $3 each, we are willing to send batches of 10 or more at $1.50 each -- perhaps they would be useful for classes. The issues (and numbers) available are Volume 29, number 1 (137 copies) and number 2 (25 copies); Volume 30, number 1 (24 copies), number 2 (86 copies), number 3 (15 copies), and number 4 (55 copies). Make checks payable to Brown University, and send them to the Laboratory Primate Newsletter, Box 1853, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912.

* * *


Thirty-two years since it all began;
A man with a dream called the LPN
(Laboratory Primate Newsletter
, that is).

He worked and connived to get enough money;
We all know "monkey business" ain't funny
(Research and science, that is).

He worked with an animal doctor named Povar,
And people heard of them from near and far
(For their brilliance of mind, that is).

For fun a cartoonist known as "JESS"
Added jokes and a fancy computerized "dress"
(High tech format, that is).

The office staff was a team of one!
But sometimes the daughter and also the son
(Helped with the mail, that is).

Together they wrote and edited
The LPN, and were duly credited
(For spreading science, that is).

Articles, announcements, great inventions,
News was spread with good intentions
(From this happy group, that is).

Getting the word across the nations
Of human beings and their nearest relations
(In body and brain, that is).

But good things all must end, I guess.
Now the Newsletter is run by JESS
(The former cartoonist, that is).

All by herself she carries the dream
Of a man who is gone, who is no longer seen
(Reading the LPN, that is).

Helen J. Shuman, 20 April 1993

* * *

Travellers' Health Notes

Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine

A vaccine for Japanese encephalitis (JE) was licensed last December, "to meet the needs of increasing numbers of U.S. residents traveling to Asia and to accommodate the needs of the U.S. military." JE is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, sporadic or endemic in the People's Republic of China, Korea, Japan, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, and parts of Oceania, including Indonesia and the Philippines. Culex mosquitoes, prolific in rural areas where their larvae breed in ground pools and especially in flooded rice fields, are the principal vectors. In temperate regions, JE virus is transmitted during the summer and early fall. In subtropical and tropical areas, seasonal patterns of viral transmission are correlated with the abundance of vector mosquitoes and of nonhuman vertebrate hosts.

The inactivated vaccine is manufactured by Biken and distributed by Connaught Laboratories, Inc. It is recommended for persons who plan to reside in areas where JE is endemic or epidemic, and for those spending a month or longer in endemic areas during the transmission season, especially if travel will include rural areas. Under specific circumstances, vaccine should be considered for persons spending less than 30 days in endemic areas, e.g., travelers to areas experiencing epidemic transmission and persons whose activities, such as extensive outdoor activities in rural areas, place them at high risk for exposure. In all instances, travelers should be advised to reduce exposure to mosquito bites.

Malaria in Kampala, Uganda, 1992

The treatment and prevention of malaria in Africa has become a challenging and complex problem because of increasing drug resistance. During May 1992, the Office of Medical Services, Department of State, and CDC were notified of an increased number of malaria cases among official U.S. personnel stationed in Kampala, Uganda. Twenty-seven cases of malaria were diagnosed in official personnel from March through June 1992 compared with two cases during the same period in 1991. An investigation was conducted to confirm all reported malaria cases and identify potential risk factors for malaria among U.S. Embassy personnel.

Of the 25 persons whose blood could be checked, 17 were slide-confirmed as having malaria. Results of a questionnaire answered by 128 members of the Embassy community indicated that risk for malaria
* was higher, but not significantly, among children aged less than or equal to 15 years than among persons greater than 15 years;
* was significantly lower among persons using either mefloquine or chloroquine and proguanil than among persons using chloroquine alone, proguanil alone or no prophylaxis;
* was lower among persons who reported using bednets all or most of the time than among persons who sometimes or rarely used bednets;
* was lower among persons who consistently used insect repellent in the evening compared with those who rarely used repellent;
* was not associated with failure to have window or door screens or wear long sleeves or pants in the evening. Also:
* eighty-two percent of the cases occurred among persons who had been living in Kampala for 1-5 years, compared with those living there less than 1 year;
* travel outside of the Kampala area to more rural settings was not associated with increased risk for malaria.

Country-specific recommendations for preventing malaria and information on the dosage and precautions for malaria chemoprophylaxis regimens are available from CDC (as described below). -- From Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1993, 42, 289, 295-296.

Travelers' Health Hotline

The Centers for Disease Control reminds us of their International Health Requirements and Recommendations Information Hotline, available 24 hours a day at 404-332-4559 from touch-tone phones. The infor-mation may also be obtained by FAX. Call the CDC's Fax Information Number, 414-332-4565, on a touch-tone phone, to learn how to receive documents.

Travel Medicine News

Travel Medicine News is a quarterly journal, published by Professsional Education Publications for the International Society of Travel Medicine (404 Park Ave S., 12th Floor, NY, NY 10016 [212-696- 5855]). Subscriptions are $45/year.

Myiasis Warning

The invasion of living, necrotic, or dead human or animal tissue by the larvae of flies is termed myiasis. M. K. Chelmowski and J. T. Troy reported ( Wisconsin Medical Journal, 1991, 90, 627-628) on a woman who spent 3 weeks conducting research in the tropical rain forest of Costa Rica. One week before leaving, she noticed a few spots of blood on her sleeve over her right shoulder. Two days later, bloody pus drained from a small puncture wound in the shoulder. Back in Wisconsin, she saw a doctor, who excised a swelling with a central red papule, but who found no evidence of any foreign bodies. Four days later, the patient had a sensation of movement in the wound. The physician, who was unfamiliar with tropical medicine, examined her twice more, but found no abnormalities. Five weeks after seeing the blood spots, a 1.5 cm larva crawled out of the shoulder wound! The larva was identified as that of the human botfly, Dermatobia hominis. Myiasis should be considered in any patient who has traveled to an endemic area and returns with a nonhealing furuncular lesion. Associated sensations of itching, pricking, or movement in the lesion support the diagnosis. Early recognition and treatment can provide quick symptomatic relief and will also decrease patient anxiety and distress. "Excision...may miss the larva, which has penetrated deep into subcutaneous tissue. Injecting 2 ml of lidocaine beneath the nodule can create enough pressure to push the larva out through the skin, anesthetically. Another option is occluding the punctum of the site of the bite in the skin with Vaseline, shortening, or butter, forcing the larva to extrude itself to breathe."

* * *

Meeting Announcement: Captive Chimpanzee Workshop

A workshop on the behavior and management of captive chimpanzees will be held August 17-18, 1993, in Sturbridge, MA, in conjunction with the 1993 ASP meeting. Persons working with chimpanzees in zoos, laboratories and in the field are encouraged to attend. The focus will be Introductions of chimpanzees into new groups, including mixed age and infant adoptions (August 17) and Behavioral training through the use of operant conditioning (August 18). Pre-registration is required. Contact Linda Brent, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, P.O. Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78228 [210-674-1410; E-mail: [email protected]]. A small registration fee ($10) may be required if enough contributions to cover expenses are not received.

* * *

Address Changes

Samuel R. Adams, Jr., Div. of Lab. Animal Resources, 450 Clarkson Ave, Box 47, SUNY, Brooklyn, NY 11203-2098.

Ann Beauregard, Animal Care--Goodell Bldg, Univ. of Mass, Amherst, MA 01003.

George E. Erikson, Erikson Biographical Inst., 167 Angell St., 3rd Floor, Providence, RI 02906.

Robert K. Jackson, Associate Dir LAS, UE0270, SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals, 709 Swedeland Rd, P.O. Box 1539, King of Prussia, PA 19406-0939.

