VOLUME 36 NUMBER 4 OCTOBER 1997
Articles and Notes
Training Nonhuman Primates to Cooperate during Blood Collection: A Review, by V. Reinhardt...... 1
Nonhuman Primates in Viral Hepatitis Research, by M. St. Claire...... 5
Elderhostel: An Interesting Way to Increase Public Exposure to Nonhuman Primates in Laboratory Settings, by S. J. Schapiro, M. E. Keeling, & M. J. Hill...... 7
News, Information, and Announcements
Letter to the Editor...... 4
Resources Wanted and Available...... 9
. . . AWI Offers Enrichment Advice; GIS and Conservation; CSU Library Needs Books and Journals
Environmental Enrichment - Letter From a Zookeeper, by C. Mallar...... 10
Travelers' Health Notes: Pyronaridine: A New Antimalarial Agent...... 10
Research and Educational Opportunities ...... 11
. . . Advanced Course in Tropical Epidemiology; Hastings Center Programs; Internship in Research and Animal Behavior, Kansas; Postdoctoral Training in Laboratory Animal Medicine; Skilled Field Assistants, Suriname; Tropical Ecology and Conservation Biology Course
Volunteer Opportunity: "HELP Congo"...... 12
Information Requested or Available...... 13
. . . Colobus Update; Primate-Talk Directory Name Change; E-mail Lists of Interest; Hunting/Bushmeat Bibliography; Mimicry in Primates; More Interesting Web Sites; Free MEDLINE; Primatology Syllabi
NAS Chimpanzee Committee Report...... 15
Planned 1998 Revision of Directory of Graduate Programs in Primatology and Primate Research ...... 15
Meeting Announcements...... 16
Invitation to 1998 ASP Meeting in Texas...... 16
International Primatological Society - New Date...... 17
Workshop Announcement: Methods and Techniques in Behavioral Research...... 17
Awards Granted...... 17
. . . Larry Jacobsen is Distinguished, Too! Conservation Awards at ASP
News Briefs...... 18
. . . Project Betampona: Lemurs Re-stocking Project; Primate Imports in 1997 to Date; Primate Use in Fiscal Year 1996; New Monkey Species Found in Brazil; Fire in Poco das Antas Reserve
Primates de las Américas - La Página... ...... 20
Grants Available...... 21
. . . Innovative Approaches to Develop New Technologies; Mucosal Immunity in Disease; Novel HIV Therapies: Integrated Program; Innovative Research on Addiction; Research on Immune Tolerance; Immunological Aspects of Hematopoietic Stem Cells; Tuberculosis Research; Chemical Modifiers: Radiation Response of Tumors; Antigen Recognition in Allograft Survival; Minor Histocompatibility Antigens; Innate Immunity; Immune Response to Xenotransplant Antigens; Inflammation in Asthma and Allergy; Gene Therapy in Aging
Social Notes...... 24
Positions Available...... 19
. . . Director, Lab. Animal Resources, Massachusetts; Clinical Veterinarian, New Jersey; Field Director, Central African Republic; Positions Available, Research Veterinarian, Pittsburgh; Primate Foundation of Arizona
Address Changes...... 20
Recent Books and Articles ...... 25
Contents of Volumes 34-36 appear at the end of this issue.
* * *
Animal Welfare Institute, Washington, DC
Traditionally, laboratory nonhuman primates are regarded as dangerous and often vicious animals. Therefore, forced restraint is often recommended for handling them. During blood collection, one of the most common laboratory procedures, primates are restrained either mechanically in a cage or manually on a table. Despite such precautions, however, restrained animals occasionally bite and scratch handling personnel, posing a serious risk of zoonoses transmission (Valerio et al., 1969; Zakaria et al., 1996). Such accidents are not surprising, because the subdued animal is afraid and therefore tries to defend itself.
The excitation associated with involuntary blood collection is reflected in numerous physiological deviations which preclude the collection of scientifically reliable data (Reinhardt et al., 1995). This problem is usually dealt with by not mentioning how the experimental subjects were handled and by using more of them to improve statistical significance (Brockway et al., 1993).
