Laboratory Primate Newsletter



Articles and Notes

Infant-killing in Pigtailed Monkeys: A Colony Management Concern, by M. R. Clarke, J. L. Blanchard, & J. A. Snyder......1

Shredded Paper as Enrichment for Infant Chimpanzees, by A. L. Kessel, L. Brent, & T. Walljasper......4

News, Information, and Announcements

Beatrix Gardner, 1933-1995......3

News Briefs......7
Killing of Monkeys Approved; Coulston Foundation Receives LEMSIP; OPRR Report on NYU Med Center Problems; Terance Dillon Morin; "Ace Monkeys" Sent to Sanctuary

Meeting Anouncements......8
Animal Behavior and Laboratory Animal Welfare; Association for Study of Behaviour; Australian Primate Society; Association for the Study of Behaviour; Primate Society of Great Britain; IUCN World Conservation Congress; XIVth International Congress for Tropical Medicine and Malaria; New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology; Wisconsin RPRC

Grants Available......10
Adolescent Alcohol Abuse; Aging, Vascular Stiffness, Cardiovascular Function; Marijuana/Cannabis Abuse Research; Anorexia in Disease and Aging; Institutional Animal Resources; Basic Behavioral Science Research; Evaluation of AIDS Therapies; Research in Reproduction

Information Requested or Available......13
ASKPRIMATE; Conservation Ecology; STR or VNTR Primers; Animal Welfare Enforcement Report; Duke Center Anniversary; Hominid Character Database; Cynomolgus Subspecies? Primate Cytogenetics Network

Resources Wanted and Available......15
Consultant for Environmental Enhancement; Request for Reprints and Publications

Planned 1994 Revision of Directory of Graduate Programs in Primatology and Primate Research......15

Travelers' Health Notes......16
Dengue Fever; Parasitology Guide; Elimination of Leprosy on Schedule; Ebola Fever Epidemic Officially Over

Workshop Announcements......17
Histopathology Seminar; EUPREN and EMRG; Symposium on Biosafety

Browse for Nonhuman Primates in Captivity......28


Positions Available or Wanted......9
Behavioral Research Assistant; Veterinarian Position, Duke Primate Center; E-mail Listing of Anthropology Jobs

Address Changes......14

Recent Books and Articles......18

* * *

Infant-killing in Pigtailed Monkeys:
A Colony Management Concern

Margaret R. Clarke, James L. Blanchard, and Jennifer A. Snyder
Tulane Primate Center


Infant-killing and infant disappearances in association with a change in adult male group membership has been reported in a number of mammalian species, including nonhuman primates (see Hausfater & Hrdy, 1984; Hrdy, 1979; Parmigiani & vom Saal, 1994). While these reports have been questioned (see Bartlett et al, 1993), and all occurrences of infant-killing or disappearance may not be related to sexual selection (see Sussman et al, 1995; Hrdy et al, 1995), if infant-killing recurs in a predictable manner in a nonhuman primate species being bred for research, it is a concern for colony management.


The subjects for this study were members of the Tulane Primate Center (Covington, LA) pigtailed monkey (Macaca nemestrina) breeding colony. Six social groups were formed from 100 feral-born adult animals in June, 1993. There were two one-male groups housed in corncribs, two multi-male small groups housed in indoor-outdoor runs, and two multi-male large groups housed in one-quarter acre field cages. One corn-crib group was removed from the breeding colony, so the data included here are from two years of study (June, 1993 through May, 1995) on five social groups.

Information on births, deaths, causes of death, and animal movements come from standard colony records (e.g. inventories, movement sheets, case reports, necropsy reports). Dominance hierarchies were constructed from the outcomes of aggressive behavioral interactions as noted by Tulane undergraduate students doing systematic focal animal sampling (Altmann, 1974) as part of course work.


Male Stability: One inside-outside run social group (S1) and one corral-housed group (L1) had no changes in adult male composition during the 24 month period. The corncrib group of females (S2) had a different male introduced on two separate occasions. The other indoor-outdoor run group (S3) had two males removed at the same time, and the other corral-housed group (L2) had one male removed during the first year and another male removed during the second year. Overall, there were five changes in adult male composition in these three groups.

|                  | Male Stable Groups  |  Male Change Groups |
|Group Name        |     S1  |    L1     |   S2  |  S3 |  L2   |
|Adult Male:Female |     3:8 |   3:30    |  1:4  | 3:8 | 5:24  |
|Composition       |         |           |       |     |       |
|No. Infants Born  |      7  |    21     |    5  |  6  |  30   |
|No. Not Surviving |      1  |     4     |    4  |  3  |   6   |
|Cause of Death    |         |           |       |     |       |
|Male Aggression   |      0  |     0     |    4  |  2  |   4   |
|Female Aggression |      0  |     1     |    0  |  0  |   0   |
|Maternal Neglect  |      0  |     1     |    0  |  0  |   0   |
|Undetermined      |      1  |     2     |    0  |  1  |   2   |

Table 1: Infant Mortality--Pigtailed Monkey Colony, June, 1993-May, 1995

Infant Mortality: Infant births, infant deaths, and causes of infant death for the pigtailed monkey colony for the 24 month period are shown in Table 1. Deaths attributed to male aggression involved puncture wounds to the skull too deep to be inflicted by an adult female (e.g., the craniocervical bite [Steklis & King, 1978]). The deaths attributed to female aggression involved crushing (rather than slash/laceration) injuries. There were no deaths attributed to adult male aggression in the groups with stable male composition. Deaths due to adult male aggression occurred in all groups with changing male composition. All other causes of infant death were similar across all five groups.

Timing of Deaths: All infant deaths due to male aggression occurred within two months of the change in male composition (see Table 2). One young infant already present in a social group when the new male was introduced was killed within 24 hours, and the older infant was killed within a few weeks (S2). Six infants born during the two months after the adult male change were killed within 24 hours of birth, and two more were killed within one week of birth. Only the newborn infant of the dominant female in the large social group (L2) survived. After two months, no more infant-killings occurred, and no infants born three or more months after the change in adult male composition were killed.

|Adult Male   |  # Deaths | Within      |Within  | Total  |
|Event        |  Immediate| 1 month     |2 months| Deaths |
|S2--New male |  1 killed |             |1 born, |        |
|introduced   |           |             |killed  |        |
|------------------------------------------------|   4    |
|S2--New male |           | 1 killed. 1 |        |        |
|introduced   |           | born, killed|        |        |
|S3--2 of 3   |           | 2 born,     |        |   2    |
|males removed|           | killed      |        |        |
|L2--Mid-high |           |             |4 born, |        |
|rank removed |           |             |killed.*|   4    |
|------------------------------------------------|        |
|L2--Lowest   |           |             |        |        |
|rank removed |           |             |        |        |

*Two killed within one week. All others killed in less than 24 hours after birth.

Table 2: Infant Deaths Due to Male Aggression

Impact on Breeding Colony: While only 16% of the total number of infants born in the colony died from adult male aggression, it represents 56% of infant deaths. Rates of total infant mortality for the two months following a male change were approximately 25 times higher than at any other time (mean=1.20 infants die per month following change, mean=0.05 infants die per month when stable). While infant mortality is higher during this period, it is not the result of generalized aggression since there was no evidence of adult male aggression toward other group members during this same time period. A change in adult male composition in a social group, then, increases the risk of infant mortality but does not appear to affect any other age-group.


Infant-killing following a change in adult male composition thus appears to be part of the natural behavioral repertoire of pigtailed monkeys. Pigtailed monkeys exhibit other traits generally found in species exhibiting infant-killing (e.g., arboreal, nonseasonal breeder, male migration; see Clarke et al., 1994). This phenomenon is not limited to the Tulane colony, as infant-killing following three social groups being combined into one was reported for corral-housed, feral-born pigtailed monkeys in Indonesia (Kyes et al, 1995). There, as in our colony, killings ceased after a relatively short period of time, and infants born after that time were unharmed. Thus, this behavior should be expected to exist in any pigtailed monkey colony. It is clearly linked to a physical manipulation of the social group, which is common in breeding colonies, and it should neither be considered nor treated as social pathology.

Male rank may play a role in predicting infant-killing behavior. In one group (L2), infant killing followed the removal of a middle-high ranking male, but did not follow the removal of the lowest ranking male. These animals were removed at different times for health reasons. However, when the two lower ranking males of a 3-male group were removed at the same time for research purposes, all infants were killed. While there is more control over removal of animals for research than for health reasons, every effort should be made to maintain stable male composition. In colony management of pigtailed monkeys, the staff must be aware of the potential consequences of changes in adult male composition, and they need to understand that infant killing is not an aberrant behavior of a "crazy" animal, but is a normal behavior for these animals under certain conditions.

Colony Management: The goal of colony management, then, should be to minimize the occurrence of conditions that promote infant-killing. Adult males should not be exchanged between one-male groups. Multi-male groups should not be reduced to one-male groups. Adult males should not be introduced to social groups containing females in the late stages of pregnancy or animals less than one year of age. An infanticidal male should not be removed from a social group since he will kill infants up to 8 months of age in a new social group. While it is possible to house pregnant females together until their offspring are a year old or removed for research, there is evidence that an adult male is necessary to control female-female aggression (Erwin et al, 1977), reducing the appeal of all-female groups. Animal care staff and colony managers must be aware of the risk of infant-killing following changes in adult male composition, and plan accordingly.


Altmann, J. (1974). Observational study of behavior: Sampling methods. Behaviour, 49, 227-265.

Bartlett, T. Q., Sussman, R. W., & Cheverud, J. M. (1993). Infant-killing in primates: A review of observed cases with specific reference to the sexual selection hypothesis. American Anthropologist, 95, 958-990.

Clarke, M. R., Zucker, E. L., & Glander, K. E. (1994). Group takeover by a natal male howling monkey (Alouatta palliata) and associated disappearance and injuries of immatures. Primates 35, 435-442.

Erwin, J. (1977). Factors influencing aggressive behavior and risk of trauma in the pigtail macaque (Macaca nemestrina). Lab Animal Science, 27, 541-547.

Hausfater, G., & Hrdy, S. B. (Eds) (1984). Infanticide: Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives. New York: Aldine.

Hrdy, S. B. ( 1979). Infanticide among animals: A review, classification, and examination of the implications for the reproductive strategies of females. Ethology and Sociobiology, 1, 13-40.

Hrdy, S. B., Janson, C., & van Schaik, C. (1995). Infanticide: Let's not throw out the baby with the bath water. Evolutionary Anthropology, 3, 151-154.

Kyes, R. C., Rumawas, R. E., Sulistiawati, E., & Budiarsa, N. (1995). Infanticide in a captive group of pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina). American Journal of Primatology, 36, 135-136.

Parmigiani, S, & vom Saal, F. (Eds.) (1994). Infanticide and Parental Care. London: Harwood Academic Publishers.

Steklis, H. D., & King, G. (1978). The craniocervical bite: Toward an ethology of primate predatory behavior. Journal of Human Evolution, 7, 567-581.

Sussman, R. W., Cheverud, J. M, & Bartlett, T. Q. (1995). Infant killing as an evolutionary strategy. Evolutionary Anthropology, 3, 149-151.

* * *

Beatrix Gardner, 1933-1995

Beatrix (Trixie) Gardner died suddenly on June 5, 1995, in Padua, Italy, while on a European lecture tour. The world has lost a great scientist and chimpazees have lost a great friend and advocate.

Beatrix Gardner earned her B.A. from Radcliffe, her M.S. from Brown University, and her D. Phil. from Oxford University studying with the nobel laureate, Niko Tinbergen. From 1959-1963 she served on the faculty of Wellesley College. In 1963 she and her husband Allen joined the faculty of the University of Nevada at Reno. While at Oxford University she was the recipient of an NSF Fellowship. She was also the recipient of the NIMH Research Scientist Development Award for ten years from 1967 to 1977.

Trixie and Allen are best known for the innovation of teaching sign language to cross-fostered chimpanzees which began with Project Washoe in 1966. The Gardners replicated and extended Project Washoe with four other chimpanzees, Moja, Pili, Tatu, and Dar who lived like human children from birth. From a scientific standpoint the replication and extension is more significant than the initial discovery. Later, in the Fouts laboratory, the infant chimpanzee Loulis learned over 50 signs of ASL that he could only have learned from his adopted mother, Washoe, and three other chimpanzees cross-fostered by the Gardners.

Scholarly journals and books in psychology, biology, anthropology, philosophy and linguistics as well as popular articles, books, and films have featured the work of the Gardners. Perhaps, the clearest testimonial to the significance of their landmark achievement is the storm of controversy that it continues to evoke.

So far the Gardners have only reported the main outlines of the vast record of their five experimental subjects running to 35,000 pages of handwritten notes and many hours of film and videotape. The analysis and reporting of the complete record dominated their lives in recent years and this is the work that Allen Gardner and his students must carry on now.

Beatrix Gardner was a great scientist who was devoted to rigorous observation and faithful reporting. She was also genial, gentle, dignified, and a terribly modest human being. She was truly a caring and nurturing mentor who left an indelible mark on students. She always taught them to see and report what chimpanzees and children actually do and to be suspicious of what grand theoreticians say they should do. Her motto was to let the chimpanzees and the children speak for themselves.

The University of Nevada, Reno, has established the UNR Primate Research Fund (c/o UNR Foundation, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557) to receive donations in Trixie's memory. The money will be used to support their students. -- Roger Fouts, Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA 98926-7673.

* * *

Shredded Paper as Enrichment for Infant Chimpanzees

Amy L. Kessel, Linda Brent, and Tammy Walljasper

Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research


In the wild, infant chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) typically stay with their mothers for three to four years. During this time the infant learns what foods to eat and where to find them, learns social skills, and explores the natural world under the protection of both its mother and siblings (Goodall. 1986). Play with other infants develops in the wild at three to five months of age. Wild chimpan- zees up to 2 years in age have been observed to spend up to 94.6 percent of observation periods in play, either alone or with others (van Lawick-Goodall, 1968). This type of play typically involves chasing, wrestling, and grabbing.

In contrast to the wild, captive infant chimpanzees must sometimes be removed from their mothers and raised in a nursery setting because of poor maternal care and/or illness of either the mother or the infant. The nursery environment may be unstimulating for the infant in comparison to staying with the mother (McGrew, 1977; Davenport & Rogers, 1970; Walsh et al., 1982; Maki et al., 1993). Providing enrichment to nursery-reared infants is very important because this is the stage in their lives when they are beginning to learn about their surroundings.