Jean Kaufman, 8729 SW 145th Pl., Archer, FL 32618.

Scott E. Perkins, 17 Turner St, #2 Rear, Salem, MA 01970-5240.

Kerry L. Stevens, 2002A Pigeon Point Rd, Beaufort, SC 29902.

Daris R. Swindler, 1212 8th N., Edmonds, WA 98020.

Sue E. Woods, 1609 S. Ivory Circle, #E, Aurora, CO 80017.

* * *

News Briefs

USDA Appeal Still Uncertain

The U.S. Dept of Justice has filed a protective notice of appeal in response to the Feb. 25 order of federal District Judge Charles R. Richey in Animal Legal Defense Fund, et al. v. Secretary of Agriculture et al. This notice, given on the final day of the two-month period provided for appeal, protects the options of the federal agency defendants. While not committing the government to a course of action, such a protective notice allows additional time for a decision to be made. The research community continues to urge USDA Secretary Mike Espy to appeal the case and preserve existing performance-based animal welfare standards. -- From the NABR Update, 1993, 14[9].

Solly Zuckerman, 1905-1993

Lord Solly Zuckerman, 88, a polymath scientist who wrote classic books about primates and advised successive British governments on defense, died in London following a heart attack. The South African-born peer was an example of what the British call "boffins," scientists who were drafted from the universities to help the military in World War II. Until that time, he was better known in scientific circles for his two books on primates: The Social Life of Monkeys and Apes (1932), and Functional Affinities of Man, Monkeys and Apes (1933). He opposed the view of Konrad Lorenz and Robert Ardrey that man's aggressiveness is instinctive, a position that formed the basis for many of his scientific articles and books.

During the war, Solly Zuckerman was a scientific advisor attached to joint operations headquarters. He studied the human and economic effects of bombing raids, and helped the Royal Air Force develop its strategy for the selective bombing of German coastal strongholds in preparation for D-Day.

Lord Zuckerman, who was made a peer for life in 1971, strongly defended science against those who saw it as a Faustian bargain. "Should we not spare a thought," he once said, "for the two billion or so citizens of this globe who crave--who need--the fruits of education and technology in order to lighten the squalor and poverty in which they now live?"

Trained as an anatomist, Lord Zuckerman published A New System of Anatomy (1961) and edited a two-volume study called The Ovary (1962). He wrote two autobiographies, From Apes to Warlords (1978), and Monkeys, Men and Missiles (1988). Since 1969, Lord Zuckerman had been professor at large at the University of East Anglia in England. -- From the International Herald Tribune, Friday, April 2, 1993, p.3.

Karisoke Update

Dieter Steklis, Karisoke Research Center Director, returned to the US at the end of May after conducting an assessment of the situation at Karisoke. The buildings were in relatively good condition with only damage to doors and windows. Most equipment and furnishings of value had been taken. Camp records, slides and photographs had been emptied from files and were scattered about the buildings and outside in the mud. It is uncertain what was lost in that area. Ziz, the silverback from group 5 reported missing, has been found dead. There is no report on the cause of death at this point. As of June 6, armed rangers from ORTPN, Rwanda's management authority for the Parc National des Volcans, were assigned to Karisdoke to protect the camp. This will mean that the tracking and anti-poaching details will return to normal operations. -- Rich Block, Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund, 45 Iverness Dr. East, Suite B, Englewood, CO.

Block, of Worldwide Primates, Sentenced

Matthew Block, of Worldwide Primates, Miami, FL, was sentenced to 13 months in federal prison, three years of supervised probation, and a $30,000 fine at a 2-day sentence hearing on April 16, 1993. Block pleaded guilty in February to felony conspiracy to violate the Lacey and Endangered Species Acts by conspiring to smuggle orangutans. This is the case in which six infant orangs were discovered on February 20, 1990, at the Bangkok airport in two small containers marked "Live Birds." Three of the infants died of injuries and diseases, one has disappeared from a rehabilitation center in Borneo and is presumed dead, while the other two are still being rehabilitated. The International Primate Protection League was active in exposing and urging prosecution of this case.

New AAALAC Council Members

The American Association for Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care recently appointed five new members to their Council on Accreditation: Cynthia S. Gillett, Bradford S. Goodwin, Jr., Peter L. Jepsen, Douglas W. Stone, and R. Brent Swenson. Members of the Council on Accreditation evaluate animal programs by conducting site visits and reviewing reports.

* * *

Educational Opportunity: Postdoc in Lab Animal Medicine

The Section of Comparative Medicine of the Yale University School of Medicine invites applications for postdoctoral training in laboratory animal medicine and comparative medicine. We are seeking candidates with an outstanding academic record, solid clinical skills and enthusiasm for an academic career. The 3-year core program integrates basic coursework with clinical, diagnostic laboratory and research training. Trainees can take advanced casework relevant to their research interests and qualified trainees can pursue advanced study for a Ph.D. using many different animals, including nonhuman primates. The clinical program prepares trainees as laboratory animal specialists. Training can be used toward eligibility for certification by the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine. The full-time faculty of ten includes six veterinarians board-certified by ACLAM (2), ACVP (3) and ACVIM (1) and four PhD virologists. Extensive research programs are directed at problems relevant to human and animal health. Current interests include mechanisms of infectious disease and animal models of cancer and Lyme Disease. Candidates must be US citizens or permanent residents and graduates of AVMA-accredited schools of veterinary medicine. Stipends are $18,600 to $32,300 per year depending upon experience. For further information contact Dr. Diane J. Gaertner, Postgraduate Training Committee, Section of Comparative Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, P.O. Box 3333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06510 [203-785-2527]. Yale university is an affirmative action/equal opportunity employer. -- From the electronic mailing list, compmed.

* * *

Request for Primate Material: Great Ape Appendix

The Registry of Comparative Pathology is conducting a comparative study of the "appendix" in man and great apes. They are seeking tissue or blocks of appendix collected from chimps, gorillas, or bonobos, no matter what the quality or state the tissue or slides may be in. In 1933, it was reported that lemurs possessed an appendix; they would also appreciate any information or material on lemur appendix. Please write to the Registry of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Inst. of Pathology, Washington, DC 20306-6000, Attn: Charlotte Kirk [202-576-2452; e-mail: [email protected]].

* * *


We would like to apologize to Dr. Alison Jolly, author of the article on p. 10 of the April issue, for misspelling her first name.

On page 21 of the same issue, in the announcement on research fel- lowships available in India, we refer to "the address above." Unfortunately, the items in this section were rearranged after they had been proofread, and the address ended up being on the following page. Our apologies. The address for the Council for International Exchange of Scholars is 3007 Tiden St, NW, Suite 5M, Washington, DC 20008-3009 [202-686-7877].

* * *

Positions Available

Gorilla Foundation Positions

The Gorilla Foundation is seeking to fill two full-time positions. The job titles are Great Ape Keeper and Research Assistant. Both will be responsible for care and maintenance of animals, food preparation, hand-on cleaning, data collection and tallying, record keeping, and general office work. Successful candidates will be alert, animal oriented, aware and perceptive of people as well as animals, hard-working, able to follow instructions, possessors of good judgment and initiative, and career oriented. ASL experience preferred but not required. Salaries will be commensurate with qualifications and experience. Please send letter of interest, resume, and salary requirements to Dr. Francine Patterson, P.O. Box 620-530, Woodside, CA 94062.