The scientific and ethical inadequacy of forced restraint is implicitly acknowledged by the International Primatological Society, which underscores in its International Guidelines for the Acquisition, Care and Breeding of Nonhuman Primates (1989) that restraint "should be used only when less stressful alternatives are not feasible." Training animals to cooperate during procedures offers such an alternative, which: * refines scientific methodology by controlling extraneous stress-related variables; * decreases the risk of injury by no longer giving the animal a reason to show aggressive defense reactions; * reduces the amount of time and the number of people required to perform a procedure by eliminating the need to subdue the resisting subject; * challenges the intelligence of animals and attending personnel alike; and * improves the work environment of animal care personnel by creating a human-animal relationship which is based on trust rather than fear. The International Primatological Society explicitly states that "primates of many species can be trained for sample procedures, such as presenting a limb for a blood collection," and advocates such training "whenever possible" (IPS, 1989).
Numerous authors allude to the possibility of training nonhuman
primates to cooperate during blood collection.
* Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Elvidge et al. (1976): females "have been trained to jump from their cage into an aluminum box and offer a hind leg for sampling." Bernstein et al. (1977) and Eaton et al. (1994): males and females were transferred to small cages, where they had been trained to present a leg for blood collection. Rosenblum & Coulston (1981): both sexes "were trained to present an arm through a small cage opening" to facilitate blood sampling. Herndon et al. (1984): males "often extended a leg from the cage without struggling for sample collection." Billiard et al. (1985): blood samples were obtained from both sexes "by the volunteer method in which an animal learned to present a leg out of a transfer cage." Scallet et al. (1989): males "had been readily conditioned to voluntarily present an arm for sampling, which enabled them to avoid restraint."
* Longtailed macaques (M. fascicularis). Hein et al. (1989): females "were trained to present their arms through the bars of the cage" for venipuncture.
* Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Byrd (1977): one animal was trained "to tolerate a fingerprick to obtain blood for cell counts." McGinnis & Kraemer (1979): blood samples "can be collected easily from chimpanzees that have been trained to cooperate in venipuncture." Fulk (1992): "a few institutions have trained chimpanzees to extend an appendage through the containment barrier in order to collect medical specimens." Laule et al. (1992): male chimpanzees were "trained to allow voluntary blood sampling."
* Various species. Wall et al. (1985): female vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) were "trained to present a limb for unstressed sampling." Suleman et al. (1988): vervet monkeys, Sykes monkeys (C. mitis), and baboons (Papio anubis) "were trained to present an arm or leg for blood collection." Chambers et al. (1992): "Non-human primates, particularly the larger macaques, vervets, baboons and apes, are readily trained to cooperate in procedures such as presenting an arm for blood collection."
Only a few authors provide the detailed protocols that were used to
teach nonhuman primates to cooperate during blood collection.
* Walker et al. (1982) and Dettmer et al. (1996) trained rhesus macaques and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), respectively, to extend their legs for venipuncture in a squeeze cage by habituation. The animals were restrained to the front of the cage, allowing the experimenter to reach inside and grasp a leg. They were then reinforced with food for sitting quietly and allowing a blood-draw. Rhesus macaques "quickly learn to extend their legs and after only a few trials volunteer their legs readily" (Walker et al., 1982); "None of the capuchin monkeys learned to present a leg, but four (of eight) showed little resistance" (Dettmer et al., 1996).
* Phillippi-Falkenstein & Clarke (1992) conditioned rhesus macaques to accept blood collection. The animals were first acclimatized to being confined in the front portion of the sampling cage. Once the animals were "habituated to sitting in the front of the cage, a technician reached in for the monkey's foot and pulled it through the hole in the sample cage. If an animal offered no resistance or extended its leg, no restraint was applied. The leg was held and gently pinched to acclimate the animal to being touched. After three minutes, the animal's leg was released, gently pushed into the cage, and a reward given." After 17 days of training, all animals remained calm when blood samples were collected and three of the five females "extended their legs voluntarily."
*Vertein & Reinhardt (1989) trained adult pair-housed rhesus females for blood collection in their home cages rather than in a sampling cage. The animals were first acclimatized to being confined once a day in the front portion of their cages. In subsequent sessions, each subject's leg was touched several times. Next, the trainer gently pulled the leg out of the cage, holding it for about 20 seconds before releasing the leg and offering a food reward. During the 24th and last session, blood was collected. None of the eight monkeys showed signs of resistance, but only three of them willingly presented a leg for venipunture.