The idea of providing shredded paper to our nursery-reared infants occurred to us because the provision of substrates to nonhuman primates has been a successful enrichment option with a number of species, including baboons, macaques, capuchins, marmosets, tamarins, and squirrel monkeys (Noonan, 1993; Byrne, 1991; Chamove et al., 1982; McKenzie et al., 1986; Westergaard & Fragazy, 1985). Substrates have historically been provided to chimpanzees in order to assess nesting behavior (Bernstein, 1962). In a study by Brent (1992), juvenile chimpanzees were provided with woodchip bedding for environmental enrichment. Woodchip-related behaviors accounted for 20.52% of data points and reduced levels of abnormal and "affinitive" behaviors as well as environmental manipulation.

In order to provide our nursery-reared infants with a more diverse and enriching environment and additional play opportunities, we provided them with shredded computer paper.


The subjects were five male infant chimpanzees ranging from 9 to 16 months in age. All infants were nursery-reared: four were removed from their mothers within the first week due to maternal incompetence; one was removed at two months due to illness. Each infant was provided with fleece or a towel as a security blanket.

The subjects were housed in a room approximately 12 x 20 ft, with colorful murals painted on the walls, climbing structures, and loose toys. The infants had contact with volunteers for play periods throughout the week in addition to the routine care, feeding, and cleaning provided by the animal care staff.

Data were collected with a laptop computer through a two-way observation window, 8 times a week over a four-week time period. Conditions consisted of no paper in the first week, paper in the 2nd and 3rd weeks, and no paper in the 4th week. Observations were conducted Monday through Friday, balanced for time of day and condition. During each 54-minute session, data on all 5 infants were collected at 1.35-minute intervals, with each interval being indicated by a timer. A total of 28.8 hours of data was collected and used for analysis.

|Categories    |Examples of Behaviors Included:          |
|Abnormal      |Arm circle, Rocking, Self-suck...        |
|              |                                         |
|Affiliative   |Beg, Cling, Follow, Tandem walk, Touch...|
|              |                                         |
|Aggressive    |Attack, Bite, Chase, Display...          |
|              |                                         |
|Inactivity    |Lie, Sit, Sleep, Stand...                |
|              |                                         |
|Locomotion    |Climb, Crawl, Jump, Walk...              |
|              |                                         |
|Play          |Chase, Grab, Lone play, Rough play...    |
|              |                                         |
|Self-Directed |Groom, Manipulate self, Scratch...       |

Table 1: Behavior categories recorded and examples of behaviors included under each category.

During the paper condition twenty pounds of shredded computer paper were provided to the infants weekly. Paper was checked after shredding to ensure that it was clean and free of carbons, paperclips, and staples. Paper was scattered throughout the room with the infants present on Monday morning and was removed on Friday afternoon at which time the room was sanitized. The cleanliness of the room was monitored and soiled paper was removed by the caretakers daily.

Table 1 lists general categories recorded and examples of the 76 behaviors recorded within these cate- gories. Behaviors such as bite or chase could occur in more than one category depending on the context of the interaction. For example, a chase conducted with a play face would be considered play. We also recorded whether the chimpanzees were holding paper, their towels or fleece, or another chimpanzee.

Analysis was conducted using the Systat for Windows statistics package (Systat Inc., Evanston, IL). Analysis of variance procedures were conducted to determine differ- ences in behavior categories and what the infants were holding when paper was and was not present in the room. Significance was defined as p < .05.


Figure 1 shows how the infants spent the 27.3 percent of the data points during which they interacted with the paper. The 30% of paper-directed activity labeled "play" included object play, lone play, and rough-and-tumble play.

|   Behavior   |Percent of data points |
|  Play        |        30             |
|  Handle/Hold |        23             |
|  Jump On     |        18             |
|  Lick        |         9             |
|  Carry       |         6             |
|  Smell       |         5             |
|  Bite        |         6             |
|  Lie         |         1             |
|  Eat         |         1             |
|  Explore     |         1             |

Figure 1: Paper directed activities.

[EDITOR'S NOTE: This data was presented on paper as a circle graph

Analysis by behavior category revealed a significant difference (F = 8.61, p < 0.04) in affiliative behavior only, with the subjects spending less time in affiliative behaviors when the paper was present.

The categories of self-directed behavior and inactivity approached significance (F = 5.79, p < 0.07; F = 5.50, p < 0.08 respectively), with both increasing when the paper was present. The category of aggression could not be analyzed due to lack of data.

|  Category     |  Without Paper    With Paper |
| Affiliative   |     0.055 *          0.050   |
|               |                              |
| Inactive      |     0.130            0.245   |
|               |                              |
| Self-Directed |     0.040            0.050   |

* Significant at the level of p < 0.05.

Figure 2: Changes in behavioral categories after the addition of shredded computer paper.

[EDITOR'S NOTE: These data were presented on paper as a bar graph, and the numbers given are approximated from the graph, not from the original data]

Analysis of what the chimpanzees were holding showed significant differences in the amount of time the infants spent holding their towels (F = 8.59, p < 0.04) and holding onto other chimpanzees (F = 38.46, p < 0.003), with both occurring less when the paper was present.

No differences were found between morning and afternoon observations, although analysis of variance procedures revealed a significant difference between trials (F = 10.73, p < .001). Further analysis revealed effects of trials, with trial number one and trial nine being significantly higher than the others (F = 9.07, p < .02). These trials corresponded to the first day the paper was provided to the infants each week.


Wild infant chimpanzees spend the majority of their time in play activities. Solitary play in the wild includes manipulating a variety of objects such as twigs, leaves, stones, or small fruit (Goodall, 1986; McGrew, 1977). The paper provided in this study was used primarily for play activities. The objective of the provision of paper was to provide the infants with a more enriching environment and the paper did allow the infants to engage in play with an additional, versatile new item.

Affiliative behavior was the only category that differed significantly with the addition of shredded paper to the nursery. Although affiliative behaviors did decrease significantly, clinging and tandem walking were both included in this category. Both clinging and tandem walking are behaviors that are typically seen as undesirable when they occur at high frequencies and both often occur in nursery-reared chimpanzees (Maki et al., 1993; Miller et al., 1986). Therefore, a reduction in affiliative behavior may be seen as a positive outcome in this study. The infants also held other chimpanzees and their "security blankets" less when the paper was present. This reduction may suggest that the infants were more comfortable or relaxed when the paper was present, which may have encouraged more independent behavior. This may be another beneficial effect of the paper's addition to the enclosure.

The trend for an increase in self-directed activities may be accounted for by the fact that the computer paper often created a fine white powder that would coat the infants as they moved about and covered themselves with paper. The infants spent more time grooming themselves to remove this "dust". Infants may have been more inactive because the shredded paper made the concrete floor warmer and more comfortable, encouraging them to rest more.

Providing nursery-reared infant chimpanzees with shredded paper had limited effects on the chimpanzees' behavior, although it encouraged more independent behavior and provided the infants with novel play opportunities. Paper did have other advantages: the minimal time required to provide this enrichment option; paper is inexpensive and readily available; caretakers reported that room cleanup was easier with the paper present. Paper is still being used in our nursery, at the request and initiative of the nursery caretakers.


Bernstein, I. S. (1962). Response to nesting materials of wild born and captive born chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour, 10, 1-6.

Brent, L. (1992). Woodchip bedding as enrichment for captive chimpanzees in an outdoor enclosure. Animal Welfare, 1, 161-170.

Byrne, G. D. & Suomi, S. J. (1991) Effects of woodchips and buried food on behavior patterns and psychological well-being of captive rhesus monkeys. American Journal of Primatology, 23, 141-151.

Chamove, A. S., Anderson, J. R., Morgan-Jones, S. C., & Jones, S. P. (1982). Deep woodchip litter: Hygiene, feeding, and behavioral enhancement in eight primate species. International Journal for the Study of Animal Problems, 3, 308-318.

Davenport, R. K. & Rogers, C. M.. (1970). Differential rearing of the chimpanzee: A project survey. In G. H. Bourne (Ed.), The Chimpanzee, A Series of Volumes on the Chimpanzee, Vol. 3. Immunology, Infections, Hormones, Anatomy, and Behavior of Chimpanzees (pp. 337-360). Basel: S. Karger.

Goodall, J. (1986). The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Maki, S., Fritz, J., & England, N. (1993). An assessment of early differential rearing conditions on later behavioral development in captive chimpanzees. Infant Behavior and Development, 16, 373-381.

McGrew, W. C. (1977). Socialization and object manipulation of wild chimpanzees. In S. Chevalier-Skolnikoff & F. Poirier (Eds.), Primate Bio-Social Development: Biological, Social, and Ecological Determinants (pp. 261-288). New York: Garland Publishing.

McKenzie, S. M., Chamove, A. S., & Feistner, A. T. C. (1986). Floor-coverings and hanging screens alter arboreal monkey behavior. Zoo Biology, 5, 339-348.

Miller, L. C., Bard, K. A., Juno, C. J., & Nadler, R. D. (1986). Behavioral responsiveness of young chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to a novel environment. Folia Primatologica, 47, 128-142.

Noonan, A. (1993). The effects of environmental enrichment on the behaviour of hamadryas baboons, Papio hamadryas. Australian Primatology, 7[4], 5.

van Lawick-Goodall, J. (1968). The behaviour of free-living chimpanzees in the Gombe Stream Reserve. Animal Behavior Monographs, 1[3], 161-311.

Walsh, S., Bramblett, C. A., & Alford, P. L. (1982). A vocabulary of abnormal behaviors in restrictively reared chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology, 3, 315-318.

Westergaard, G. C. & Fragaszy, D. M. (1985). Effects of manipulatable objects on the activity of captive capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Zoo Biology, 4, 317-327.

* * *

News Briefs

Killing of Monkeys Approved

Dilley, Texas, September 2 (AP) -- A decision by Texas wildlife officials to permit the killing of wild Japanese snow monkeys in South Texas is being condemned by many concerned people.

In a memorandum dated June 23, the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department said, "Free-roaming monkeys may be shot by anyone who either has a hunting license or feels the monkeys are causing property damage or threats to humans and livestock." State officials also said that the animals, which the federal Centers for Disease Control say can carry the herpes B and hepatitis B viruses, posed a small health risk to people.

The Japanese snow monkeys are descendants of a small troop brought here 23 years ago to save them from destruction in Kyoto, Japan, where they had become regarded as a nuisance. In 1980 the monkeys became the property of the South Texas Primate Observatory and were confined for behavioral research at a ranch here. But in the late 1980s, the Dallas Morning News reported today, the monkeys' enclosure fell into disrepair and several escaped. The monkeys have roamed the South Texas brush ever since, their population swelling to more than 600.

About 50,000 Japanese snow monkeys survive worldwide, many of them in captivity and in wild colonies. In 1976, the Federal Government listed the monkeys as "threatened," but the United States Fish and Wildlife Service office in San Antonio told state officials last spring that the research troop was not covered by the Endangered Species Act, the Morning News said. -- From the 3 September 1995 issue of the New York Times, p. 26.

Coulston Foundation Receives LEMSIP

10 August 1995: The New York University Medical Center yesterday transferred ownership of its highly regarded chimpanzee research laboratory to the Coulston Foundation, a New Mexico-based primate center that has been charged with violating federal animal-welfare rules. Dr. Frederick Coulston, the head of the Foundation, which is based in Alamogordo, N.M., already has control over about 500 chimpanzees at two centers in that state.

In a telephone interview yesterday, Dr. Coulston said that his New Mexico units would comply with Federal guidelines by September 15 and that he was looking forward to developing an East Coast operation.

The Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates (LEMSIP) has played an important role in the development of hepatitis vaccines, in tests of AIDS vaccines, and in other areas. However, Dr. David Scotch, associate dean of N.Y.U.'s School of Medicine, said it no longer meshed with the school's research priorities. Yesterday, Dr. Scotch personally delivered termination letters to Dr. Jan Moor-Jankowski, LEMSIP's founder and director, in his Manhattan office and Louis Dinetz, LEMSIP's assistant director in Sterling Forest.

In a telephone interview after he was dismissed, Dr. Moor-Jankowski said: "I built the lab. I obtained the money. A lot of my own research is going on there. Now I can't get in." -- From an article by Andrew C. Revkin in the New York Times.

NYU's Institute for Environmental Medicine, a separate facility, is the focus of multiple charges filed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture April 11, 1995 for violations of the federal Animal Welfare Act, based on APHIS inspections from November 1991 through February 1993. -- From APHIS News, June 9

OPRR Report on NYU Med Center Problems

The office for protection from Research Risks of NIH has determined that there were inadequacies in multiple aspects of the animal care and use program at New York University Medical Center (NYU-MC). The inadequacies, which are being addressed by NYU-MC, include: veterinary care, diagnostic pathology support, record keeping, procedures for reporting concerns to the Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC), procedures for determining the qualifications of persons involved in animal activities, and procedures to ensure adherence to IACUC-reviewed and -approved animal study protocols. Animals were transported without the approval of the IACUC, and surgery was in some cases not followed by requisite post-operative care. Certain IACUC procedures were not consistent with provisions of PHS policy.

OPRR noted that both NYU-MC and In Defense of Animals disagreed with various of the OPRR findings, but OPRR found no new evidence which would materially alter the outcome of their investigation. -- From an August 17, 1995 OPRR Report

Terance Dillon Morin

Terence Dillon Morin, Director of the Gibbon Rehabilitation Project in Phuket, Thailand, died suddenly August 29 at the age of 53. The project, located in the south of Thailand, currently cares for around 40 gibbons, releasing "graduates" onto jungle islands. -- posted to Primate-Talk

"Ace Monkeys" Sent to Sanctuary

Three capuchins, a cynomolgus, and a spider monkey, which had been kept in small single cages in five Ace Hardware stores in the Chicago area, were transfered to the Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Sanctuary outside San Antonio, TX on September 2. The animals had been the cause of a boycott of the stores, led by Illinois Animal Action, which finally negotiated the animals' release. Many other national and local organizations, primate experts, and concerned citizens were involved in the effort to release the monkeys to an accredited sanctuary.

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Meeting Announcements

SCAW and Lab Animal will sponsor a session on Animal Behavior and Laboratory Animal Welfare from 2-5 p.m. on 9 October in conjunction with the AALAS meeting in Baltimore, MD. Contact SCAW, 7833 Walker Dr., Suite 340, Greenbelt, MD 20770 [301-345-3500 FAX: 301-345-3500].