Field Station Manager

The Canadian Organization for Tropical Education and Rainforest Conservation (COTERC) has the following position available: Station Manager for small remote tropical field station in the Atlantic low- land rainforest of Costa Rica. Must be bilingual (Spanish/English), able to cope with primitive conditions and small salary. Should be handy with tools, and able to repair small motors. The Station is home to three species of primates, as well as a diversity of mammals, birds and insects. Please send resume to: Marilyn Cole, Executive Director, COTERC, Box 335, Pickering, Ontario L1V 2R6, Canada [416-683-2116; Fax: 416-427-1828]. -- From the electronic bulletin board primate-talk

* * *

Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors)


* Catalogue of Primates in the British Museum (Natural History) and Elsewhere in the British Isles. Part V: The Apes, Superfamily Hominoidea. P. D. Jenkins. London: Natural History Museum, 1990. 137 + xii pp. [Price: �25]

* Primates of the Americas. Strategies for Conservation and Sustained Use in Biomedical Research. P. Arambulo III, F. Encarnacion, J. Estupinan, H. Samame, C. R. Watson, & R. E. Weller (Eds.). Columbus, OH: Battelle Press, 1993. 336 pp. [Price: $34.95]
. . Proceedings of the first ordinary meeting of the Regional Primatology Committee for the Americas (CORP-I).

* Biological and Behavioral Determinants of Language Development. N. Krasnegor, D. Rumbaugh, R. Schiefelbusch, & M. Studdert-Kennedy (Eds.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1993. [Price: $45]


* Simian and Human Retroviruses in Nonhuman Primates: Infection, Dis- ease, and Animal Model Studies. A Bibliography, 1991-1992 Update. C. Johnson-Delaney. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1993. 50 pp. (497 citations, primate and subject indexes) [Price: $10. Stock #93-001. Order from PIC, RPRC, SJ-50, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195]

* Five Endogenous Neuropeptides (Dynorphin, Endorphin, Enkephalin, Somatostatin, Substance P) in Nonhuman Primates: A Selected Bibliography, 1984-1992. M. McLean. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1993. 32 pp. (354 citations, primate and subject indexes) [Price: $7.50. Stock #93-002. Ordering information same as above.]


* Regional Primate Research Centers. [Free from the Office of Science and Health Reports, National Center for Research Resources, Westwood Bldg., Rm. 10A15, 5333 Westbard Ave, Bethesda, MD 20892]
. . Descriptions of the primate species, facilities, and research efforts of each of the 7 regional primate research centers in the U.S.


* Audiovisual Resources in Primatology. [Price: $10 in the U.S., $18 elsewhere, payable to the Wisconsin RPRC, 1220 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715-1299]
. . Annotated, indexed list of audiotapes, videotapes, slide sets and films, and number of slides for each species available for borrowing from the A-V collection of the Wisconsin RPRC.

Magazines, Newsletters, and Reports

* Primate Report, No. 34, October 1992. [Annual Scientific Report of the German Primate Center (DPZ). Price: $8]
. . The entire issue is a report on primatology in India, compiled by I. Malik & M. H. Schwibbe. Twelve articles on various species and subjects.

* Primate Report, No. 35, January 1993. [Price: $12]
. . This issue contains the "IPS Guidelines for the Aquisition, Care and Breeding of Nonhuman Primates" and a number of papers from China about Rhinopithecus.

* SCAW Newsletter, 1993, 15[1]. (SCAW, 4805 St. Elmo Ave, Bethesda, MD 20814)

* Primate Conservation: The Newsletter and Journal of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, Number 10, December 1989. [Subscription: $15, payable to Primate Conservation. Order from Conservation International, 1015 18th St, NW, Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20036]
. . Announcements and articles from December, 1988 to December, 1989.

* Neotropical Primates: A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, 1993, 1[1]. [Conservation International, Rua Bueno Brandao, 393, Belo Horizonte 31010-060, Minas Gerais, Brazil]
. . Articles and announcements, in English, Spanish, and Portuguese.

* The Newsletter, 1993, 4[4]. [Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027]
. . Includes an article, "Play development in captive mother-reared infant chimpanzees," by S. M. Howell & J. Fritz.

* Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter, 1993, 4[1]. [Nat. Agricultural Library, AWIC, Rm 205, Beltsville, MD 20705].
. . Includes "The science of animal well-being," by I. J. H. Duncan; and "Using training to enhance animal care and welfare," by G. Laule.

* Inside Yerkes, Spring, 1993. (Yerkes RPRC, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322)
. . Includes a section on heart disease research at the Yerkes Center.

* IPPL News, 1993, 20[1]. (IPPL, P.O. Box 766, Summerville, SC 29484)

* AAALAC Communique, Winter, 1993. (AAALAC, 11300 Rockville Pike, Suite 1211, Rockville, MD 20852-3035)


* NABR Issue Update: The Humane Care & Treatment of Laboratory Animals.
* NABR Issue Update: Animal Rights Extremists: Impact on Public Health.
* NABR Issue Update: Regulation of Biomedical Research Using Animals.
* NABR Issue Update: The Use of Animals in Product Safety Testing
. Washington, DC: National Association for Biomedical Research, 1993. [NABR, 818 Connecticut Ave NW, Suite 303, Washington, DC 20006]

Special Journal Issues

* Physical and chemical properties of anthropoid primate foods. International Journal of Primatology, 1993, 14[2].
. . Contents: Introduction, by P. W. Lucas. Physical and chemical properties of fruit and seeds eaten by Pithecia and Chiropotes in Surinam and Venezuela, by W. G. Kinzey & M. A. Norconk. Soil-eating by Alouatta and Ateles, by K. Izawa. The value of figs to chimpanzees, by R. W. Wrangham, N. L. Conklin, G. Etot, J. Obua, K. D. Hunt, M. D. Hauser, & A. P. Clark. Modeling dietary selectivity by Bornean orangutans: Evidence for integration of multiple criteria in fruit selection, by M. Leighton. Shell strength and primate seed predation of nontoxic species in eastern and southern Africa, by C. R. Peters. Physiological activities and the active constituents of potentially medicinal plants used by wild chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania, by K. Koshimizu, H. Ohigashi, M. A. Huffman, T. Nishida, & H. Takasaki.


* National Center for Research Resources Reporter, 1992, 16. Cumulative Index. 7 pp. [Annual subscription, $9, from Superintendent of Documents, U.S.G.P.O., Washington, DC 20402]

Anatomy & Physiology

* The lobular division, bronchial tree and blood vessels of the squirrel monkey lung. Nakakuki, S. & Ehara, A. (Tokyo Noko Univ., Fuchu, Tokyo, 183 Japan). Primates, 1992, 33, 257-264.
. . Descriptions based on study of lungs of seven Saimiri sciureus.

* The bronchial tree and lobular division of the chimpanzee lung. Nakakuki, S. (Address same as above). Primates, 1992, 33, 265-272.
. . Description based on study of the lungs of two Pan troglodytes.

* Neuronal activity in monkey striatum related to the expectation of predictable environmental events. Apicella, P., Scarnati, E., Ljungberg, T., & Schultz, W. (W. S., Inst. de Physiologie, Univ. de Fribourg, CH-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland). Journal of Neurophysiology, 1992, 68, 945-960.
. . Activity of single neurons was recorded during performance of a go/no-go task that included separate time periods during which animals expected signals, prepared for execution or inhibition of movement, and expected delivery of reward. Data show that striatal neurons are activated in relation to the expectation and preparation of individual environmental and behavioral events that are known to the animal through prior conditioning.

* Endocrine and developmental correlates of unilateral cryptorchidism in a wild baboon. Altmann, J., Alberts, S., & Sapolsky, R. M. (Dept of Conservation Biology, Chicago Zool. Soc., Brookfield, IL 60513). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 26, 309-314.
. . One of 62 free-living male yellow baboons examined under anesthesia was found to have only a single palpable testicle. To evaluate likely causes and consequences or correlates of the unilateral cryptorchidism, the authors present comparative analyses of the male's prior physical and social development and of morphometric and endocrine evaluations made at the examination.