* Reinhardt (1991) modified this training protocol in order to improve the overall success rate. Plexiglass panels were fitted over the open cage doors during each training session; they had an aperture large enough for a monkey's leg to fit through, but small enough to prevent the monkey from escaping. Initially, the back wall was pulled so close to the front of the cage that the males could not turn around freely. This allowed the trainer right from the beginning to reach through the aperture of the panel, groom a leg of the subject, carefully lift the leg, gently yet firmly pull the leg out of the cage, and puncture the saphenous vein. Once the animal stopped resisting, the back wall was pulled less close, leaving the trainee leeway to refuse being touched and room to turn freely around. Sessions were never terminated before a leg was brought out for long enough to draw a blood sample. When this was achieved the back wall was pushed into its normal position and the animal rewarded with favored food. On average, 24 minutes distributed over six training sessions were required to overcome the males' initial resistance; an additional 14 minutes distributed over seven sessions were then invested until each of the 15 males voluntarily presented a leg behind, in, or through the aperture of the panel and showed no resistance during blood collection. Pair-housed males and single-housed males did not differ significantly in their training performance. Once the training goal was achieved, the males reliably cooperated not only with the trainer but also with the attending care personnel.
* This training protocol was applied with equal success in six adult female stumptailed macaques (M. arctoides), and with less success in six juvenile female rhesus macaques (Reinhardt & Cowley, 1992; Reinhardt, 1992).
Figure 1a: Adult male rhesus macaques can be trained within a cumulative total of less than one hour to actively present a leg in their homecage ...
Figure 1b: .... and display no resistance during blood collection.
* Priest (1990, 1991) shaped the behavior of Loon, an adult male drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus), to cooperate during blood collection in his home cage. First, the animal was conditioned to reach on command into a stainless steel tube, which was attached to the front of the cage, grasp with his extended arm a rod positioned at the end of the tube, and remain in this position until a clicker sounded, immediately followed by a food reward. Through a hole cut in the tube, the trainer gradually desensitized Loon to being touched at the venipuncture site while Loon was still holding onto the rod. Finally, veni-puncture was accomplished and blood withdrawn.
* Laule et al. (1996) trained Allie, an infant female chimpanzee, for venipuncture. She was taught to sit on a table and allow her arm to be manipulated and held by the trainer. Next, she was desensitized to having her arm touched by, first, the trainer's finger, then a cotton swab, and then a syringe without a needle, with a blunt needle, and finally with a sharp needle. The first blood draw occurred during the 18th training session, with a total of 275 minutes invested prior to that. Allie showed no resistance but sat quietly and eagerly accepted rewards.
These reports provide sufficient evidence that nonhuman primates need not be forcibly restrained and distressed during blood collection. Since primates are intelligent, it is not surprising that even adult male rhesus macaques, supposedly very aggressive and hence intractable, learn within less than one hour to voluntarily present a limb and accept blood collection in their home cages (Figures 1a-b). There is no reason why the training techniques developed for rhesus macaques could not be applied with the same effectiveness to macaques in general and to other medium-sized primates such as capuchin and vervet monkeys and female baboons. The technique developed for Loon, the male drill, is probably adequate for other more powerful primates such as male baboons and chimpanzees.
So far only a few laboratory primates have been taught to cooperate during blood collection. This suggests that the myth of the unpredictably fractious monkey still prevails. The publications cited here question this myth and encourage more attempts to replace conventional blood sampling procedures with training techniques that draw on the animals' inherent learning capabilities and willingness to cooperate, thereby improving animal welfare, personnel safety, and research methodology.
Bernstein, I. S., Rose, R. M., & Gordon, T. P. (1977). Behavioural and hormonal responses of male rhesus monkeys introduced to females in the breeding and non-breeding seasons. Animal Behaviour, 25, 609-614.