The Association for the Study of Behaviour will hold their Winter Meeting 30 November-1 December, 1995 at the Zoological Society of London Meeting Rooms, Regent's Park, London. The focus will be on spatial representation in animals. Contact Sue Healy, Dept of Psychology, Univ. of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK. [0191-222-5056; Fax: 1091-222-5622; e-mail: [email protected]].

The XIVth Annual Conference of the Australian Primate Society will be held 1-3 December, 1995 at the Western Plains Zoo, Dubbo, New South Wales. The focus will be on design of captive primate enclosures. Contact Graeme Crook, CSIRO Div. of Human Nutrition, Majors Rd, O'Halloran Hill, S.A. 5158 [08 2980336; FAX: +61 8 3770004; e-mail: [email protected]].

The Association for the Study of Behaviour will hold their General Spring Meeting 2-3 April, 1996 at the Bolton Institute, UK. Contact Marie Jacques, Primate Reseach Team, Div. of Psychology and Biology, Bolton Institute, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5AB, Lancashire, UK, [01204 528851, ext. 3145; Fax: 01204 399074; e-mail: [email protected]].

The Primate Society of Great Britain will hold its 1996 Easter Meeting 15 April 1996 at Roehampton Institute, London. Papers and posters are invited on any topic and should be sent to: Dr. Caroline Ross or Dr. Ann MacLarnon, Dept. Life Sciences, Roehampton Institute London, SW15 3SN, UK [0181-392-3529 or -3645 (AM); e-mail [email protected]].

IUCN World Conservation Congress will be held 14-23 October, 1996 in Montreal, Canada. Contact John Burke, Director of Communications, IUCN, rue Mauverney 28, 1196 Gland, Switzerland [41 22 999 0123].

The XIVth International Congress for Tropical Medicine and Malaria will be held from November 17-22, 1996 in Nagasaki, Japan. For information, contact the Secretariat: c/o Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University 1-12-4, Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852, Japan [81-958-43-9348; FAX: 81-958-43-2194; e-mail: [email protected]] or check the WWW URL:

New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology seminars will be held throughout the school year at the CUNY Graduate Center, 33 W. 42nd Street (between 5th and 6th Avenues). Parking is available on 42nd Street after 7 p.m. Join colleagues for dinner in the 18th floor cafeteria before each talk. Contact Prof. Eric Delson, Dept of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024.

Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center seminars will be held at the Wisconsin RPRC, Madison, at noon in the Conference Room weekly during the Spring and Fall terms. Contact Ted Golos [608-263-3567; Fax: 608-263-3524; e-mail: [email protected]].

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Positions Available or Wanted

Behavioral Research Assistant

This 1/2-time (may be increased, depending on funding) position involves major responsibility assisting in research on the social behavior and genetic relationships of a large group of stumptailed macaques (Macaca arctoides), which are housed at the Wisconsin Primate Center's facility at Vilas Zoo. Duties include: detailed observations of the behavior of the monkeys, data input, data summarization and statistical analysis, assistance with preparation of grant proposals and publications, occasional assistance with animal handling Helping maximize the health and environmental conditions of the animals.


Qualifications include an M.S. in Zoology, Anthropology, Psychology, or Biology and a strong background in research, data analysis, and computing. Candidates should have at least 2 years experience in research, preferably behavioral research, be knowledgeable in experimental design and statistics and fluent with Macintosh software (Excel, Word or Word Perfect, some graphics), as well as experienced with UNIX. Experience in computer programming (especially C or Perl) will be highly advantageous.

The principal investigator is away 3 to 5 months per year, so the individual who takes this position must be able to work reliably without frequent supervision. Because of the investment in training, this position is not suitable for applicants without long-term interest and commitment. Please send applications to Dr. K. Bauers, Wisconsin RPRC, 1220 Capitol Court, Madison, WI, 53715 [608-263-3500 (Edi Chan); e-mail: [email protected] (Lettie Smith); FAX may be sent to Dr. Bauers in Thailand: 011-66-32-472-287, Attention Dr. Kim. Bauers].

Veterinarian Position, Duke Primate Center

Pending the availability of funding, a Veterinarian position is available at the Duke University Primate Center. This position requires a DVM/VMD degree from an AVMA-accredited College of Veterinary Medicine and a license to practice veterinary medicine in at least one state plus at least one year's experience in exotic species conservation; demonstrated ability to independently perform routine diagnostic, medical, and surgical procedures on a variety of animals; plus knowledge of current federal and state regulations applicable to research animals. This person will be responsible to the Director for administration of clinical care, preventative health programs, and medical records for a diverse colony of 500 prosimians. Duties will also include activities relating to the Primate Center's compliance with animal welfare regulations, training, research, and some supervision. Independent and/or collaborative research will be encouraged. Minimum salary is $42,500 plus benefits. Salary is negotiable depending on qualifications. Applications received by September 30, 1995 will be guaranteed consideration. Duke University is an Affirmative Action, Equal Opportunity Employer.

Please send resume, the names of three references, and statement of qualifications to: Dr. Kenneth Glander, Director, Duke University Primate Center, 3705 Erwin Road, Durham, NC 27705-5000 [919 489-3364; FAX: 919 490-5394; e-mail: [email protected]].

E-Mail Listing of Anthropology Jobs

PAJOBS is a new information/discussion network devoted to career opportunities for individuals having undergraduate or graduate degrees in anthropology with a concentration in physical (biological) anthropology. Of particular interest are postings of specific job vacancies for which physical anthropologists of one or another specialization might be qualified. Non-academic as well as academic career opportunities and strategies for securing such positions are additional subjects of relevance.

The list is sponsored by the American Association of Physical Anthropologists' Career Development Committee and the list owner is the Committee's Chair, Curtis Wienker of the University of South Florida. To subscribe, send to [email protected] the message subscribe pajobs followed by your first and last name, e.g. subscribe pajobs Jane Doe. If you do not wish to subscribe, the Committee asks that you consider keeping this announcement in a handy place so that you can post any relevant job announcements to it, should you encounter them. They can be posted to [email protected] .edu

* * *

Grants Available

Adolescent Alcohol Abuse

The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) is seeking research grant proposals to conduct basic research, using animal models and state-of-the-art imaging techniques in humans, to identify the neurobiological, physiological, and genetic factors that lead to adolescent alcohol abuse and dependence.

Areas needing further research include, but are not limited to: Development of animal paradigms to study modes of initiation of alcohol-seeking behavior and alcohol's effects on reinforcement, drug discrimination, sensitization, tolerance, and dependence during the juvenile through adolescent period. Ontogenetic studies to compare patterns of alcohol-related behavior (e.g., alcohol reinforcement, sensitivity) as well as their neurochemical, neuropharmacological, neurophysiological, and neuroanatomical mechanisms during each stage of postnatal development through adulthood. Animal studies of the acute and chronic effects of alcohol on brain and behavioral functioning during adolescence, and the effects of early exposure on adult functioning. Studies of recovery of neural and behavioral function following alcohol consumption to determine if the adolescent brain is more or less vulnerable than the adult brain to alcohol's acute and chronic effects.

Direct inquires to Ellen Witt, Ph.D., Div. of Basic Research, NIAAA, Willco Bldg, 6000 Executive Blvd, Suite 402 - MSC 7003, Bethesda, MD 20892-7003 [301-443-6545; FAX: 301-594-0673; e-mail: [email protected]].

Aging, Vascular Stiffness, Cardiovascular Function

The National Institute on Aging (NIA) is fostering research to enhance understanding of vascular stiffness in aging and in cardiovascular disease. Ascertaining the importance of vascular stiffness, as a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, may suggest approaches to prevention and treatment including early modification of risk factors and/or adverse lifestyles to prevent, delay, and/or reverse vascular stiffening and its potential deleterious sequelae as well as novel treatment in persons with established stiffness or cardiac disease. The Geriatrics Program, NIA, invites grant applications on clinically-relevant research focusing on aging and vascular stiffness. For information, contact Andre J. Premen, Ph.D., Geriatrics Program, NIA, 7201 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 3E327, MSC 9205, Bethesda, MD 20892-9205 [301-496-6761; FAX: 301-402-1784; E-mail: [email protected]].

Marijuana/Cannabis Abuse Research

The National Institute on Drug Abuse offers grants for research across the broad area of marijuana/cannabis abuse. Investigators from many scientific disciplines are encouraged to apply either individually (e.g., as individual projects) or collectively (e.g., as a program project).

Opportunities exist to study the neurobiological effects of marijuana and its active component, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, on brain anatomy, physiology and chemistry.

There is a strong interest in assessing the association of marijuana use, particularly chronic use, with impaired immune function.

Animal studies of marijuana consequences should attempt to model human exposure and should include studies of marijuana smoke (containing many different constituent compounds including cannabinoids and tars) as well as drug interactions. Given that marijuana use is frequently accompanied by alcohol use, studies on this interaction are particularly encouraged. Studies in animals should evaluate potential adverse consequences of marijuana exposure such as effects on fetal development, pulmonary function, immune function, and carcinogenicity. Animal research should explore CNS effects of both acute and chronic exposure to marijuana and related compounds, including THC and anandamide. These studies should identify the neural pathways, receptor subtypes mediating cannabinomimetic effects, and mechanism of action. The biological and environmental factors contributing to vulnerability to marijuana abuse should also be explored in animal and human laboratory studies.

Studies of interest also include parallel animal and human behavioral and biological evaluations of the effects of marijuana exposure on learning, memory, and performance across the life span. This includes developmentally appropriate measures of cognitive and performance effects of acute and chronic marijuana use in human and animal studies on learning and memory, motor function, and perception. Additional behavioral developmental studies should address effects on motivational and emotional states as well as social interaction.

Direct inquiries to Lynda Erinoff, Ph.D., Div. of Basic Research, NIDA, Parklawn Bldg, Rm 10A20, 5600 Fishers Ln., Rockville, MD 20857 [301-443-1263; e-mail: [email protected]].

Anorexia in Disease and Aging

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), National Institute on Aging (NIA), National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), and National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) are interested in receiving research grant applications for support of research on a broad range of pathophysiologic mechanisms that mediate the loss of appetite seen in disease and in aging.

Appropriate research topics include, but are not limited to: Primary endocrine, metabolic, cellular and related pathophysiologic mechanisms that contribute to loss of appetite in disease or aging or are associated with use of certain medications. This includes determination of the potential role of peptides, neurotransmitters, hormones, and cytokines in the development or maintenance of loss of appetite Neural function and networks within the neural system related to the anorexia of disease and/or aging The role of alterations in olfaction and gustation in anorexia associated with disease and/or aging Molecular mechanisms in the infection process and host defense that lead to the initiation, maintenance, and/or exacerbation of the anorectic state observed in chronic infectious diseases such as AIDS and tuberculosis The role of factors such as vagal tone and gastric motility on early satiety in loss of appetite The role of micronutrient and/or macronutrient deficiencies or excesses in the development or maintenance of loss of appetite.

Direct inquiries to Susan Z. Yanovski, M.D., Div. of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, NIDDKD, 45 Center Drive, Rm 6AN-18 - MSC 6600, Bethesda, MD 20892-6600 [301-594-8882; FAX: 301-480-8300; e-mail: [email protected]]; Jack Pearl, Ph.D., Div. of Human Communication, NIDOCD, 6120 Executive Blvd, Rm 400-C - MSC 7180, Bethesda, MD 20892-7180 [301-402-3464; FAX: 301-402-6251; e-mail: [email protected] .gov]; Pamela E. Starke-Reed, Ph.D., Office of Nutrition, NIA, Gateway Bldg, Suite 2C231, Bethesda, MD 20892-9205 [301-496-4603; FAX: 301-402-0010; e-mail: [email protected]]; Gilman Grave, M.D., Center for Research for Mothers and Children, NICHHD, 6100 Executive Blvd, Rm 411B - MSC 7510, Bethesda, MD 20892-7510 [e-mail: [email protected]]; Eugene M. Zimmerman, Ph.D., Div. of Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation, NIAID, 6003 Executive Blvd, Rm 4A42, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-8973; FAX: 301-402-2571; e-mail: [email protected]]; Matthew V. Rudorfer, M.D., Clinical Treatment Research Br., NIMH, 5600 Fishers Ln., Rm 18-105, Rockville, MD 20857 [301-443-4527; FAX: 301-443-6000; e-mail: [email protected]].

Institutional Animal Resources

The National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) encourages the submission of animal resource improvement grant applications from individuals at biomedical research institutions. The major objective of this program is to upgrade animal facilities supporting PHS-supported biomedical and behavioral research. A related objective is to assist institutions in complying with the USDA Animal Welfare Act and DHHS policies related to the care and use of laboratory animals. Support is limited to alterations and renovations (A&R) to improve laboratory animal facilities, and the purchase of major equipment items for animal resources, diagnostic laboratories, transgenic animal resources, or similar associated activities. The mechanism available for the support of these improvement projects is the Grant for Repair, Renovation, and Modernization of Existing Research Facilities (G20). The total budget request for the improvement grant application and award is limited to $700,000 (direct costs), of which not more than $500,000 may be used for A&R and not more than $200,000 may be used for moveable equipment. Matching funds from non-Federal sources are required, equal to or exceeding one half of the total allowable costs (equipment and A&R) of the requested project ($1 Federal to $1 non-Federal). These matching funds must be applied to the specific project described in the application and cannot be met by citing other expenditures.

For information contact Charles L. Coulter, Ph.D., Research Facilities Improvement Program, NCRR, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Rm 6030 - MSC 7965 Bethesda, MD 20892-7965 [301-435-0766; FAX: 301-480-3770; e-mail: [email protected]]. Application receipt dates are June 1 and October 1.

Basic Behavioral Science Research

The National Institute on Drug Abuse is attempting to broaden basic behavioral science research in drug abuse. A key feature of basic behavioral research is the use of laboratory and other comparably controlled procedures to elucidate underlying behavioral mechanisms or processes. As a primary goal, basic behavioral research establishes a scientific foundation for later application in treatment and prevention research. Several important research areas in behavioral sciences such as cognitive, motivational, and social processes as well as health behavior research have the potential to address questions of underlying behavioral mechanisms, determinants and correlates of drug abuse, as well as to better characterize the harmful sequelae of drug use and abuse. These and other basic behavioral science areas currently are underrepresented at the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).