* Three phases of lactation in free-ranging Japanese macaques. Tanaka, I. (Dept of Anthropology, Fac. of Science, Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 Japan). Animal Behaviour, 1992, 44, 129-139.
. . Japanese macaques appear to have three modes of lactation: lactation in amenorrhea, with high milk output; lactation permitting menses, ovulation, and conception, with low milk output; and lactation with high milk output occurring just before the next parturition if an inter-birth interval lasts a year.

Animal Models

* Lethal Staphlococcus aureus-induced shock in primates: Prevention of death with anti-TNF antibody. Hinshaw, L. B., Emerson, T. E., Jr, Taylor, F. B., Jr, Chang, A. C. K., Duerr, M., Peer, G. T., Flournoy, D. J., White, G. L., Kosanke, S. D., Murray, C. K., Xu, R., Passey, R. B., & Fournel, M. A. (Oklahoma Med. Res. Foundation, 825 N.E. 13th St, Oklahoma City, OK 73104). Journal of Trauma, 1992, 33, 568-573.
. . Baboons administered monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) after the beginning of a 2-hour infusion of S. aureus demonstrated the release of the cytokines TNF and interleukin-6 (IL-6), but endotoxin was not observed in the plasma at any time. The treatment abolished the rise in serum TNF levels, reduced increased levels of IL-6, prevented multiple organ failure, and achieved permanent (>7 day) survival of all animals.

* Production of transient ischaemic events by platelet emboli in baboons. Kessler, C., Kelly, A. B., Suggs, W. D., Hanson, S. R., & Harker, L. A. (Dept of Neurology, Med. Univ. zu Lubeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, D-2400 Lubeck, Germany). Neurological Research, 1992, 14(Suppl), 187-189.
. . Using a baboon model, the authors conclude that endogenously generated platelet microemboli accumulate transiently in the dependent cerebral circulation and produce corresponding transient focal neurological dysfunction. This model may be useful in the evaluation of new therapeutic strategies in acute stroke.

* Recovery after delayed nerve repair: Influence of a pharmacologic adjunct in a primate model. Badalamente, M. A., Hurst, L. C., & Stracher, A. (Dept of Orthopedics, T-18, HSC, School of Med., SUNY, Stony Brook, NY 11794). Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery, 1992, 8, 391-397.
. . Leupeptin appears to be a potentially significant adjunct for both immediate and delayed microsurgical repair of damaged peripheral nerves. It did not adversely affect hematology, clotting, blood chemistry, or echocardiogram profiles in four Cebus apella.

* The effect of contraceptives containing nonoxynol-9 on the genital transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus in rhesus macaques. Miller, C. J., Hendrickx, A. G., Alexander, N. J., Marx, P. A., & Gettie, A. (California RPRC, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616). Fertility and Sterility, 1992, 57, 1126-1128.
. . Both nonoxynol-9 contraceptive foam and nonoxynol-9 contraceptive gel prevented the genital transmission of SIV to about half the rhesus macaques tested.

* A primate model of spinal cord ischemia: Evaluation of spinal cord blood flow and the protective effect of hypothermia. Rokkas, C. K., Sundaresan, S., Shuman, T. A., Palazzo, R. S., Despotis, G. J., Wareing, T. H., & Kouchoukos, N. T. (Div. of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Dept of Surgery, Washington Univ. School of Med., Barnes Hospital, St. Louis, MO 63110). American College of Surgeons 1991 Surgical Forum, 42, 265-267.
. . Results of a study on baboons indicated that profound hypothermia with cardiopulmonary bypass may be an effective method to protect the spinal cord in patients undergoing repair of thoracoabdominal aneurysms.

Animal Welfare

* Evaluation of the preference to and behavioral effects of an enriched environment on male rhesus monkeys. Bayne, K. A. L., Hurst, J. K., & Dexter, S. L. (Bldg 14D, Rm 313, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892). Laboratory Animal Science, 1992, 42, 38-45.
. . The "nonpreferred" side of a double-wide cage was enriched for 8 singly-caged monkeys. No statistically significant changes in use of the enrichments were detected over time, but all subjects showed reduced behavioral pathology during exposure to the enriched environment, with a return of behavioral pathology when the enrichments were removed. Fifty percent of the animals switched cage side preference to the enriched side during the study.

* A preliminary survey of the incidence of abnormal behavior in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) relative to housing condition. Bayne, K., Dexter, S., & Suomi, S. (Address same as above). Lab Animal, 1992, 21, 38, 40, 42-46.
. . Animals housed in "corn cribs" showed a more normal behavioral profile than those in individual housing. The effects of more space on a laboratory primate's behavioral profile remains unresolved. Providing environmental complexity means providing multiple methods of behavioral stimulation from which animals may select or retreat. Environmental enrichment solutions will most likely be multifactorial.

* Adjustments and adaptations to indoor and outdoor environments: Continuity and change in young adult rhesus monkeys. Novak, M. A., O'Neill, P., & Suomi, S. J. (Dept of Psychology, Tobin Hall, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 28, 125-138.
. . A comparison of long-term behavioral responses of several groups of animals that had been reared identically for the first 2 years of life and then exposed to different environments. Indoor monkeys exhibited higher levels of grooming, sexual posturing, tactile/oral exploration, and passive visual behavior than their outdoor counterparts. Individual monkeys also showed remarkable stability in certain traits over the 5-year period of this study.

* Assessment of pain in animals. Bateson, P. (Sub-dept of Animal Behav- iour, Univ. of Cambridge, High St, Madingley, Cambridge CB3 8AA, England). Animal Behaviour, 1991, 42, 827-839.
. . A discussion of arguments that lead to the view that assessments of pain are possible. "...[T]he extent to which an animal is given the benefit of the doubt clearly depends on the empathy a person feels for it as well as the type of ethical concerns that motivate the person."

* Chronic social stress, affiliation, and cellular immune response in nonhuman primates. Cohen, S., Kaplan, J. R., Cunnick, J. E., Manuck, S. B., & Rabin, B. S. (Dept of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA 15213). Psychological Science, 1992, 3, 301-304.
. . Forty-three male cynomolgus monkeys were randomly assigned to stable or unstable social conditions for 26 months, and measurements made of affiliative behaviors and T-cell immune response. The possibility that affiliative behavior represents an attempt to cope with social stress was supported by greater affiliation among animals in the unstable than in the stable condition. Animals in the unstable condition also demonstrated relatively suppressed immune response.


* Interplay between various aspects in social relationships of young rhesus monkeys: Dominance, agonistic help, and affiliation. Janus, M. (Psychiatric Research Unit, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8 Canada). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 26, 291-308.
. . "On the whole, young monkeys' relationships, like those between adults, are influenced strongly by their kinship, and position in the dominance hierarchy."

* The effects of temporary removal of the alpha male on the behavior of subordinate male vervet monkeys. Hector, A. K. & Raleigh, M. J. (Depts of Zoology & Psychology, Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX 78712). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 26, 77-87.
. . Observations on six captive multimale, multifemale groups suggest that the presence of alpha males strongly inhibits subordinate males' behavior. When the constraints of the alpha male's presence are removed, subordinate males rapidly engage in behavior that may enhance their likelihood of attaining high rank. This study also supports the view that aggression by female vervets may be highly influential in determining male ascendency to dominant rank.