Billiard, R. B., Richardson, D., Anderson, E., Mahajan, D., & Little, B. (1985). The effect of chronic and acyclic elevation of circulating androstenedione or estrone concentrations on ovarian function in the rhesus monkey. Endocrinology, 116, 2209-2220.
Brockway, B. P., Hassler, C. R. & Hicks, N. (1993). Minimizing stress during physiological monitoring. In S. M. Niemi & J. E. Willson (Eds.), Refinement and Reduction in Animal Testing (pp. 56-69). Bethesda: Scientists Center for Animal Welfare.
Byrd, L. D. (1977). Introduction: Chimpanzees as biomedical models. In G. H. Bourne (Ed.), Progress in Ape Research (pp. 161-165). New York: Academic Press.
Chambers, D. R., Gibson, T. E., Bindman, L., Guillou, P. J., Herbert, W. J., Mayes, P. A., Pool, T. N., Wade, A. J., & Wood, R. K. S. (1992). Guidelines on the Handling and Training of Laboratory Animals. Potters Bar: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare.
Dettmer, E. L., Phillips, K. A., Rager, D. R., Bernstein, I., & Fragaszy, D. M. (1996). Behavioral and cortisol responses to repeated capture and venipuncture in Cebus apella. American Journal of Primatology, 38, 357-362.
Eaton, G. G., Kelley, S. T., Axthelm, M. K., Iliff-Sizemore, S. A. & Shiigi, S. M. (1994). Psychological well-being in paired adult female rhesus (Macaca mulatta). American Journal of Primatology, 33, 89-99.
Elvidge, H., Challis, J. R. G., Robinson, J. S., Roper, C., & Thorburn, G. D. (1976). Influence of handling and sedation on plasma cortisol in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Journal of Endocrinology, 70, 325-326.
Fulk, R. (1992). Conditioning: Principles underlying the dynamics of caregiver/chimpanzee interactions. In R. Fulk & C. Garland (Eds.), The Care and Management of Chimpanzees in Captive Environments (pp. 48-58). Asheboro: North Carolina Zoological Park.
Hein, P. R., Schatorje, J. S., Frencken, H. J., Segers, M. F., & Thomas, C. M. (1989). Serum hormone levels in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys. Journal of Medical Primatology, 18, 133-142.
Herndon, J. G., Turner, J. J., Perachio, A. A., Blank, M. S., & Collins, D. C. (1984). Endocrine changes induced by venipuncture in rhesus monkeys. Physiology and Behavior, 32, 673-676.
I.P.S. (1989). International guidelines for the acquisition, care and breeding of nonhuman primates. Primate Report, 25, 3-27.
Laule, G., Keeling, M., Alford, P., Thurston, R., Bloom-smith, M. A., & Beck, T. (1992). Positive reinforcement techniques and chimpanzees: An innovative training program. AAZPA Regional Conference Proceedings, 713-718.
Laule, G. E., Thurston, R. H., Alford, P. L., & Bloomsmith, M. A. (1996). Training to reliably obtain blood and urine samples from a diabetic chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Zoo Biology, 15, 587-591.
McGinnis, P. R. & Kraemer, H. C. (1979). The Stanford outdoor primate facility. In Comfortable Quarters for Laboratory Animals (pp. 20-27). Washington: Animal Welfare Institute.
Phillippi-Falkenstein, K. & Clarke, M. R. (1992). Procedure for training corral-living rhesus monkeys for fecal and blood-sample collection. Laboratory Animal Science, 42, 83-85.
Priest, G. N. (1990). The use of operant conditioning in training husbandry behavior with captive exotic animals. Proceeding of the National American Association of Zoo Keepers Conference, 16, 94-108.
Priest, G. M. (1991). Training a diabetic drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) to accept insulin injections and veni-puncture. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 30, 1-4.
Reinhardt, V. (1991). Training adult male rhesus monkeys to actively cooperate during in-homecage veni-puncture. Animal Technology, 42, 11-17.
Reinhardt, V. (1992). Difficulty in training juvenile rhesus macaques to actively cooperate during venipuncture in the homecage. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 31, 1-2.
Reinhardt, V. & Cowley, D. (1992). In-homecage blood collection from conscious stumptailed macaques. Animal Welfare, 1, 249-255.