The primary objective is to stimulate innovative basic behavioral approaches and paradigms that may advance the understanding of drug abuse. To promote basic behavioral research relating to drug abuse that is conducted without necessarily including the use of abused drugs in the research protocols. To encourage the development of behavioral protocols and models that do not use drugs in the initial development of the protocol, but have clear potential for further study with drugs. To develop and improve basic research models of behavioral change in drug abuse, HIV/AIDS, and other high-risk behaviors.

Both laboratory studies and comparably controlled procedures that use behavioral measurements, that employ basic behavioral models, or that study basic behavioral processes will be considered. Both human and animal research are encouraged. Additionally, applicants are encouraged to employ study designs that would permit assessment of gender differences.

Targeted areas in the basic behavioral sciences include Cognitive processes (learning and memory, language and information processing, perception, problem solving, concept formation, spatial ability, and animal cognition). Developmental processes (cognitive, perceptual, motor and language development, psychosocial and personality development, lifespan studies). Biological bases of behavior (aggression, behavioral genetics, animal learning and behavior, physiology and behavior, stress, pain and analgesia, diurnal, circadian and ultradian rhythms).

Examples of research topics responsive to this RFA may include, but are not restricted to, the following: Human and animal models of impulsivity and risk taking. The role of temporal factors (e.g., diurnal or circadian rhythms) in controlling normal, risky, or abnormal behavior. Ecologically valid human and animal behavioral studies. Laboratory models of the development of and commonalities among excessive, persistent and highly motivated behaviors.

Applications must be received by November 14, 1995. Direct inquiries to: Dr. Jaylan S. Turkkan, Div. of Basic Research, NIDA, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rm 10A-20, Rockville, MD 20857 [301-443-1263; FAX: 301-594-6043; e-mail: [email protected]].

Evaluation of AIDS Therapies

The Targeted Interventions Branch, Basic Sciences Program, Division of AIDS, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), seeks approaches for evaluating therapeutic approaches and drug-based inhibitors of sexual transmission for HIV/AIDS in non-human primate models of lentivirus infection. Evaluation encompasses the determination of efficacy, toxicity, and when needed, limited pharmacokinetics in models of (1) acute and chronic infection and (2) sexual transmission. Therapies to be tested alone and in combination include antiviral agents (drugs and biologics), immune-based strategies, and gene-based therapies. Examples of lentivirus models appropriate for this RFP include HIV-1, HIV-2, pathogenic SHIV, or any other relevant lentivirus that induces disease in a non-human primate animal model. Excluded from this competition are small animal models of lentivirus infection. These capabilities will be used by the Division of AIDS, NIAID, in its efforts to develop intervention and prevention strategies for HIV/AIDS.

Responses to this Request are due on October 12, 1995. Inquiries may be directed to: Joyce U. Sagami, Contracts Management Branch, NIAID, 6003 Executive Blvd, Rm 3C07, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-7118; FAX: 301-402-0972; e-mail: [email protected]].

Research in Reproduction

The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) provides funding for a limited number of research centers in the reproductive sciences. These centers are broadly based investigative endeavors encompassing research of a biomedical nature. These centers form a national network that fosters communication, innovation, and high quality reproductive research. Reproductive Sciences Research Centers provide a stimulating, multidisciplinary environment that attracts and nurtures both established and promising investigators. Letter of intent receipt date is January 10, 1996 and application receipt date is May 15, 1996.

For information, contact Louis V. DePaolo, Ph.D., Center for Population Research, NICHHD, Bldg 6100, Rm 8B01, Bethesda, MD 20892-7510 [301-496-6515; FAX: 301-496-0962; e-mail: [email protected] .gov].

* * *

Information Requested or Available


ASKPRIMATE is a free e-mail-based international reference service for basic questions dealing with primates, primate organizations, or individuals in primatology.

Sample questions: What is the average weight of an adult male chimpanzee? What is the phone number for the Jane Goodall Institute? What is the e-mail address for Dr. Duane Rumbaugh? Are there any videotapes that show sexual behavior in orangutans? Can you recommend any children's books on mountain gorillas?

Questions should be as specific as possible. It is recommended that users of this service explore local resources, such as local public, school, or university libraries, before consulting ASKPRIMATE.

Primate-related questions which are deemed to be outside the scope of ASKPRIMATE may be forwarded to Primate-Talk, an electronic forum for the exchange of information related to primate research, conservation and education. Requests for extensive bibliographic information will be forwarded to the Primate Information Center, (PIC) Washington Regional Primate Research Center, which provides fee-based service.

ASKPRIMATE is a cooperative service managed by the Library of the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. Queries are relayed to a coalition of libraries including those at the Oregon and New England Regional Primate Research Centers, and the PIC. Other primate information agencies are encouraged to participate. This Newsletter is a cooperating resource.

Send your questions via e-mail to: [email protected] or contact ASKPRIMATE, Primate Center Library, 1220 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715-1299 [608-263-3512, FAX: 608-263-4031]. Other services of the Library include the International Directory of Primatology and the Primate Info Net (PIN), available at

Conservation Ecology

Conservation Ecology is a new electronic peer-reviewed scientific journal which is still in the development stage. It is anticipated that the initial call for papers will be in late summer/early fall 1995 and that publication will commence in early 1996.

Papers on original research findings in the following areas will be considered for publication: the ecological bases for (1) the conservation of ecosystems, landscapes, species, populations and genetic diversity; (2) the restoration of ecosystems and habitats; and (3) the management of resources; and especially papers on the above topics that also integrate the biological and physical sciences, the natural and social sciences, science and policy, and across space and time scales. Content of the journal will range from the applied to the theoretical. On-line access and subscriptions are offered without charge. Article preparation, submission, review, and publication will be entirely electronic. Conservation Ecology is the newest journal of the Ecological Society of America.

To subscribe to Conservation Ecology, send an e-mail message to:

[email protected]

that contains the following line in the body of the text:

subscribe conservation-ecology

STR or VNTR Primers

Prof. Dr. H. Rothe, of the University of Göttingen, Germany, is studying the social organization of callitrichids. He and his co-workers have moved their animals to a 20-are semi-free enclosure. Since extra-pair copulations and/or cooperative polyandry may occur, tools for fatherhood analysis are necessary. He will be much obliged to any ENA-specialist/geneticist for information about pairs of STR or VNTR Primers for Callithrix jacchus or other New World primates. Please contact him at the Institut für Anthropologie, Ethologische Station, Sennickerode 11, D-37130 Gleichen, Germany [0048-5592-413; FAX: 0048-5592-1524].

Animal Welfare Enforcement Report

The U.S. Dept of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's FY94 Animal Welfare Enforcement Report is now available; to receive a copy, contact USDA/APHIS/REAC, Unit 84, 4700 River Rd, Riverdale, MD 20737-1234 [301-734-7586 or 7833; Fax: 301-734-4978; e-mail: [email protected]].

The NABR Update (XVI[17], 1995) includes a summary, which shows that the number of nonhuman primates used by reporting facilities increased from 49,561 in FY93 to 55,113. However, this number represents a 32% increase in number of facilities reporting.

Duke Center Anniversary

The Duke University Primate Center will celebrate its 30th anniversary in 1996. If you have done any research at the Center during the past 30 years, please contact Ken Glander at the Center, 3705 Erwin Rd, Durham, NC 27705 [[email protected]]. He is looking for the title of research, year, species used, publications and other information you think is important. Also, if anyone has old photos or documents about the Primate Center, he would appreciate the loan or donation of those items.

Hominid Character Database

Harry Erwin has posted an updated (but still very preliminary) hominid (now primate) character database (NEXIS/MacClade format) to his homepage. Also posted are three JPGs. The first is a phylogenetic chart of the primates; the second is a chart of the hominids from the primate chart; the third is a revised hominid chart that shows what you can do with parsimony when you unroot the group. Access at: -- Posted to the newsgroup

Cynomolgus Subspecies?

An investigator who has been using cynomolgus monkeys that originated primarily from the Phillipines and Indonesia is now dealing with a primate vendor that sells cynos that are captive-bred in China. The investigator assumes that they originated from Southeast Asia or Burma. He asks if anyone has noticed any differences, especially in cardiovascular physiology, between cynos originating from different geographic regions. If you have any information, please contact Mike Parker, Animal Care Unit, 400 ML, Iowa City, IA 52242 [319-335-7985; FAX: 319-335-7993; e-mail: [email protected] .edu].

Primate Cytogenetics Network

Tim Knight, of the Image Analysis Lab, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, is currently developing a WWW site called the Primate Cytogenetics Network ( This web site will serve as a central resource for the collection and distribution of karyotypes, diploid numbers, and ideograms of all primate species. The Network is rapidly evolving and currently includes over 600 references on primate cytogenetics, several lab techniques, and a few karyotypes of primates including man. This site is optimized for use with Netscape 1.1.

He has also started the Primate Gallery, a second web site to provide a central resource for collecting, archiving and distributing images of all living primate species. This archive includes tables and in-line images ( A simple text-based version for use with Mosaic is also in development. The Primate Gallery is in the early stages of development so there are only a few images currently available. Tim is seeking high quality color slides, negatives, and photographic prints of nonhuman primates that will be shared world wide through the Internet. Every contribution will be acknowledged along with the digital image.

For more information, or to contribute material, contact Tim Knight, Image Analysis Lab, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1124 Columbia Street, Seattle, Washington 98104 [206-667-4030; FAX: 206-667-4029; e-mail: [email protected]].

* * *

Address Changes

Marilyn J. Chimes, 126 Brookhill Rd, Libertyville, IL 60048.

Dr. Cheryl DiCarlo, LAM Div., USUHS, 4301 Jones Bridge Rd, Bethesda, MD 20814-4799.

Richard Huneke, Washington University, Div. of Comparative Med., Box 8061, 660 S. Euclid Ave, St Louis, MO 63110.

George W. Irving, III, 29623 Double Eagle Circle, Fair Oaks Ranch, TX 78015.

Dennis A. Meritt, Quercus Ecological Surveys, 2710 Ewing Ave, Evanston, IL 60201.

Sarah Furbush Rogers, 1004 Beaglin Park Dr. #304, Salisbury, MD 21801.

Prof. Dr. Hartmut Rothe, Univ. of Göttingen, Inst. of Anthropology, Ethological Station Sennickerode, 37130 Gleichen-Sennickerode, Germany.

* * *

Resources Wanted and Available

Consultant for Environmental Enhancement

The Animal Welfare Institute (AWI) has long been interested in improvements in the housing and handling of nonhuman primates used in laboratories. Refinement techniques have been tested and implemented at the macaque colony of the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center (WRPRC). The plan provides inexpensive but safe stimulation for expression of social behavior and a variety of other species-typical activities and includes training techniques to ensure the animals' cooperation during routine handling procedures, thus minimizing distress reactions.

Developed and implemented by ethologist and former WRPRC veterinarian Viktor Reinhardt, the innovations reflect the spirit of the Animal Welfare Act. AWI encourages other institutions to make use of Dr. Reinhardt's expertise and incorporate some of his ideas into their own plans. A 60-slide series entitled "Environmental Enhancement for Caged Rhesus Macaques" and a written summary are available on loan from AWI [and on loan or for purchase (at $95 set) from the WRPRC Audiovisual Archive; contact Ray Hamel, WRPRC Library, 1223 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715 ([email protected] .edu)].

Dr. Reinhardt will visit interested institutions to offer advice on improving primate housing and handling. AWI will cover consultant fees and lodging expenses. Travel expenses must be covered by the institution. If you are interested in having Dr. Reinhardt visit your institution as a consultant, please contact him at: AWI, 4605 Crescent Road, Madison, WI 53711 [608-274-9056].

Request for Reprints and Publications

Larry Jacobsen at the Wisconsin RPRC Library received a request from Professor Boris Lapin of the Institute of Medical Primatology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, indicating that they would benefit greatly by receiving reprints of articles from the USA and other countries. Their former library was largely destroyed and they are handicapped by lack of access to current literature. Their principal research programs are in the areas of infectious pathology, bacteriology, oncogenic viruses, immunology, molecular biology, parasitology, comparative pathology and conservation. While these are focus areas, they should not limit what you send. They need access to the current literature.

Please individually make a conscious effort to add the institute to your regular mailings of new publications. You can send reprints to the following address: Prof. B. A. Lapin, Inst. of Med. Primatology, Russian Acad. of Med. Sciences, 354597 Sochi-Adler, Veseloye 1, Russia. -- posted on Primate-talk

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Planned 1994 Revision of Directory of Graduate Programs in Primatology and Primate Research

An updated Directory will be published in the January, 1996, issue of the Laboratory Primate Newsletter. If you wish your program to be represented in this Directory or to revise your present entry, please send us the necessary information, following the format shown here as closely as possible. Return the information as soon as possible, but not later than December 1, 1995, to the Laboratory Primate Newsletter, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 [[email protected]; or [email protected] .edu]. Please note that the Directory is not intended for post-doctoral programs, though any such sent to us will be listed separately.

For examples, see the 1994 Directory in the LPN, 1992, 33 [1], 23-32. Recommended format:

1. State:

2. Institution:

3. Division, Section, or Department:

4. Program Name and/or Description:

5. Faculty and Their Specialties:

6. Address for Further Information:

* * *

Travelers' Health Notes

Dengue Fever

In 1993-1994, serum samples from 148 U.S. residents who had suspected dengue were submitted to CDC for diagnostic testing. Of these, 46 cases were diagnosed as dengue. Travel histories were available for 43 of these persons; infections probably were acquired in the Caribbean islands (21 cases), Mexico and Central America (10), and Asia (10).

Because the incubation period of dengue is 3-14 days, persons who become infected during travel to tropical areas may have onset of illness after returning home. Although most dengue infections are associated with mild illness, the risk for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is greater in some persons -- particularly those with repeat infection. DHF is characterized by fever, low platelet count, hemorrhagic manifestations, and leaky capillary syndrome.

In the Americas, dengue is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, present in the southernmost Gulf of Mexico coast states from Texas to Florida, and on the Hawaiian island of Molokai. Introduction of dengue virus by persons who have acquired infections in other countries could result in local transmission.

Prevention of dengue infection requires avoiding exposure to mosquitoes, and includes the continuous use of mosquito repellent and protective clothing. Health-care providers should consider dengue in the differential diagnosis for all patients who have compatible manifestations and a recent history of travel to tropical areas. Because of the anticoagulant properties of acetylsalicylic acid, only acetaminophen products are recommended for management of fever.