* Social relations in semi-free-ranging sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi coquereli) and the question of female dominance. Kubzdela, K. S., Richard, A. F., & Pereira, M. E. (Dept of Ecology & Evolution, Univ. of Chicago, Allee Lab. of Animal Behavior, 940 E. 57th St, Chicago, IL 60637). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 28, 139-145.
. . Two hundred hours of focal sampling on two pair of sifakas show strong asymmetry of aggressive encounters, suggesting female dominance over males. Males were more active than females in maintaining proximity and, on average, male spatial movements could be predicted by female location and activities more often than vice versa.

* Social relationships of immigrant and resident female mountain gorillas. I. Male-female relationships. Watts, D. P. (Dept of Biological Anthropology & Anatomy, Duke Univ., Wheeler Bldg, 3705-B Erwin Rd, Durham, NC 27705). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 28, 159-181.
. . Results based on observations of a large group over 3 years.

* Post-conflict reunions and reconciliation in long-tailed macaques. Cords, M. (Anthropology Dept, Columbia Univ., New York, NY 10027). Animal Behaviour, 1992, 44, 57-61.
. . An experiment on 10 pairs of captive Macaca fascicularis supports the hypothesis that friendly reunions are part of a homeostatic behavioral mechanism that maintains group integrity despite inevitable conflicts of interest between group members.

* Immature siblings and mother-infant relationships among free-ranging rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago. Berman, C. M. (Dept of Anthropology, SUNY, Buffalo, NY 14261). Animal Behaviour, 1992, 44, 247-258.
. . Analysis of data for 124 mother-infant pairs, collected over 12 years, suggests that the presence of immature daughters in addition to infants significantly influences mother-infant relationships, while the presence of sons has little impact.

* Measuring female mate choice in Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques. Manson, J. H. (350 Mts. E. Del I.C.E., Bagaces, Guanacaste, Costa Rica). Animal Behaviour, 1992, 44, 405-416.
. . Data are presented to show three behavior patterns that may be defined as showing female mate choice--predicting the occurrance or rate of potentially fertile copulations, in comparisons between heterosexual dyads: 1) Selective cooperation with male sexual solicitations; 2) restoration of proximity following attacks on the females by intruding males; and 3) proximity maintenance.

* Environmental influences on play behaviour in immature gelada baboons. Barrett, L., Dunbar, R. I. M., & Dunbar, P. (Dept of Anthropology, Univ. College London, Gower St, London WC1E6BT, U.K.). Animal Behaviour, 1992, 44, 111-115.
. . Both the quality and quantity of play were significantly correlated with rainfall, and hence with habitat quality.

* Motherless mothers revisited: Rhesus maternal behavior and rearing history. Champoux, M., Byrne, E., DeLizio, R., & Suomi, S. (NIH Animal Center, P.O. Box 289, Poolesville, MD 20837). Primates, 1992, 33, 251-255.
. . The behavior of mother-reared, peer-reared, and isolate-reared multiparous mothers was observed and compared for the first six months after giving birth. Both peer-reared and isolate-reared mothers exhibited differences in maternal behavior from mother-reared mothers.

* Kin-oriented redirection among Japanese macaques: An expression of a revenge system? Aureli, F., Cozzolino, R., Cordischi, C., & Scucchi, S. (Ethologie en Socio-oecologie, Rijksuniv. Utrecht, P.O. Box 80086, 3508 TB Utrecht, Netherlands). Animal Behaviour, 1992, 44, 283-291.
. . Within 1 hour of being the victim of an attack, Japanese macaques were more likely to attack the former aggressor's kin than without such a conflict. Victims redirected aggression against individuals that were younger than the former aggressor and often subordinate to the victim. The possibility that this kin-oriented redirection may have a long-term function in changing the aggressive attitude of the aggressor toward the victim is discussed.

* Abnormal behaviors, with a special focus on rocking, and reproductive competence in a large sample of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Fritz, J., Nash, L. T., Alford, P. L., & Bowen, J. A. (Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 27, 161-176.
. . One hundred and eighty-nine chimpanzees in three breeding colonies were surveyed for abnormal behaviors, copulatory performance, and, for females, maternal competence. Copulators showed more forms of abnormal behaviors than did noncopulators. Good mothers showed slightly fewer different forms of abnormal behaviors than did inadequate mothers. No specific combination of abnormal behaviors was associated with lack of copulatory performance or inadequacy of maternal behavior.

* Some contrasting effects of surgical and "chemical" castration on the behavior of male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Zumpe, D., Bonsall, R. W., & Michael, R. P. (R. P. M., Dept of Psychiatry, Emory Univ. School of Med., Georgia Mental Health Inst., 1256 Briarcliff Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30306). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 26, 11-22.
. . Different mechanisms may be involved in the behavioral effects of surgical and chemical castration--namely, surgical castration may act primarily via testosterone-dependent peripheral mechanisms, while chemical castration with medroxyprogesterone acetate does so primarily via central mechanisms regulating sexual motivation.

* Proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) social organization: Nature and possible functions of intergroup patterns of association. Yeager, C. P. (Calder Center, Fordham Univ., Drawer K, Armonk, NY 10504). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 26, 133-137.
. . Ten one-male groups and two all-male groups were studied. Proboscis monkeys form stable one-male groups, with specific groups regularly associating at their sleeping sites. Associations between groups may play a role in preventing displacement and/or predation.

* The costs of infant carrying in captive cotton-top tamarins. Price, E. C. (Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Les Augres Manor, Trinity, Jersey, Channel Islands, G.B.). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 26, 23-33.
. . Tamarins carrying an infant spent significantly less time feeding, foraging, moving, scratching, autogrooming, scent-marking or engaging in social activities than they did when not carrying. However, they were significantly less likely to be vigilant than when not carrying.

* The benefits of helpers: Effects of group and litter size on infant care in tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Price, E. C. (Address same as above). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 26, 179-190.
. . A study of 21 captive cotton-top tamarin infants, living in groups with two to 12 older members, showed that: 1) infants may receive more care in larger families; 2) the burden of care is spread over several animals; and 3) parents, particularly fathers, may benefit most from reducing the costs of investing in the present litter and increasing their ability to invest in future litters.

* Plasma catcholamines and social behavior in male vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus). Dillon, J. E., Raleigh, M. J., McGuire, M. T., Bergin-Pollack, D., & Yuwiler, A. (Dept of Psychiatry, Univ. of Michigan School of Med., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0390). Physiology & Behavior, 1992, 51, 973-977.
. . Plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine levels did not differ between dominant and subordinate males. Alpha scores (measures of dominant behavioral style) did distinguish high from low norepinephrine/epinephrine ratio groups.


* Social enrichment for aged rhesus monkeys that have lived singly for many years. Reinhardt, V. (Wisconsin RPRC, Univ. of Wisconsin, 1223 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715). Animal Technology, 1991, 42, 173-177.
. . Ten female and five male Macaca mulatta, 22 to 33 years old and deprived of physical contact with any conspecific for more than 10 years, were paired with weaned infants or with each other using two standard methods of pairing. All pairs were compatible throughout a one-year follow-up period.

* Space utilization by captive rhesus macaques. Reinhardt, V. (Address same as above). Animal Technology, 1992, 43, 11-17.
. . Sixteen captive rhesus made use of the vertical dimension significantly more than the horizontal, despite the fact that the floor offered an area 3 times larger than that of the total area of elevated structures. Space requirements should not merely define minimum floor area and minimum height, but should explicitly stipulate that the vertical dimension of the enclosure must be adequately structured to make it accessible.

* Transport-cage training of caged rhesus macaques. Reinhardt, V. (Address same as above). Animal Technology, 1992, 43, 57-61.
. . A simple and effective technique for training macaques to enter a transport cage, not requiring equipment such as squeeze-back cages, is described.