Parasitology Guide

Many parasitic diseases can be diagnosed from bodily fluids, but some parasites migrate to various parts of the body and become embedded in tissue. Current parasitology literature offers scant information on the microscopic morphology of parasites found in human tissues, making specific identification of these organisms difficult. A new guide, "Parasites in Human Tissues," by Thomas Orihel and Lawrence Ash, is available. The guide provides information on how various types of parasitic infections might be acquired, including the history and biology of the parasites, clinical presentations, and pathology. The price is $165. For more information, call 800-621-4142 (In Illinois, 312-738-4890).

Elimination of Leprosy on Schedule

July, 1995 -- Just one year after the Declaration of Hanoi, when the international community pledged to eliminate leprosy as a public health problem by the year 2000, the world is still on track to achieve this goal. The WHO Leprosy Elimination Advisory Group (LEAG), which met at WHO's Geneva headquarters on 12-13 July 1995, did not underestimate the problems that still remain to be solved but expressed confidence that -- given the political will and financial resources -- mankind can win this battle. The latest figures released by WHO show that the registered prevalence of leprosy worldwide has been reduced by a further 23% over the past year, thanks to steadily advancing coverage with multidrug therapy. The African continent in particular has made significant pro- gress and is well on the way to achieving, on schedule, the elimination of leprosy as a public health problem. -- WHO Press Release

Ebola Fever Epidemic Officially Over

4 July 1995 -- Dr Hiroshi Nakajima, Director-General of the World Health Organization, said that although the Ebola virus was the same as that which caused an outbreak in Zaire in 1976, the pattern of the latest epidemic was markedly different, in that it consisted of a series of waves of cases, whereas there was only one major wave of cases in 1976. This was due to differences in transmission of the virus, which in 1976 was largely through contaminated needles and syringes, while in the latest situation, transmission was thought to have occurred in the majority of cases directly from person to person through contact with blood or other body fluids.

The Director-General also confirmed today that WHO will organize an international medical conference to assess the latest epidemic and the national and international response to it. The conference will be held early next year in Kinshasa, Zaire.

Dr Nakajima observed a general deterioration in Zaire's health infrastructure due to the country's economic difficulties. There was a shortage of medical supplies, health workers were paid little and their pay was delayed, and there was a lack of public confidence in the health system.

The President of Zaire, His Excellency Marshall Mobutu Sese Seko, and the Prime Minister, His Excellen- cy Mr. Kengo Wa Dondo, expressed during meetings with Dr. Nakajima their personal commitments to improving Zaire's health infrastructure. -- WHO Press Release

24 August 1995 -- The International Scientific and Technical Committee, established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in Zaire, officially announced today the end of the recent outbreak of Ebola haemorrhagic fever in this country.

The last identified case was admitted to hospital in Kikwit on 24 June 1995 and was discharged on 14 July 1995. Since two maximum incubation periods, that is 42 days, have elapsed without any new reported cases, the conditions allowing the outbreak to be officially declared over are now met.

Active surveillance and tracing of cases and deaths retrospectively have shown that the first identified case related to the outbreak had onset of illness on 6 January 1995.

The final total of confirmed cases is 315, including 244 deaths, which represents a mortality rate of 77%. One hundred sixty-six of the 315 cases were females and 149 males. Mortality is slightly higher among males (81%) than among females (74%). Of the 286 cases with known professional occupation, 75 (26%) were nurses or students, 61 (21%) housewives. Retrospective case-finding is going on to assess the full magnitude of this outbreak.

Since the reservoir of the virus is not known, during the outbreak and subsequent studies, field teams captured more than 3000 birds and mammals, including small rodents, and several thousand possible insect vectors. Samples from these animals are now being processed for virus isolation.

Blood samples from patients, patient contacts and health care workers potentially exposed are being investigated in the WHO collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Special Pathogens at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and in the WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Haemorrhagic Fevers and Arboviruses at the National Institute of Virology, Johannesburg, South Africa. -- WHO Press Release

* * *

Workshop Announcements

Histopathology Seminar

The International Life Sciences Institute continues its second seminar series. On November 11-13, 1995, a program on the Respiratory System of Laboratory Animals will be held in Atlanta, GA. For further information, contact Sherri Lopez, ILSI Histopathology Seminar, 1126 Sixteenth St, NW, Washington, DC 20036-4804 [202-659-0789; FAX: 202-659-8654; e-mail: [email protected] .org]. The annual meeting of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists, which follows the seminar immediately, is open to participants of the seminar, including those who are not ACVP members.


A workshop sponsored jointly by the European Primate Research Network (EUPREN) and the European Marmoset Research Group (EMRG) on the topic of "The implications of noninvasive and remote monitoring techniques for nonhuman primate research and husbandry" will be held on 6-8 December 1995 at the Deutsches Primatenzentrum (DPZ) in Göttingen. There will be a registration fee of 100 DM (undergraduates) and 200 DM (others). For information and registration forms, contact Leah Scott, CBDE, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, SP4 0JQ, England [44-1980-613216; FAX: 44-1980-613741].

Symposium on Biosafety

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), NIH Office for Protection from Research Risks, American Biological Safety Association, Emory Univ. School of Medicine, IRAC, and ILAR will co-sponsor the 4th National Symposium on Biosafety: Working Safely with Research Animals, January 27-31, 1996, in Atlanta, GA. Session topics will include "Biohazard control in animal research", "Rudiments of biosafety practice in animal care", and "Effective management in animal research". For more information, please contact Darlene Ross, Educational Coordinator, OPRR, Office of Extramural Research, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Suite 3B01, Rockville, MD 20892-7507 [301-496-8101; FAX: 301-402-0527]. For a copy of the brochure outlining the symposium, please call 404-355-4884.

* * *

Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors)


* Chimpanzee Cultures. R. W. Wrangham, W. C. McGrew, F. B. M. de Waal, & P. G. Heltne, with assistance from L. A. Marquardt (Eds.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994. xxiii + 424 pp. [Price: $39.95]
. . Contents: Preface, by P. G. Heltne. Forward, by J. Goodall. The challenge of behavioral Diversity, by R. W. Wrangham, F. B. M. de Waal, & W. C. McGrew. Study Sites in Africa.
. . Section 1. Ecology. Overview -- Ecology, diversity, and culture, by R. W. Wrangham; Tools compared: The material of culture; by W. C. McGrew; Party size in chimpanzees and bonobos: A reevaluation of theory based on two similarly forested sites, by C. A. Chapman, F. J. White, & R. W. Wrangham; The significance of terrestrial herbaceous foods for bonobos, chimpanzees, and Gorillas, by R. K. Malenky, S. Kuroda, E. O. Vineberg, & R. W. Wrangham; Hunting strategies of Gombe and Täi chimpanzees, by C. Boesch; Comparative locomotor behavior of chimpanzees and bonobos: Species and habitat differences, by D. M. Doran & K. D. Hunt; Comparative analyses of nest-building behavior in bonobos and chimpanzees, by B. Fruth & G. Hohman; Diversity of medicinal plant use by chimpanzees in the wild, by M. A. Huffman & R. W. Wrangham.
. . Section 2: Social Relations. Overview -- Diversity in social relations, by W. C. McGrew; Social role and development of noncopulatory sexual behavior of wild bonobos, by C. Hashimoto & T. Furuichi; Grooming relationships in two species of chimpanzees, by Y. Muroyama & Y. Sugiyama; Reproductive success story: Variability among chimpanzees and comparisons with gorillas, by C. E. G. Tutin; Ethological studies of chimpanzee vocal behavior, by J. C. Mitani; Pacifying interventions at Arnhem Zoo and Gom- be, by C. Boehm; Social relationships of female chimpanzees: Diversity between captive social groups, by K. C. Baker & B. B. Smuts; Chimpanzee's adaptive potential: A comparison of social life under captive and wild conditions, by F. B. M. de Waal.
. . Section 3: Cognition. Overview -- Culture and cognition, by F. B. M. de Waal; Understanding chimpanzee understanding, by J. A. R. A. M. van Hooff; What chimpanzees (might) know about the mind, by D. J. Povinelli; The question of chimpanzee cul- ture, by M. Tomasello; Biobehavioral roots of language: A comparative perspective of chimpanzee, child, and cul- ture, by D. M. Rumbaugh, E. S. Savage-Rumbaugh, & R. A. Sevcik; Individual differences in the cognitive abilities of chimpanzees, by S. T. Boysen; Field experiments on use of stone tools in the wild, by T. Matsuzawa.
. . Section 4: Afterword and Postscript. Afterword -- Review of recent findings on Mahale chimpanzees: Implications and future research directions, by T. Nishida. Postscript -- Conservation and the future of chimpanzee and bonobo research in Africa, by J. Goodall.

* Great EscApe: Discovery Book. J. Donham. Cincinnati, OH: The Creative Company, 1994. 32 pp. [Price: $5, from The Creative Co., 3623 Hanley Rd, Cincinnati, OH 45247]
. . A workbook for primary grades, prepared by the staff of the Oklahoma City Zoo.

* Saving the World's Wildlife: A Children's Discovery Book About Conservation. F. Vashon, D. Ruehrwein, & E. Routman. Cincinnati, OH: The Creative Company, 1993. 32 pp. [Price: $5, ordering information same as above]
. . A workbook for primary grades, prepared by the staff of the Saint Louis Zoo.

* Lemurs of Madagascar. Conservation International Tropical Field Guide Series. R. A. Mittermeier, I. Tattersall, W. R. Konstant, D. M. Meyers, & R. B. Mast. Washington, DC: Conservation International, 1995. 360 pp. [Price: $37, including postage & handling, from Conservation International, 1015 18th St, NW, Washington, DC 20036]

* Motherhood in Human and Nonhuman Primates: Biosocial Determinants. R. Pryce, R. D. Martin, & D. Skuse, Eds. Basel: Karger, 1995. [Price: $130.50]
. . Proceedings of the 3rd Schultz-Biegert Symposium, Kartause Ittingen, Switzerland, September 26-30, 1994.

* Current Topics in Primate Vocal Communication. E. Zimmerman, J. D. Newman, & U. Jurgens (Eds.). New York: Plenum, 1995. [Price: $89.50]

* Research Animal Anesthesia, Analgesia, and Surgery. A. C. Smith & M. M. Swindle (Eds.). Greenbelt, MD: SCAW, 1995. [Price: $55, from SCAW, Golden Triangle Bldg One, 7833 Walker Dr., Suite 340, Greenbelt, MD 20770]
. . Proceedings of a conference held on May 12-13, 1994, in Atlanta, GA.

* Veterinary Management and Research Techniques for Reproductive Studies in the Baboon: A Practical Approach. C. Bambra (Ed.). Nairobi, Kenya: Institute of Primate Research, 1993. [Price: $10, Payable to IPR]
. . Proceedings of a Workshop on Primate Models for Research in Reproduction, 3-4 May 1992.

* Proceedings of the Second International NCRR (National Centre for Research in Reproduction) Conference on "Advances in Reproductive Research in Man and Animals" held in Nairobi 3-9 May 1992. C. S. Bambra (Ed.). Nairobi, Kenya: Institute of Primate Research, 1994. [Price: $15, Payable to IPR]


* Mycobacterium in Nonhuman Primates, a Selective Bibliography, 1940-1994. M. McLean. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1994, 56 pp. (601 citations, primate & subject indexes, & a list of books and monographs) [Price: $10.00. Stock #94-002. Order from PIC, RPRC, Univ. of Washington, SJ-50, Seattle, WA 98195]


* Directory of Resources on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences. J. A. Larson, K. Ungar, D. C. Anderson, & P. S. Stark. Beltsville, MD: National Agricultural Library, 1995. vvi + 65 pp. [Send a self-addressed mailing label to AWIC, NAL, 5th Floor, 10301 Baltimore Blvd, Beltsville, MD 20705]

* Recommended List of Books and Other Information Resources for Zoo and Aquarium Libraries (3rd ed.). K. A. Kenyon. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Libraries, 1995. 72 pp. [Free from the Smithsonian Inst. Libraries, Nat. Zool. Park Branch, Washington, DC 20008]
. . Includes sections on horticulture, conservation, behavior, nutrition, veterinary medicine, and references to both paper and electronic resources.

Magazines and Newsletters

* aaalac Communiqué, Winter 1995. [Amer. Assn for Accreditation of Lab. Animal Care, 11300 Rockville Pike, Suite 1211, Rockville, MD 20852-3035]
. . Thirtieth anniversary issue.

* African Primates: The Newsletter of the Africa Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group. 1995, 1[1]. [T. M. Butynski, Zoo Atlanta, Africa Biodiversity Conservation Prog., P.O. Box 24434, Nairobi, Kenya]
. . Articles and announcements in English and French.

* Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter. Spring 1995, 6[1]. [NAL, AWIC, Beltsville, MD 20705]
. . Contains "Arguments for single-caging of rhesus macaques: Are they justified?" by V. Reinhardt; and "Defining an acceptable endpoint in invasive experiments," by E. D. Olfert.

* ASP Bulletin. June, 1995, 19[2]. [M. R. Clarke, ASP, Tulane RPRC, 18703 Three Rivers Rd, Covington, LA 70433]

* IPPL News. August, 1995, 22[2]. [International Primate Protection League, P.O. Box 766, Summerville, SC 29484]

* Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, Summer 1995, 12[3]. [111 Market Pl., Suite 840, Baltimore, MD 21202-6709]

* Neotropical Primates, June, 1995, 3[2]. [Conservation International, Ave. Antônio Abrahão Caram 820/302, 31275-000, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil]
. . News and articles in English, Spanish, and Portuguese.

* The Newsletter. 1994, 6[2]. [Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027]
. . Includes "Training captive chimpanzees for movement in a transfer box," by A. Kessell-Davenport & T. Gutierrez, and "The prevention of environmentally caused injury in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at the Primate Foundation of Arizona (PFA)", by J. Murphy.
* The Newsletter. 1995, 6[4].
. . Includes reports of chimpanzee diets from the Little Rock Zoo and the Coulston Foundation.
* The Newsletter. 1995, 7[1].
. . Includes reports of chimpanzee diets from the Detroit Zoo and the Welsh Mountain Zoo.


* How Were These Critical Discoveries Possible? Enabling Discovery. Washington, DC: AAMC, 1995. [Free from the Association of American Medical Colleges, 2450 N St, NW, Washington, DC 20037]
. . Description of the wide array of research needs filled by the National Center for Research Resources.


* Action Plan for Pan paniscus: Report on Free Ranging Populations and Proposals for their Preservation. N. Thompson-Handler, R. Malenky & G. Reinartz. Milwaukee, WI: Zool Soc. of Milwaukee County, 1995. [Available at cost from G. Reinartz, Bonobo SSP Coordinator, Zool Soc. of Milwaukee County, 10005 West Bluemound Rd, Milwaukee, WI 53226]

* Assessing the Public Health Threat Associated with Waterborne Cryptosporidiosis: Report of a Workshop. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: Recommendations and Reports, 1995, 44, No. RR-6.

* Chimpanzee breeding & research program. National Center for Research Resources Progress Report, July 1994.

* Primate Report, April 1995, Number 42. [German Primate Center (DPZ), Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany]
. . Contents: Abstracts of the 10th Congress of the Assoc. Primatol. Italiana. Captive management and conservation of gibbons in China and Vietnam, with special reference to crested gibbons (Hylobates concolor group), by T. Geissmann; Nestbuilding behavior in captive bonobos (Pan paniscus), by A. Berle, B. Fruth, & E. van Elsacker; Population viability assessment of the banded leaf monkey in Singapore, by C. Pitra, C. Hüttche, & C. Niemitz; A study of "health foods" of monkeys in the wild, by I. Malik; Dominance status and behaviour of captive-housed female cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) in motherless families, by M. Heistermann; and A breeding colony of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) for experiments with viral hepatitis, by V. F. Poleschuk, M. S. Balayan, A. V. Sobol, T. V. Gulyaeva, I. A. Titova, & V. P. Dokin.

Special Journal Issues

* Strategic collection planning: Theory and practice, M. Hutchins, K. Willis, & R. J. Wiese. Zoo Biology, 1995, 14[1].
. . This issue includes an editorial by D. G. Lindburg, critical comments by 18 other experts, and a response by the authors.

* Traveler's diarrhea. Chemotherapy: International Journal of Experimental and Clinical Chemotherapy. 1995, 41[S1].
. . Contents: Foreword, by S. L. Gorbach. Preface, by C. Scarpignato & P. Rampal (Guest Editors). Gut flora in normal and disordered states, by S. Salminen, E. Isolauri, & T. Onnela. Enteric infections in the traveler: A socioeconomic perspective, by A. Thorén. Epidemiology of travaeler's diarrhea, by F. Castelli & G. Carosi. Pathogenesis of traveler's diarrhea, by H. L. DuPont. Traveler's diarrhea: Clinical presentation and prognosis, by P. H. Katelaris & M. J. G. Farthing. Prevention and treatment of traveler's diarrhea: A clinical pharmacological approach, by C. Scarpignato & P. Rampal.

* Perspectives on xenotransplantation. ILAR Journal, 1995, 37[1].
. . Contents: Introduction, by R. B. Dell. Ethical aspects of animal to human xenografts, by C. R. McCarthy. Xenotransplantation: A historical perspective, by K. Reemtsma. The application of xenotransplantation in humans -- reasons for delay, by D. J. R. Steele & H. Auchincloss, Jr. The immunologic response to xeno- grafts, by D. H. Sachs. Xenotransplantation: The need, the immunologic hurdles, and the prospects for success, by J. L. Platt. Xenotransplantation and infectious diseases, by S. S. Kalter & R. L. Heberling. Xenograft transplantation and the infectious disease conundrum, by J. S. Allan.

Animal Models

* Immune complexes and nephropathies associated with Plasmodium inui infection in the rhesus monkey. Nimri, L. F. & Lanners, N. H. (Dept of Biological Sciences, Jordan Univ. of Science and Technology, PO Box 3030, Irbid, Jordan). American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, 1994, 51, 183-189.
. . Changes in serum complement components, antibody titers, albumin, and fibrinogen in P. inui-infected rhesus monkeys were consistent with those seen in humans with P. malariae infection, indicating that the P. inui/rhesus model is likely to be appropriate for the study of aspects of quartan malaria.

* Selection of different strains of Plasmodium falciparum for testing blood-stage vaccines in Aotus nancymai monkeys. Collins, W. E., Galland, G. G., Sullivan, J. S., & Morris, C. L. (Div. of Parasitic Diseases, CDC, Mailstop F-12, 4770 Buford Hwy, Chamblee, GA 30341). American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 1994, 51, 224-232.
. . For testing vaccines against primary parasitemia in the A. nancymai model, Vietnam Oak Knoll strain at passage 4 level would appear preferable to passage 6 parasites following challenge with 105 parasites. A similar pattern could be obtained using Uganda Palo Alto (Hawaii) strain if the challenge were 106 parasites.

* Karyotype analysis of virulent Plasmodium falciparum strains propagated in Saimiri sciureus: Strain adaptation leads to deletion of the RESA gene. Hinterberg, K., Muanza, K., Hernandez-Rivas, R., Gay, F., Gysin, J., Mattei, D., & Scherf, A. (A. S., Unité de Parasitologie Exp., Inst Pasteur, 25, rue du Dr. Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France). Infection and Immunity, 1995, 63, 693-695.
. . A loss of the RESA gene was observed immediately upon adaptation to the squirrel monkey, but the gene is maintained during infection of humans.

* Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis deoxyribonucleic acid in monkey models (Macaca nemestrina) of salpingitis by in situ hybridization: Implications for pathogenesis. Cappuccio, A. L., Patton, D. L., Kuo, C.-c., & Campbell, L. A. (L. A. C., Dept of Pathobiology, SC-38, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195). American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 1994, 171, 102-110.
. . The presence of C. trachomatis DNA at sites of inflammation and tissue damage in monkey models of chlamydial salpingitis and tubal infertility suggests that Chlamydia persists and may be directly involved in the stimulation of the immune-mediated tissue destruction associated with C. trachomatis infections.

* Study of treatment of congenital Toxoplasma gondii infection in rhesus monkeys with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine. Schoondermark-van de Ven, E., Galama, J., Vree, T., Camps, W., Baars, I., Eskes, T., Meuwissen, J., & Melchers, W. (Univ. Hospital "Sint Radboud" Nij- megen, Dept of Med. Microbiology, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands). Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 1995, 39, 137-144.
. . When administered early after the onset of fetal infection, the combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine is an effective drug regimen for this condition.

* Characterization and presumptive identification of Helicobacter pylori isolates from rhesus monkeys. Drazek, E. S., DuBois, A., & Holmes, R. K. (R. K. H., Dept of Microbiology & Immunology, Uniformed Services Univ., 4301 Jones Bridge Rd, Bethesda, MD 20814-4799). Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1994, 32, 1799-1804.
. . Study of 38 Heliobacter isolates from 30 rhesus monkeys lead the authors to believe rhesus would be good models for the pathophysiology of H. pylori infection.

* Viral replication and development of specific immunity in macaques after infection with different measles virus strains. van Binnendijk, R. S., van der Heijden, R. W. J., van Amerongen, G., UytdeHaag, F. G. C. M., & Osterhaus, A. D. M. E. (A. D. M. E. O., Dept of Virology, Erasmus Univ., P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands). Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1994, 170, 443-448.
. . Nine months after infection with three types of measles virus, cynomolgus monkeys were protected from intratracheal reinfection with one of the types.

* A further attenuated derivative of a cold-passaged temperature-sensitive mutant of human respiratory syncytial virus retains immunogenicity and protective efficacy against wild-type challenge in seronegative chimpanzees. Crowe, J. E., Jr., Bui, P. T., Davis, A. R., Chanock, R. M., & Murphy, B. R. (Respiratory Viruses Sect., Lab. of Infectious Diseases, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892). Vaccine, 1994, 12, 783-790.
. . The cpts-248/404 virus and related mutants exhibit many desirable characteristics which make them promising vaccine candidates.

* Successful passive and active immunization of cynomolgus monkeys against hepatitis E. Tsarev, S. A., Tsareva, T. S., Emerson, S. U., Govindarajan, S., Shapiro, M., Gerin, J. L., & Purcell, R. H. (LID/ NIAID/ NIH, Bldg 7, Rm 200, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A., 1994, 91, 10198-10202.
. . Virtually full protection against hepatitis E and partial or complete protection against infection with HEV were achieved in passively or actively immunized cynomolgus monkeys. Severity of infection was inversely related to the anti-HEV antibody titer at the time of challenge.

* Persistent and transient antibody responses to hepatitis E virus detected by Western immunoblot using open reading frame 2 and 3 and glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins. Li, F., Zhuang, H., Kolivas, S., Locarnini, S. A., & Anderson, D. A. (D. A. A., Hepatitis Research Unit, Macfarlane Burnet Centre for Med. Research, P.O. Box 254, Fairfield 3078, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia). Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1994, 32, 2060-2066.
. . A Western blot assay was developed for the detection of anti-HEV; it proved to be sensitive and specific for HEV in tests with sera from patients with different types of acute hepatitis.

* The biology of hepatitis C virus infection: Lessons learned from chimpanzees. Prince, A. M. & Brotman, B. (Dept of Virology & Parasitology, NY Blood Ctr, 310 E. 67th St, New York, NY 10021). Current Studies in Hematology and Blood Transfusion, 1994, No. 61, 195-207.
. . Review of the development of our knowledge of HCV.

* High viral load in lymph nodes and latent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in peripheral blood cells of HIV-1-infected chimpanzees. Saksela, K., Muchmore, E., Girard, M., Fultz, P., & Baltimore, D. (D. B., Rockefeller Univ., 1230 York Ave, New York, NY 10021-6399). Journal of Virology, 1993, 67, 7423-7427.
. . Direct evidence of cellular latency of HIV in vivo.

* Direct injection of recombinant retroviral vector induces human immunodeficiency virus-specific immune responses in mice and nonhuman primates. Irwin, M. J., Laube, L. S., Lee, V., Austin, M., Chada, S., Anderson, C.-G., Townsend, K., Jolly, D. J., & Warner, J. F. (Viagene, Inc., San Diego, CA 92121). Journal of Virology, 1994, 68, 5036-5044.
. . Studies demonstrate the ability of a retroviral vector encoding HIV-1 proteins to stimulate cellular and humoral immune responses in mice, rhesus monkeys, and baboons, and suggest that retrovector immunization may provide an effective means of inducing or augmenting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in HIV-1-infected individuals.

* Xenotransplantation of hematopoietic cells resistant to HIV as a potential treatment for patients with AIDS. Ricordi, C., Tzakis, A. G., Rybka, W. B., Fontes, P., Ball, E. D., Trucco, M., Kocova, M., Triulzi, D., McMichael, J., Doyle, H., Gupta, P., Fung, J. J., & Starzl, T. E. (Univ. of Miami School of Med., P.O. Box 016960 (R-134), Miami, FL 33101). Transplantation Proceedings, 1994, 26, 1302-1303.
. . Infusion of bone marrow cells from a baboon did not produce early complications, but the cells did not engraft.

* Antithrombotic strategies to minimize surgical bleeding. Allan, R. C., Lumsden, A. B., Kelly, A. B., & Harker, L. A. (Emory Univ. School of Med., Atlanta, GA 30322). American College of Surgeons 1993 Surgical Forum, 44, 356-359.
. . An exteriorized dacron femoral arteriovenous shunt serves as a model to evaluate new therapeutic agents in baboons.

* Cerebral blood flow during low-flow hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in baboons. Schwartz, A. E., Kaplon, R. J., Young, W. L., Sistino, J. J., Kwiatkowski, P., & Michler, R. E. (Dept of Anesthesiology, Columbia-Presbyterian Med. Ctr, 161 Fort Washington Ave, Rm 901, New York, NY 10032). Anesthesiology, 1994, 81, 959-964.
. . Although systemic flow is reduced to 20% of full-flow during low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass, cerebral blood flow (CBF) reduced by half is disproportionately preserved relative to systemic flow. There is also no time-dependent change in CBF under these low-flow conditions.

* Fibrin contributes to microvascular obstructions and parenchymal changes during early focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Okada, Y., Copeland, B. R., Fitridge, R., Koziol, J. A., & del Zoppo, G. J. (G. J. d. Z., Dept of Molecular & Exp. Med., Scripps Res. Inst., 10666 N. Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037). Stroke, 1994, 25, 1847-1854.
. . Results suggest that microvascular fibrin deposition accumulates in a time-dependent manner during focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and that exposure of plasma to perivascular tissue factor is partially responsible for occlusion formation.

* Basic research in orbital and oculoplastic surgery. Perry, A. F. & Nelson, C. C. (Univ. of Maryland, 22 S. Greene St, Baltimore, MD 21201-1590). Current Opinion in Ophthalmology, 1994, 5, 53-60.
. . Review of 1993, including the use of bone graft to reconstruct the monkey orbital floor.

* Biology of acute and chronic graft-versus-host reactions: predictive value of studies in experimental animals. Van Bekkum, D. W. (IntroGene BV, P.O. Box 3271, 2280 GG Rijswijk, Netherlands). Bone Marrow Transplantation, 1994, 14 (Suppl. 4), S51-S55.
. . The predictive value for clinical graft-versus-host disease, obtained in rodents, rhesus monkeys, and dogs, is analyzed for histocompatibility, T cell numbers in the graft, and intestinal microflora. Rhesus monkeys score highest in clinical relevance for the first two variables.

* Graft atherosclerosis in concordant cardiac transplantation. Fukushima, N., Kawauchi, M., Bouchart, F., Gundry, S. R., Zuppan, C. W., Ruiz, C. E., & Bailey, L. L. (S. R. G., Div. of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Loma Linda Univ. Med. Ctr, 11234 Anderson St, Loma Linda, CA 92354). Transplantation Proceedings, 1994, 26, 1059-1060.
. . Two of 12 baboons receiving rhesus monkey hearts developed graft atherosclerosis, similar to allograft transplantation results.

* Prevention of induced antibody response in discordant cardiac xenotransplantation: Role of the graft in total lymphoid irradiation treated recipients. Brewer, R. J., Roslin, M. S., Del Rio, M. J., Alexandropoulos, I., Sadeghian, M., Zisbrod, Z., Burack, J. H., Cunningham, J. N., & Norin, A. J. (A. J. N., SUNY Health Sci. Center, Box 1197, 450 Clarkson Ave, Brooklyn, NY 11203). Transplantation Proceedings, 1994, 26, 1351-1352.
. . Serial analyses of the level of serum anti-donor antibody (Xab) before transplantation, after adsorption by organ perfusion, and posttransplantation. Results suggest that appropriately timed total lymphoid irradiation therapy prevents the induced Xab response in a porcine-to-baboon model.