* Voluntary progression order in captive rhesus macaques. Reinhardt, V. (Address same as above). Zoo Biology, 1992, 11, 61-66.
. . The sequence in which 14 laboratory macaques left their home enclosure during a routine catching procedure was recorded on 30 occasions during 6 weeks. Individuals retained their exit positions with remarkable consistency. Knowing this order can be useful in enabling a single person to quickly catch a selected group member when it is necessary.

* Conditioned exercise method for use with nonhuman primates. Rogers, W. R., Coelho, A. M., Jr., Carey, K. D., Ivy, J. L., Shade, R. E., & Easley, S. P. (A. M. C., Jr., Behavioral Med. Lab., S.F.B.R., P.O. Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78228-0147). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 27, 215-224.
. . Adult male olive baboons were trained to exercise on an inclined, motorized, moving treadmill.

* Food puzzle for singly caged primates. Murchison, M. A. & Nolte, R. E. (Primate Field Station, Medical Lake, WA 99022). American-Journal of Primatology, 1992, 27, 285-292.
. . Description of a food puzzle, made of clear plastic tubing and loaded with peanuts, which "enhanced the animals' cage environment by providing a goal-oriented activity that they could control."


* Conservationally sound assurance of primate supply and diversity. Bowden, D. M. & Smith, O. A. (Washington RPRC, Univ. of Washington, SJ-50, Seattle, WA 98195). ILAR News, 1992, 34, 53-56.
. . It is suggested that natural-habitat breeding facilities are the best way to fill the need for a variety of primate species for biomedical research. Such a facility in Indonesia is described in detail.

* Tana River red colobus and crested mangabey: Results of recent censuses. Decker, B. S. & Kinnaird, M. F. (Biological Resources Prog., Nat. Museums of Kenya, P.O. Box 40658, Nairobi, Kenya). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 26, 47-52.
. . There were significant population declines for both species between the mid-1970s and 1980s, but results in the late 1980s suggest that populations are no longer decreasing.


* Growth of nursery-raised Macaca nemestrina infants: Effects of feeding schedules, sex, and birth weight. Sackett, G. P. & Ruppenthal, G. C. (RPRC SJ-50, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 27, 189-204.
. . Data on 523 nursery-raised infants, from birth through 90 days. Besides descriptive statistics and regression equations based on this large sample, there is a comparison of two different modes of feeding.

* Nonsocial behavior of captive infant gorillas. Gold, K. C. (School of Psychology, Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 26, 65-72.
. . Data was taken for 20 gorillas, aged 14-36 months, at 10 zoos. Results indicate significant differences in frequency of various behaviors with rearing history.

* Developmental changes in the uptake of testosterone by the primate brain. Bonsall, R. W. & Michael, R. P. (R. P. M., Dept of Psychiatry, Emory Univ. School of Med., GMHI, 1256 Briarcliff Rd N.E., Atlanta, GA 30306). Neuroendocrinology, 1992, 55, 84-91.
. . To investigate the function of high levels of plasma testosterone (T) during the neonatal period in male macaques, 4 male and 5 female cynomolgus monkeys were gonadectomized 2-5 days after birth, and injected 3 days later with radioactively-marked T. Brains were dissected one hour later, and the results compared with studies in adults and fetuses.

* Developmental biology of the common marmoset: Proposal for a "postnatal staging". Missler, M., Wolff, J. R., Rothe, H., Heger, W., Merker, H.-J., Treiber, A., Scheid, R., & Crook, G. A. (Dept of Anatomy, Developmental Neurobiology Unit, Georg-August-Univ. Gottingen, Kreuzberg- ring 36, D-3400 Gottingen, Germany). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1992, 21, 285-298.
. . Data from a detailed questionnaire answered for several Callithrix jacchus colonies are given and used to propose a theory that seven developmental stages can be defined for the postnatal period.


* Hope or horror? Primate-to-human organ transplants. Nowak, R. Journal of NIH Research, 1992, 4[9], 37-38.
. . News article quoting various sources on the possibility of introducing new diseases through xenotransplantation.

* Oral papillomavirus infection in a pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus). Sundberg, J. P., Shima, A. L., & Adkison, D. L. (Jackson Lab., Bar Harbor, ME 04609-0800). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 1992, 4, 70-74.
. . Oral lesions in a pygmy chimpanzee were histologically classified as papillomas. They contained papillomavirus antigens and a novel papillomavirus DNA identified by cross homology studies and comparisons with published nonhuman papillomavirus genomic information. The lesions were morphologically benign but refractile to treatment. Other virus types may be associated with malignant progression, or long-term follow-up on this case may demonstrate that this isolate is oncogenic. Oral papillomas are present in pygmy chimp colonies in several zoos. Because of persistent oral lesions, the animal in this case has been kept in isolation to minimize chance of transmission. Continued isolation will preclude breeding, impair colony size, and delay eventual reintroduction of these animals into the wild.

* In vitro transformation and molecular characterization of Colobus monkey venereal papillomavirus DNA. Reszka, A. A., Sundberg, J. P., & Reichmann, M. E. (Dept. of Microbiology, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801). Virology, 1991, 181, 787-792.
. . The DNA of a monkey papillomavirus (CgPV-1), originally isolated from a penile lesion on a Colobus monkey, was cloned into the Eco RI site of the pUC18 vector and characterized. The results are detailed in this paper. The role of human venereal papillomaviruses as etiological agents of dysplasias and neoplasias underline the importance of studies of these viruses.

* Simian virus 40-induced disease in rhesus monkeys with simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Horvath, C. J., Simon, M. A., Bergsagel, D. J., Pauley, D. R., King, N. W., Garcea, R. L., & Ringler, D. J. (D. J. R., NERPRC, Southborough, MA 01772-9102). American Journal of Pathology, 1992, 140, 1431-1440.
. . Rhesus monkeys with SIV-induced AIDS are predisposed to polyomaviral disease, in which SV40 nucleic acid is observed in renal tissue in primary infections and brain tissue after viral reactivation. This organ-specific replication suggests that tissue-tropic strains of SV40 may develop in immunodeficient monkeys.

* Pathologic features of SIV-induced disease and the association of macrophage infection with disease evolution. Simon, M. A., Chalifoux, L. V., & Ringler, D. J. (M. A. S., address same as above). AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 1992, 8, 327-337.
. . Summary of the pathologic features of SIVmac-induced disease in a cohort of rhesus monkeys, with special reference to the role of infected macrophages in the development of AIDS-related manifestations.

* Localization of SIV in the genital tract of chronically infected female rhesus macaques. Miller, C. J., Vogel, P., Alexander, N. J., Sutjipto, S., Hendrickx, A. G., & Marx, P. A. (California RPRC, Davis, CA 95616). American Journal of Pathology, 1992, 141, 655-660.
. . The authors examined the genital tracts from 16 chronically infected female rhesus and localized SIV-infected cells using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. In most cases SIV-infected cells were located in the submucosa of the cervix and vagina, but they were also found in the vaginal epithelium. SIV-infected cells were more common in sites of inflammation than in normal areas. SIV may gain access to genital tract secretions from the cervix and vaginal epithelium.

* Early viral replication in the brain of SIV-infected rhesus monkeys. Chakrabarti, L., Hurtrel, M., Maire, M.-A., Vazeux, R., Dormont, D., Montagnier, L., & Hurtrel, B. (Unite d'Oncologie Virale, Inst Pasteur, 28 r. du Dr. Roux, 75724 Paris, Cedex 15, France). American Journal of Pathology, 1991, 139, 1273-1280.
. . SIV was detected in the central nervous systems of 5 rhesus monkeys as early as 7 days after innoculation with the virus. Infected cells were shown to express the CD68 marker, suggesting that infected mononuclear phagocytes crossing the blood-brain barrier represent the main source of virus in the CNS.

* Comparison of protection afforded by whole virus ISCOM versus MDP adjuvanted formalin-inactivated SIV vaccines from IV cell-free or cell-associated homologous challenge. Osterhaus, A., de Vries, P., Morein, B., Akerblom, L., & Heeney, J. (Lab. of Immunobiology, Nat. Inst. of Public Health & Environ. Protection, P.O. Box 1, Bilthoven, Netherlands). AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 1992, 8, 1507-1510.
. . Seven rhesus monkeys vaccinated with either SIV-ISCOM or SIV-MDP vaccine were all protected from challenge by cell-free SIVmac. Four of eight similarly vaccinated monkeys were protected from challenge by infected polymorphic blood monocyte cells from a macaque infected with the homologous strain of SIV.

* Detection of anti-human cell antibodies in sera from macaques immunized with whole inactivated virus. Langlois, A. J., Weinhold, K. J., Matthews, T. J., Greenberg, M. L., & Bolognesi, D. P. (Duke Univ. Med. Center, Center for AIDS Research, Durham, NC 27710). AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 1992, 8, 1641-1651.
. . More than 200 sera from macaques immunized with several different vaccine preparations were tested in various assays with cells of human and macaque origin. If and only if whole inactivated SIV preparations were used for immunization, reactivities were found with normal human cells.

* Genetic differences accounting for evolution and pathogenicity of simian immunodeficiency virus from a sooty mangabey monkey after cross-species transmission to a pig-tailed macaque. Courgnaud, V., Laure, F., Fultz, P. N., Montagnier, L, Brechot, C., & Sonigo, P. (P. S., Inst Cochin de Genetique Mol., 22 r. Mechain, 75014 Paris, France). Journal of Virology, 1992, 66, 414-419.
. . SIVsmm9, nonpathogenic in sooty mangabeys, causes a chronic AIDS-like disease in macaques. In contrast, the variant virus SIVsmmPBj14 induces an acute lethal disease in various macaque species and is also pathogenic for sooty mangabeys. Genome maps are given for both variants.

* Survey of parasites of rhesus monkeys housed in small social groups. Phillippi, K. M. & Clarke, M. R. (M. R. C., Delta RPRC, 18703 Three Rivers Rd, Covington, LA 70433). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 27, 293-302.
. . Survey of specific parasites in fecal samples randomly collected over a 1-year period. Among the findings: when group size reached 12 to 16 animals, the number of samples with helminths doubled.

* Filovirus clearance in non-human primates. Fisher-Hoch, S. P., Perez-Oronoz, G. I., Jackson, E. L., Hermann, L. M., & Brown, B. G. (Mycotic Diseases Branch, NCID, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30333). The Lancet, 1992, 340, 451-453.
. . Study of 22 cynomolgus macaques and 20 African green monkeys, 31 experimentally infected, the others naturally infected. Animals surviving filovirus infection develop high-titre, cross-reacting filovirus-specific antibody 14 to 21 days after infection, and this coincides with virus clearance. Healthy monkeys with low-titre filovirus antibody may be regarded as uninfected.

* Intestinal helminth parasites in free-living monkeys from a West African rainforest. Bakarr, M. I., Gbakima, A. A., & Bah, Z. (Dept of Biology, Univ. of Miami, P.O. Box 249118, Coral Gables, FL 33124). African Journal of Ecology, 1991, 29, 170-172.
. . This study provides the first evidence of human intestinal helminths in wild primates in the rainforest in Sierra Leone.

* Medical management of inflammatory bowel disease in a spider monkey. Isaza, R., Baker, B., & Dunker, F. (Dept of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Coll. of Vet. Med., Univ. of Florida Box 100126, Health Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32610-0126). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 1992, 200, 1543-1545.
. . A diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease was based on clinical signs, radiography, endoscopy, histologic appearance of intestinal biopsy specimens, and response to treatment. Although several infective agents were considered, this case illustrates that recurrent enteritis in primates may be noninfectious and may respond to anti-inflammatory agents.

* Diagnostic exercise: Anemia in a baboon. Henderson, J. D., Jr. (Med. Research Service/151C, Zablocki VA Med. Center, Milwaukee, WI 53295). Laboratory Animal Science, 1992, 42, 514-515.
. . Hepatocystis kochi caused anemia in a baboon with a transplanted macaque heart. Treatment included lactated Ringer's with 5% dextrose, high-calorie oral nutritional supplement, whole blood transfusion, and chloroquine.

* Naturally occurring aortic aneurysms in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.). Baer, J. F., Gibson, S. V., Weller, R. E., Buschbom, R. L., & Leathers, C. W. (Baxter Healthcare Corp., Cardiovascular Surgery Div. - MS 44, 17221 Red Hill Ave, Irvine, CA 92714). Laboratory Animal Science, 1992, 42, 463-466.
. . Necropsy records from 257 owl monkeys revealed 22 spontaneous aortic aneurysms. Clinical findings varied, including weight loss, weakness, and lethargy, and were not present in all animals.


* Activity budgets, feeding behavior, and habitat use of pygmy chimpanzees at Lomako, Zaire. White, F. J. (Dept of Biol. Anthropology & Anatomy, Duke Univ., Wheeler Bldg, 3705-B Erwin Rd, Durham, NC 27705). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 26, 215-223.
. . Data from 250 hours of focal animal sampling is discussed and compared with data collected at a different location.


* People and Animals: United for Health: A comprehensive curriculum for secondary school science educators addressing current topics in biomedical research and testing. Massachusetts Society for Medical Research, 1993. [Price: $150 per package, including shipping and handling. Order from Massachusetts Society for Medical Research, 1440 Main St, Waltham, MA 02154-1649]
. . This set consists of a 250-page teacher Reference Manual, a set of 159 slides and a discussion guide. Also available are a timeline poster and a 75-page implementation guide for organizations. Among other topics, the 12-unit curriculum looks at specific human and animal disease entities and cures. The program aims to present a comprehensive overview of the use of animals in biomedical research.

Instruments & Techniques

* Pregnancy diagnosis by enzyme immunoassay of estrogens in feces from nondomestic species. Bamberg, E., Mostl, E., Patzl, M., & King, G. J. (Inst. fur Biochemie der Veterinarmedizinischen Univ. Wien, Linke Bahngasse 11, A-1030 Wien, Austria). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 1991, 22, 73-77.
. . A "practical method" for enzyme immunoassay using microtiter plates for the quantitative measurement of fecal estrogens.

* Urinary and plasma gonadotropin concentrations in golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus r. rosalia). French, J. A., De Graw, W. A., Hendricks, S. E., Wegner, F., & Bridson, W. E. (Dept of Psychology, Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha, NE 68182). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 26, 53-59.
. . Description of the development and validation of a plasma and urinary gonadotropin immunoassay for L. rosalia. Results point to the utility of the gonadotripin assay for monitoring reproductive function in both female and male lion tamarins.

* Detection of nonhuman primate gonadotropins in polyacrylamide gels: An alternative to the western blot. Matteri, R. L. & Ziegler, T. E. (WRPRC, Univ. of Wisconsin, 1223 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715-1299). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 26, 155-166.
. . Evaluation of electrophoretic analysis of nonhuman primate gonadotropins in impure protein samples.

* The collar and snaphook restraint system for rhesus monkeys: A new approach to pole and collar training and access port presentation. McCully, C. L. & Godwin, K. (Pediatric Branch, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892). Contemporary Topics, 1992, 31, 14-16. Use of a snaphook with a pole and collar system resulted in a more efficient, safer, and practical training regime.