* Contribution of T cells in concordant xenoheart rejection. Kawauchi, M., Takeda, M., Nakajima, J., Matsumoto, J., & Furuse, A. (Dept of Thoracic Surgery, Univ. of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan). Transplantation Proceedings, 1994, 26, 1193-1194.
. . Data from 6 baboon-to-Japanese monkey heart transplants indicate that T cells play an important role in the acute, not hyperacute, rejection of concordant cardiac xenograft between primate species.

* Normalization of diabetes in cynomolgus monkeys by xenotransplantation of microencapsulated porcine islets. Zhou, D., Sun, Y. L., Vacek, I., Ma, P., & Sun, A. M. (A. M. S., Dept of Physiology, Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5S 1A8). Transplantation Proceedings, 1994, 26, 1091.
. . Transplants into four spontaneously diabetic animals resulted in complete restoration of normoglycemia, without any need for exogenous insulin or immunosuppression, for periods ranging from 106 to 390 days.

* Immunologic responses of two monkeys tolerating baboon renal xenografts after total lymphoid irradiation. Smit, J. A., Stark, J. H., & Myburgh, J. A. (Transplan- tation Research Unit, Dept of Surgery, Univ. of the Witwatersrand Med. School, Johannesburg 2193, South Africa). Transplantation Proceedings, 1994, 26, 1063.
. . Fractionated low-dose total lymphoid irradiation applied to 6 vervet monkey recipients of baboon renal xenografts produced 2 survivors with normal renal function 10 months posttransplant.

* Clinical potential of xenotransplantation. Cooper, D. K. C., Koren, E., & Oriol, R. (Oklahoma Transplantation Inst., Baptist Med. Ctr of OK, 3300 Northwest Expy, Oklahoma City, OK 73112-4481). Transplantation Proceedings, 1994, 26, 1331-1332.
. . Experiments on baboons suggest that development of a genetically engineered pig that does not express alpha-galactosyl on its vascular endothelium would eliminate a target for human antibodies.

* Intravenous administration of alpha-galactosyl carbohydrates reduces in vivo baboon serum cytotoxicity to pig kidney cells and transplanted pig hearts. Ye, Y., Neethling, F. A., Niekrasz, M., Richards, S. V., Koren, G., Merhav, H., Kosanke, S., Oriol, R., & Cooper, D. K. C. (D. K. C. C., Address same as above). Transplantation Proceedings, 1994, 26, 1399.
. . Observations support the role that anti-alphaGal antibodies play in the hyperacute rejection of pig tissues transplanted into primates.

* Animal models for osteoarthritis: Processes, problems and prospects. Pritzker, K. P. H. (Dept of Pathology, Mt Sinai Hospital, 600 University Ave, Toronto Ont., Canada M5G 1X5). Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 1994, 53, 406-420.
. . A review.

* Effect of recombinant human interleukin-6 (rhIL-6) and rhIL-3 on hematopoietic regeneration as demonstrated in a nonhuman primate chemotherapy model. Winton, E. F., Srinivasiah, J., Kim, B. K., Hillyer, C. D., Strobert, E. A., Orkin, J. L., Swenson, R. B., McClure, H. M., Myers, L. A., & Saral, R. (4000 Winship Cancer Ctr, 1327 Clifton Rd, NE, Atlanta, GA 30322). Blood, 1994, 84, 65-73.
. . rhIL-6 eliminated clinically important thrombocyto- penia and significantly lessened the period of neutropenia in rhesus monkeys which had been treated with hepsulfam. The potential role of rhIL-3 in augmenting the thrombopoietic effect of rhIL-6 is less clear, but is worthy of further study.

* Ultrastructure of eosinophilic inclusion bodies in the amygdala-parahippocampal region of aged squirrel monkeys treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro- pyridine, a dopaminergic neurotoxin. Forno, L. S., DeLanney, L. E., Irwin, I., & Langston, J. W. (V.A. Med. Ctr (127), 3801 Miranda Ave, Palo Alto, CA 94304). Neuroscience Letters, 1995, 184, 44-47.
. . The main difference between the monkey inclusions and human cortical Lewy bodies was the random orientation of the filaments in the human inclusion bodies.

* Oestrogen action in the endometrium and oviduct of rhesus monkeys during RU486 treatment. Brenner, R. M. & Slayden, O. D. (Div. of Reproductive Sci., Oregon RPRC, Beaverton, OR 97006). Human Reproduction, 1994, 9 (Suppl. 1), 82-97.
. . RU486 was found to block the ability of estradiol to increase endometrial growth but did not prevent estradiol-dependent oviductal differentiation. It also suppressed the ability of estradiol to maintain the endometrium in a hypertrophied state, but not its ability to maintain the oviduct in a fully ciliated-secretory state. The endometrium appears more sensitive to the anti-proliferative effects of RU486 than the oviducts.

* Primate models of cognitive dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders. DeSalvia, M. A., Roberts, A. C., Robbins, T. W., Everitt, B. J., & Cuomo, V. (Inst. of Pharmacology, Med. School, Univ. of Bari, Piazza G. Cesare, I-70124 Bari, Italy). Recent Advances in the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders and Cognitive Dysfunction, 1994, 7, 174-179.
. . A review of deficits produced in monkey models.

* Effect of protein diets on the renal function of baboons (Papio hamadryas) with remnant kidneys: A 5-year follow-up. Bourgoignie, J. J., Gavellas, G., Sabnis, S. G., & Antonovych, T. T. (Div. of Nephrology (R-126), Univ. of Miami School of Med., P.O. Box 016960, Miami, FL 33101). American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 1994, 23, 199-204.
. . This study shows the feasibility of investigating baboons at regular intervals prospectively over a prolonged period of time.

* Pathogenesis of spontaneous idiopathic colitis in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Clapp, N., Adams, L., & Fuhr, J. (UT/MARCOR, 110 Badger Ave, Oak Ridge, TN 37830). Agents Actions, Special Conference Issue, 1994, 41, C238-C240.
. . A 6-year examination (endoscopy and mucosal biopsy) of 40 4-7-year-old cotton-tops (CTT) showed that CTT spontaneous colitis resembles the human disease in its time course, age dependence, varying periods of exacerbation and remission, individual variation, and eventual susceptibility of the animal to colon cancer.

* Cotton-top tamarins with spontaneous colitis contain circulating antibodies reactive to human colonic Mr 40k protein, an autoantigen associated with human ulcerative colitis (UC). Dasgupta, A., Mandal, A., Henke, M., Clapp, N., & Das, K. M. (K. M. D., Div. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Dept of Med., UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Med. School, New Brunswick, NJ 08903). Agents Actions, Special Conference Issue, 1994, 41, C250-C251.
. . CTT-IgG significantly cross-react with human IgG. CTTs with acute and chronic colitis have circulating antibodies against the human P40 colonic antigen.

* Therapeutic efficacy of recombinant human leukemia inhibitory factor in a primate model of radiation-induced marrow aplasia. Farese, A. M., Myers, L. A., & MacVittie, T. J. (Exp. Hematology, AFRRI, 8901 Wisconsin Ave, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603). Blood, 1994, 84, 3675-3678.
. . Irradiated rhesus monkeys received human leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) or human serum albumin (HSA). LIF significantly decreased the duration of thrombocytopenia, but not of neutropenia, compared with the HSA.

* Failure of acute perinatal asphyxia or meconium aspiration to produce persistent pulmonary hypertension in a neonatal baboon model. Cornish, J. D., Dreyer, G. L., Snyder, G. E., Kuehl, T. J., Gerstmann, D. R., Null, D. M., Jr., Coalson, J. J., & deLemos, R. A. (Emory Univ. Dept of Pediatrics, 2040 Ridgewood Rd, Suite 100, Atlanta, GA 30322). American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 1994, 171, 43-49.
. . Sublethal perinatal asphyxia or meconium aspiration were insufficient to produce either the physiologic or histologic changes of severe meconium aspiration syndrome.

* Aberrant reinnervation of facial musculature in a subhuman primate: A correlative analysis of eyelid kinematics, muscle synkinesis, and motoneuron localization. Baker, R. S., Stava, M. W., Nelson, K. R., May, P. J., Huffman, M. D., & Porter, J. D. (Dept of Ophthalmology, E304 Kentucky Clinic, Univ. of Kentucky Med. Ctr, Lexington, KY 40536-0284). Neurology, 1994, 44, 2165-2173.
. . A cynomolgus monkey with a preexisting facial nerve injury provided a serendipitous model for multiphasic analysis of this common neurologic syndrome.

* Role of liver in the synthesis of cholesterol and the clearance of low density lipoproteins in the cynomolgus monkey. Turley, S. D., Spady, D. K., & Dietschy, J. M. (Dept of Internal Med., Univ. of Texas Southwestern Med. Ctr, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75235-8887). Journal of Lipid Research, 1995, 36, 67-79.
. . The male cynomolgus monkey respresents an attractive model for delineating the genetic mechanisms that dictate variable responsiveness to dietary cholesterol and triacylglycerol.

* Effects of opioid receptor blockade on the social behavior of rhesus monkeys living in large family groups. Martel, F. L., Nevison, C. M., Simpson, M. J. A., & Keverne, E. B. (Sub-Dept of Animal Behaviour, High St, Madingley, Cambridge CB3 8AA, England). Developmental Psychobiology, 1995, 28, 71-84.
. . Naloxone increased the occurrence of affiliative behaviors. Results are interpreted in terms of naloxone blocking the positive affect arising from social contact and thus causing subjects to seek more affiliative comfort.

Animal Welfare

* Suggestions from a study group on teaching the ethics of animal experimentation. Gluck, J. P. & Orlans, F. B. (Univ. of New Mexico, Logan Hall, Albuquerque, NM 87131). Lab Animal, 1995, 24[5], 37-38.


* Dyadic and triadic aggression and assertiveness in adult female rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta, and hamadryas baboons, Papio hamadryas. Gore, M. A. (Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Kellnerweg 4, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany). Animal Behaviour, 1994, 48, 385-392.
. . Aggressive interactions were observed in rhesus monkeys, which have a female-bonded social system, and hamadryas baboons, which have a non-female-bonded social system. Aggression was directed within more than between groups in both species, but hamadryas females sometimes targeted females in other groups. Interactions initiated by hamadryas females may be overlooked, as they use more subtle and complex behavior than do rhesus females.

* Male aggression: A cost of female mate choice in Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques. Manson, J. H. (Dept of Anthropology, 1054 LSA Bldg, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1382). Animal Behaviour, 1994, 48, 473-475.
. . Females choose mates independently of male dominance rank, even though they could minimize costs by consistently choosing high-ranking males. Hypotheses yet to be tested include: 1) females choose mates on the basis of genetic quality, which is independent of dominance rank; and 2) females benefit (e.g., by increasing the genetic variability among offspring) by choosing sexually novel males, that are likely to be of low rank because dominance rank is positively correlated with group tenure.

* Infanticide by adult and subadult males in free-ranging red howler monkeys, Alouatta seniculus, in Venezuela. Agoramoorthy, G. & Rudran, R. (Dept of Biology, National Sun Yat-sen Univ, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, ROC). Ethology, 1995, 99, 75-88.
. . In 5 of 15 male invasions, infants were not killed by the invaders, while they were in the other 8 where infants were present. "The data here are inconsistent with the reproductive sexual-advantage hypothesis, but consistent with the hypothesis concerning food competition."

* Biobehavioral comparisons between adopted and nonadopted rhesus monkey infants. Champoux, M., Boyce, W. T., & Suomi, S. J. (Lab. of Comp. Ethology, NIH Animal Ctr, P.O. Box 529, Poolesville, MD 20837). Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 1995, 16, 6-13.
. . Negligible differences in behavioral and neuroendocrine endpoints were found between adopted and nonadopted mother-infant pairs in 84 measures.

* Behavioral and adrenocortical responses of male cynomolgus and lion-tailed macaques to social stimulation and group formation. Clarke, A. S., Czekala, N. M., & Lindburg, D. G. (Harlow Primate Lab., Univ. of Wisconsin, 22 N. Charter St, Madison, WI 53715). Primates, 1995, 36, 41-56.
. . Males of the two species were exposed to a mirror, visually exposed to conspecific neighbors, and then formed into conspecific social groups. The cynomolgus demonstrated more affiliative behavior than the lion-tails in all conditions, while the lion-tails tended to exhibit more aggressive behavior. The cynomolgus rapidly adapted to group living, while no affiliative behavior was ever observed in the lion-tail group, which appeared to be highly stressed by group living and was eventually disbanded.

* Mother-infant relationships in three species of macaques (Macaca mulatta, M. nemestrina, M. arctoides). I. Development of the mother-infant relationship in the first three months. Maestripieri, D. (Yerkes RPRC, Emory Univ., 2409 Taylor Lane, Lawrenceville, GA 30243). Behaviour, 1994, 131, 75-95.
. . Rhesus and stumptail infants were active earlier than pigtail infants, and rhesus mothers encouraged infant independence by frequently breaking contact and rejecting them. Pigtail mothers were more protective than rhesus mothers, while stumptail mothers scored low on both protectiveness and rejection measures.

* Mother-infant relationships in three species of macaques (Macaca mulatta, M. nemestrina, M. arctoides). II. The social environment. Maestripieri, D. (Address same as above). Behaviour, 1994, 131, 97-113.
. . Stumptail infants were carefully avoided by other group members when off their mothers, while harassment and kidnapping occurred among rhesus and pigtail macaques.


* Using a standard to evaluate the effects of environmental enrichment. Novak, M. A., Rulf, A., Munroe, H., Parks, K., Price, C., O'Neill, P., & Suomi, S. J. (UMASS, Tobin Hall, Amherst, MA 01003). Lab Animal, 1995, 24[6], 37-42.
. . The behavior of free-ranging rhesus monkeys is used as a standard to evaluate the effectiveness of a wood-shavings substrate as environmental enrichment.

* Can monkeys answer the question "Does home care beat day care?" Protocol Review by M. A. Bloomsmith, L. Coghlan, & R. B. Swenson. J. Silverman, Ed. Lab Animal, 1995, 24[7], 20-21.

* Innovatative enclosures for laboratory primates: Evaluation of a "breeding condominium". Weed, J. L., Baker, S. C., Harbaugh, S. W., & Erwin, J. (Dept of Primate Ecology, Bioqual, Inc., 2501 Research Blvd, Rockville, MD 20850-3228). Lab Animal, 1995, 24[7], 28-32.
. . Evidence indicates that quantity of available space is less important to the well-being of primates than is appropriate configuration of that space.

* Pulmonary hair embolism in monkeys. Kast, A. (Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH, D-55216 Ingelheim, Germany). Experimental Toxic Pathology, 1994, 46, 183-188.
. . Among 184 rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys treated daily for 28 consecutive days by injection into cephalic or saphenous veins, 14 (7.6%) had pulmonary emboli with fragments of skin or hair in arterial thrombi or in giant cell granulomas. 167 (91%) showed lesions at the site of injection. Two or 8 weeks after cessation of treatment no pulmonary lesions were observed and healing at the sites of injection was nearly completed.


* Herbivore intake/habitat productivity correlations can help ascertain re-introduction potential for the Barbary macaque. Fa, J. E. (Jersey Wildlife Pres. Trust, Les Augrés Manor, Trinity, Jersey JE3 5BF, Channel Islands, UK). Biodiversity and Conservation, 1994, 3, 309-317.
. . The case is made that Macaca sylvanus, a vulnerable North African primate with a large surplus captive stock, can be viewed as a grazer, for which assessment of the carrying capacity of potential habitats is complex, but possible.

* Liver transplantation. Zetterman, R. K. (Univ. of Nebraska Med. Center, 600 S. 42nd St, Omaha, NE 68198-2000). Current Opinion in Gastroenterology, 1994, 10, 344-348.
. . A compilation of 1993 journal articles on selected areas of research. Among "donor issues" are not only the ethical, medical, and animal rights questions about the use of baboon-to-human xenotransplantation, but also a question of whether sufficient baboon donors could be available to make it an effective technique.


* Callitrichid IgM-nephropathy -- an old age-related disease? Brack, M. (DPZ, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany). Laboratory Animals, 1995, 29, 54-58.
. . Results of a study of 185 animals of known age contradict the theory that callitrichid-IgM nephropathy is a disease of old age.

* What's your diagnosis? Esophageal parasite in a cynomolgus monkey. O'Farrell, L. & Griffith, J. W. (Dept of Comp. Med., Rm CG 721, Hershey Med. Ctr, Hershey, PA 17033). Lab Animal, 1995, 24[7], 17-19.

* Polymerase chain reaction for detection of herpesvirus simiae (B virus) in clinical specimens. Slomka, M. J., Brown, D. W. G., Clewley, J. P., Bennett, A. M., Harrington, L., & Kelly, D. C. (D. W. G. B., Virus Ref. Div., Central Pub. Health Lab., 61 Colindale Ave, London NW9 4HT, England). Archives of Virology, 1993, 131, 89-99.
. . A PCR was designed which is specific to Macaca fascicularis isolates of B virus. The PCR failed to amplify DNA of Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, varicella-zoster virus, and other alphaherpesviruses. PCR testing of swabs from 4 orally-infected cynomolgus monkeys confirmed the presence of B virus DNA in samples previously shown to be positive by culture. PCR also detected B virus in several swabs from infected monkeys that were culture negative.

* Fatal infections with Balamuthia mandrillaris amoebae in gorillas and other old world primates. Rideout, B. A., Gardiner, C. H., Zuba, J. R., Stalis, I. H., Hadfield, T., & Visvesvara, G. S. (Zool. Soc. of San Diego, San Diego, CA 92112-0551). Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, 1994, 267-269.
. . All (5) known cases of amoebic encephalitis at the San Diego Zoo facilities have been infections with B. mandrillaris free-living amoebae, apparently contracted from soil and standing water. Infection may result in a protracted disease course, but CNS involvement eventually results in rapid decline and death. Extraneural disease can only be diagnosed by histologic examination. There is no effective treatment in humans or animals, but Pentamidine is recommended in the highest tolerated dose.

* Update on diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to airsacculitis in orangutans. McManamon, R., Swenson, R. B., Orkin, J. L., & Lowenstine, L. J. (Zoo Atlanta, 800 Cherokee Ave, SE, Atlanta, GA 30315-1440). Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, 1994, 219.
. . Infection of the laryngeal air sac has been reported in several nonhuman primates, in zoo, research center, and free-ranging settings. This paper summarizes and updates relevant observations and diagnostic and therapeutic options available to the clinician.

* Periarticular hyperostosis and renal disease in six black lemurs of two family groups. Junge, R. E., Mehren, K. G., Meehan, T. P., Crawshaw, G. J., Duncan, M. C., Gilula, L., Gannon, F., Finkel, G., & Whyte, M. P. (St Louis Zool Park, Forest Park, St Louis, MO 63110). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 1994, 205, 1024-1029.
. . Progressive, proliferative periosteal disease associated with renal disease can develop in black lemurs, perhaps as a result of a heritable condition. Clinical signs in lemurs differ from those described for osteoarthropathy in the distribution of lesions and the organ systems involved.

* Immunopathogenesis of SIVmac. Simon, M. A., Brodie, S. J., Sasseville, V. G., Chalifoux, L. V., Desrosiers, R. C., & Ringler, D. J. (D. J. R., LeukoSite, Inc., 800 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02114). Virus Research, 1994, 32, 227-251.
. . Review article. Section headings are 1. Historical overview. 2. Clinical features. 3. Pathologic features. 4. Host:virus interactions. 5. Comparison with other lentiviral infections.

* Infection of a yellow baboon with simian immunodeficiency virus from African green monkeys: Evidence for cross-species transmission in the wild. Jin, M. J., Rogers, J., Phillips-Conroy, J. E., Allan, J. S., Desrosiers, R. C., Shaw, G. M., Sharp, P. M., & Hahn, B. H. (B. H. H., Dept of Med. & Microbiology, Univ. of Alabama, 701 S. 19th St, LHRB 613, Birmingham, AL 35294). Journal of Virology, 1994, 68, 8454-8460.
. . Phylogenetic analyses revealed that a baboon was in-fected with a SIVAGM strain of the vervet subtype.

Evolution and Genetics

* The Seven Macaques of Sulawesi: Radiation on an Intermittent Archipelago. Small, M. Pacific Discovery, Summer, 1995, 24-27. [Price: $3.50, from the California Academy of Sciences, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, CA 94118].

* Mitochondrial DNA of the Mauritian macaques (Macaca fascicularis): An example of the founder effect. Lawler, S. H., Sussman, R. W., & Taylor, L. L. (Dept of Environmental Management & Ecology, La Trobe Univ., P.O. Box 963 Wodonga, 3689 Victoria, Australia). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 1995, 96, 133-141.
. . Comparison of the mitochondrial DNA of macaques on Mauritius with those from Indonesia and the Philippines, supporting the hypothesis that the original founders came from Indonesia.

Instruments & Techniques

* An adaptable head retention and alignment device for computed tomography scanning of Macaca mulatta. Bidez, M. W., McLoughlin, S. W., Chen, Y., Lakshminarayanan, A. V., & Jeffcoat, M. K. (Dept of Mech. Engr., School of Engr., Univ. of Alabama, UAB Station, Birmingham, AL 35294). Journal of Biomechanics, 1994, 27, 1271-1275.
. . A device, constructed of low-density acrylic, consisting of a horizontal base to which lateral supports are affixed, permits repeatable, calibrated CT studies of primate implant subjects.


* Amino acid composition of the milk of some mammalian species changes with stage of lactation. Davis, T. A., Nguyen, H. V., Garcia-Bravo, R., Fiorotto, M. L., Jackson, E. M., & Reeds, P. J. (USDA/ARS, Children's Nutrition Research Ctr, Dept of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Med., Houston, TX 77030). British Journal of Nutrition, 1994, 72, 845-853.
. . In baboons and rhesus monkeys, unlike other species, including humans, tested, there was little change in the pattern of amino acids between colostrum and mature milk, and total amino acid concentration decreased only about 25% between colostrum and mature milk.


* Neonatal treatment with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogs alters peripheral lymphocyte subsets and cellular and humorally mediated immune responses in juvenile and adult male monkeys. Mann, D. R., Ansari, A. A., Akinbami, M. A., Wallen, K., Gould, K. G., & McClure, H. M. (Dept of Physiology, Morehouse School of Med., 720 Westview Dr., SW, Atlanta, GA 30310-0495). Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1994, 78, 292-298.
. . Male rhesus monkeys treated neonatally with either LH-releasing agonist or antagonist appear to be more susceptible to infectious microbial organisms. In surviving animals, the pattern of peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets is abnormal, and in vitro blastogenic response of lymphocytes to mitogens is increased above that in control cells.

* Endocrine sensitivity to novelty in squirrel monkeys and titi monkeys: Species differences in characteristic modes of responding to the environment. Hennessy, M. B., Mendoza, S. P., Mason, W. A., & Moberg, G. P. (Dept of Psychology, Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH 45435). Physiology & Behavior, 1995, 57, 331-338.
. . Seemingly trivial increments in novelty evoked sustained plasma cortisol elevations. When tested with a cage mate, sensitivity of the response was reduced in titis but not in squirrel monkeys. Behavioral measures were not as sensitive to novelty as was the cortisol response.


* Asian Prosimian: North American Regional Studbook, 4th Ed.. Helena Fitch-Snyder (Studbook Keeper). San Diego: Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species, 1994. [Price: $15.00 from Helena Fitch-Snyder, Zoological Society of San Diego P.O. Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112-0551]
. . Includes slow loris (N. coucang), pygmy loris (N. pygmaeus), slender loris (L. tardigradus), Philippine tarsier (T. syrichta), and western tarsier (T. bancanus).

* Sexual selection, sperm competition and the evolution of sperm length. Dixson, A. F. [MRC Research Group, Sub-Dept of Animal Behaviour, Univ. of Cambridge, Madingley, CB3 8AA England]. Folia Primatologica, 1993, 61, 221-227.
. . Data from 15 species lend support to the hypothesis that primates with larger testes in relation to their body weights also have, on average, longer spermatozoa. Data on more species is still required.

* Control of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge by gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists: Prospects for clinical application. Fraser, H. M. & Bouchard, P. (MRC Reproductive Biology Unit, Edinburgh EH9 3EW, Scotland). Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1994, 5, 87-93.
. . A review of the evidence, from studies of human and nonhuman primates, that a midcycle GnRH surge from the hypothalamus does occur. The ability to prevent the positive feedback effects of estradiol by GnRH antagonists is being employed for the controlled induction of follicular development and ovulation in the treatment of infertility and in in vitro fertilization programs.

* The secretion of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone by peri-implantation embryos of the rhesus monkey: Comparison with the secretion of chorionic gonadotrophin. Seshagiri, P. B., Terasawa, E., & Hearn, J. P. (J. P. H., Wisconsin RPRC, 1223 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715]. Human Reproduction, 1994, 9, 1300-1307.
. . It is shown that an immunoreactive GnRH is produced in vitro by cultured rhesus monkey embryos during the entire peri-attachment period (from morula to attached blastocyst stages), the amount depending on the developmental stage.

* Initiation of periovulatory events in primate follicles using recombinant and native human luteinizing hormone to mimic the midcycle gonadotropin surge. Chandrasekher, Y. A., Hutchinson, J. S., Zelinski-Wooten, M. B., Hess, D. L., Wolf, D. P., & Stouffer, R. L. (R. L. S., Oregon RPRC, 505 NW 185th Ave, Beaverton, OR 97006). Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1994, 79, 298-306.
. . The periovulatory changes following 48-hour LH surges elicited using pituitary or recombinant human LH were compared to those after 24-h LH surge duration or after urinary hCG treatment.

* Secretory proteins and growth factors of the baboon (Papio anubis) uterus: Potential roles in pregnancy. Fazleabas, A. T., Hild-Petito, S., & Verhage, H. G. (Dept of OB/GYN, Univ. of Illinois College of Med., 820 S. Wood St, Chicago, IL 60612-7313). Cell Biology International, 1994, 18, 1145-1153.
. . Evidence that growth factor receptors for insulin-like growth factor-I and epidermal growth factor, and secretory proteins (insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 and retinol binding protein), which are present in the glandular epithelium during the menstrual cycle, undergo cell-specific changes in gene expression at the implantation site during pregnancy. These alterations may be conceptus-modulated and play important regulatory roles during trophoblast invasion and decidualization.

* * *

Browse for Nonhuman Primates in Captivity

National Zoo

The National Zoo has had a strong commitment and interest in providing edible browse material for our primates (and other species) for a number of years. The initial interest rose from an investigation of ways to curb regurgitation and reingestion in gorillas (Gould & Bres, Zoo Biology). Currently, we cut from a large selection of species in and around the Park, and we also have several vegetable gardens on exhibit for the public that we harvest from. We don't rely on the animals to determine what is toxic or not since they will gleefully ingest anything they can get their hands or feet on. Our human standards for flavor simply don't apply. Here is a list of approved species we feed. * Alder * Amaranths * Arborvitae * Aspen * Bamboo * Beech * Birch * Bush Honeysuckle * Butterfly Bush * Cattails * Chicory * Clover * Comfrey * Cotoneaster * Cottonwood * Daylily * Dogwood * Elaeagnus * Elm * Fig * Forsythia * Grasses * Greenbriers * Hackberry * Hawthorn * Hazelnut * Hibiscus * Japanese Silver Grass * Kerria * Kudzu * Linden * Maple (except red maple) * Mock Orange * Mulberry * Nasturtium * Oregon Grape Holly * Pear * Pickerelweed * Poplar (except tulip poplar) * Purslane * Raspberry & Blackberry * Redbud * Rose * Snowberry * Violets * Water hyacinth * Willow

This list is fairly East Coast specific, my apologies to those who are on the West Coast or in other countries. We avoid feeding oak, by the way. -- Posted by Robert Shumaker, on Primate-Talk.

Denver Zoo

Following is a list of the browse plants I used with the gorillas and other primates at the Denver Zoo: * Ash * Bamboo * Banana * Corn stalks * Cottonwood * Crab- apple * Elm * Ficus * Forsythia * Ginger * Hawthorn * Linden * Maple * Mulberry * Oak * Russian olive * Willow.

The favorites seemed to be crabapple, elm, ficus, maple, and mulberry. -- Posted by Sue Woods on Primate-Talk.

* * *

All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853,
Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912.

Phone: 401-863-2511
FAX: 401-863-1300


The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
Service Grant RR-00419 from the Comparative Medicine Program,
National Center for Research Resources, N.I.H.

Cover drawing of black spider monkey
(Ateles paniscus) by Jaime Aviles.

Copyright @1995 by Brown University

Editor: Judith E. Schrier, M.Sc.
Associate Editor: James S. Harper, D.V.M.
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar, D.V.M.
Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen, B.A.
Founding Editor: Allan M. Schrier, Ph.D.

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