* High-resolution optical imaging of functional brain architecture in the awake monkey. Grinvald, A., Frostig, R. D., Siegel, R. M., & Bartfeld, E. (Lab. of Neurobiology, Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY 10021). Proceedings of the Nat. Acad. of Sciences, U.S.A. , 1991, 88, 11559-11563.
. . Description of a system to enable observation of the primary visual cortex while the subject is observing stimuli.

* Flexible protocol for administration of human follicle-stimulating hormone with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist. Byrd, S., Itskovitz, J., Chillik, C., & Hodgen, G. D. (G. D. H., Jones Inst. for Reproductive Med., CONRAD Program, Dept of Ob/Gyn, Eastern Virginia Med. School, 855 W. Brambleton Ave, Suite B, Norfolk, VA 23510). Fertility and Sterility, 1992, 57, 209-214.
. . "The flexible protocol for administration of hFSH with GnRH antagonist yielded satisfactory results, with apparent advantages of economy, convenience, and individuality of treatment compared with regimens used currently.


* Insect-eating by sympatric lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan t. troglodytes) in the Lope Reserve, Gabon. Tutin, C. E. G. & Fernandez, M. (C.I.R.M.F., B.P. 769, Franceville, Gabon). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 28, 29-40.
. . Comparison of the amounts and species of insects eaten by the sympatric great apes.


* Effects of repeated restraint stress at 30-minute intervals during 24-hour on serum testosterone, LH and glucocorticoids levels in male Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata). Torii, R., Kitagawa, N., Nigi, H., & Ohsawa, N. (Inst. for Experimental Animals, Shiga Univ. of Med. Science, Seta Tsukinowa-cho, Ohtsu-shi, Shiga 520-21, Japan). Experimental Animals, 1993, 42, 67-73 (Japanese with English summary).
. . Graphs are given for 30-minute intervals for 3 animals, and 4-hour intervals for 2 animals. There are also graphs of levels for all 5 animals at 30-minute intervals for two hours after ACTH administration.


* 1991 International Studbook: Golden Lion Tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia). J. D. Ballou (Studbook keeper). Washington, DC: National Zool. Park, 1992. 124 pp.

* Cycles, sexuality, and conception in free-ranging langurs (Presbytis entellus). Sommer, V., Srivastava, A., & Borries, C. (Inst f�r Anthropologie der Univ., Burgerstr. 50, D-3400 Gottingen, Germany). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 28, 1-27.
. . Reproductive parameters and sexual behavior observed over a 13-year period.

* Reproduction of the emperor tamarin (Saguinus imperator) in captivity, with comparisons to cotton-top and golden lion tamarins. Baker, A. J. & Woods, F. (Dept of Biol. Programs, Nat. Zool. Park, Washington, DC 20008). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 26, 1-10.
. . Analysis of 12 years of data on the emperor tamarins at the Los Angeles zoo.

* The secretion of bioactive and immunoreactive follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) throughout the menstrual cycle of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). Matteri, R. L., Brid- son, W. E., Dierschke, D. J., Wegner, F. H., & Durning, M. (WRPRC, Univ. of Wisconsin, 1223 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715-1299). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 26, 243-257.
. . "The first evaluation of related changes in serum levels of bioactive FSH and immunoreactive FSH and concurrent dynamics of LH and FSH bioactivity throughout the menstrual cycle of the rhesus monkey."

* Male chimpanzee behavior in relation to female ano-genital swelling. Shefferly, N. & Fritz, P. (Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 26, 119-131.
. . Data on the behavior of 11 males living in 3 social groups over a 5-month period.

* Chimpanzee genital swelling and its role in the pattern of sociosexual behavior. Wallis, J. (Dept. of Ob/Gyn, Univ. of Oklahoma College of Med., P.O. Box 26901, Oklahoma City, OK 73190). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 28, 101-113.
. . Analysis of observations made on 13 female and 7 male adult group-living chimpanzees show that, although chimpanzees exhibit an extended period of sexual receptivity and genital swelling, the presumed fertile period is not concealed. The role of genital swelling in chimpanzees is discussed in relation to the possible hormonal effect on female sexuality and the evolution of chimpanzee mating strategies.

* Pregnancy and early reproductive failure in the baboon. Kuehl, T. J., Kang, I. S., & Siler-Khodr, T. M. (T. M. S.-K., Dept of Ob/Gyn, Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Dr., San Antonio, TX 78284-7836). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 28, 41-48.
. . Analysis of 43 pregnancies from 91 cycles in 70 baboon females. All pregnancies with abnormal endocrine parameters (60%) terminated spontaneously. Overall 16% of the mated cycles had continuing pregnan- cies with normal outcome.

* The stimulatory effect of males on the initiation but not the maintenance of ovarian cycling in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Widowski, T. M., Porter, T. A., Ziegler, T. E., & Snowdon, C. T. (T. E. Z., Dept of Psychology, 1202 W. Johnson St, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 26, 97-108.
. . Ovarian cycling began in 3 females exposed to only visual, auditory, and airborne olfactory contact with an unfamiliar adult male, while a fourth female, who did not cycle in this condition, did not cycle even when sharing a cage with the male. "Widowed" females continued to cycle in the absence of any male.


* Phylogenetic influences on hormone levels across the primate order. Coe, C. L., Savage, A., & Bromley, L. J. (Address same as above). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 28, 81-100.
. . Adrenal and gonadal hormone levels were evaluated in representative species from Prosimii, Ceboidea, Cercopithecoidea, and Hominoidea. Although higher hormone levels tended to be associated with lower body weight, there were many notable exceptions.

* Biochemical diversity and genetic distance in two species of the genus Saguinus. Melo, A. C. A., Sampaio, M. I. C., Schneider, M. P. C., & Schneider, H. (Dept. de Genetica, Univ. Fed. do Para, Campus Univ. do Guama, 66.075, Belem, Para, Brazil). Primates, 1992, 33, 217-225.
. . A comparative study of 20 blood genetic systems was performed on Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli, S. midas niger, and S. midas midas. Estimates of genetic distance between S. fascicollis and S. midas species were about 14%, while those between subspecies of S. midas were nearly 3%.

* Protein variation, taxonomy and differentiation in five species of marmosets (genus Callithrix Erxleben, 1777). Meireles, C. M. M., Sampaio, M. I. C., Schneider, H., & Schneider, M. P. C. (Address same as above). Primates, 1992, 33, 227-238.
. . Electrophoretic analysis of 150 blood samples from 5 species showed that C. humeralifer and C. emiliae are subspecies of C. argentata, while C. jacchus, C. penicillata, and C. geoffroyi are sub- species of C. jacchus.

* Aotus vociferans x Aotus nancymai: Sympatry without chromosomal hybridation. Pieczarka, J. C., de Souza Barros, R. M., Nagamachi, C. Y., Rodrigues, R., & Espinel, A. (Address same as above). Primates, 1992, 33, 239-245.
. . Data confirming that A. vociferans and A. nancymai are separate species.


In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest. In most cases, abstracts are those of the authors.

All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853,
Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912.
Phone: 401-863-2511
FAX: 401-863-1300


The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
Service Grant RR-00419 from the Comparative Medicine Program,
National Center for Research Resources, N.I.H.

Cover drawing of Japanese "snow" monkeys (Macaca fuscata)
by Anne M. Richardson

Copyright �1993 by Brown University

Editor: Judith E. Schrier, M.Sc.
Associate Editor: James S. Harper, D.V.M.
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar, D.V.M.
Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen, B.A.
Founding Editor: Allan M. Schrier, Ph.D.

* * *