Reinhardt, V., Liss, C. & Stevens, C. (1995). Restraint methods of laboratory nonhuman primates: A critical review. Animal Welfare, 4, 221-238.
Rosenblum, I. Y. & Coulston, F. (1981). Normal range of longitudinal blood chemistry and hematology values in juvenile and adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 5, 401-411.
Scallet, A. C., McKay, D., Bailey, J. R., Ali, S. F., Paule, M. G., Slikker, W., & Rayford, P. L. (1989). Meal-induced increase in plasma gastrin immunoreactivity in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). American Journal of Primatology, 18, 315-319.
Suleman, M. A., Njugana, J., & Anderson, J. (1988). Training of vervet monkeys, Sykes monkeys and baboons for collection of biological samples. Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Primatological Society, p.12 (Abstract).
Valerio, D. A., Miller, R. L., Innes, J. R. M., Courtney, K. D., Pallotta, A. J. & Guttmacher, R. M. (1969). Maca-ca mulatta: Management of a Laboratory Breeding Colony. New York: Academic Press.
Vertein, R. & Reinhardt, V. (1989). Training female rhesus monkeys to cooperate during in-homecage venipuncture. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 28, 1-3.
Walker, M. L., Gordon, T. P., & Wilson, M. E. (1982). Reproductive performance in capture-acclimated female rhesus monkeys. Journal of Medical Primatology, 11, 291-302.
Wall, H. S., Worthman, C., & Else, J. G. (1985). Effects of ketamine anaesthesia, stress and repeated bleeding on the haematology of vervet monkeys. Laboratory Animals, 19, 138-144.
Zakaria, M., Lerche, N. W., Chomel, B. B., & Kass, P. (1996). Accidental injuries associated with nonhuman primate exposure at two regional primate research centers (U.S.A.): 1988-1993. Laboratory Animal Science, 46, 298-304.
* * *
In the last issue of Laboratory Primate Newsletter, a notice on changes to nomenclature is included. Your conservative approach of the past was probably prudent, but your recent adoption of nomenclatural changes is also right on target. Wilson and Reeder (Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd Ed.) are now the acccepted sources for mammalian taxonomy, and this level of acceptance is much higher than indicated. CITES has adopted all aspects of its recommended changes and ISIS, the computer data base used by zoos, is preparing to incorporate these changes as well. When money becomes available, names of species covered by the Endangered Species Act are also likely to be changed as appropriate. - Alan Shoemaker, Collection Manager, Riverbanks Zoo, Columbia, SC 29202
* * *
Marisa St. Claire
Over the past 30 years, seven hepatitis viruses have been identified and named A, B, C, D, E, G, and GB. These viruses are approaching HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, in their collective contribution to human illness and death, and are far easier to contract than HIV. More than 500,000 Americans become infected with some form of viral hepatitis each year, and about 16,000 die annually from the complications. Probably the best described has been Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a DNA virus that replicates through an RNA intermediate. HBV is transmitted via parenteral drug use, sexual contact, blood products, and occupational exposure. HBV infection is frequently seen among HIV-positive individuals; up to 90% of HIV positive persons are also seropositive for HBV. Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a RNA virus discovered in 1988, is like HBV in that it is primarily blood-borne, and both HCV and HBV cause acute as well as chronic hepatitis and can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in humans. Epidemiology data from case-control and cohort studies and from laboratory investigations indicate that up to 80% of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma are attributable to persistent infection with HBV. HBV is thus second only to tobacco among known human carcinogens. HCV accounts for 150,000 cases per year with 10,000 deaths annually in the U.S., and up to 80% of HIV-positive individuals are also seropositive for HCV.
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are transmitted enterically and induce acute hepatitis but rarely result in chronic hepatitis. HAV has received media attention due to food-borne outbreaks. A recent example is the HAV-contaminated strawberries from Central America and Mexico, which were purchased for schoolchildren in the southwestern United States in early spring of 1997. Approximately 72,000 cases of HAV were reported in the U.S. between 1992-1994, but the true incidence is probably in the millions, since many cases are clinically inapparent. Major epidemics of HAV are especially prevalent in developing countries due to fecal contamination of food and water. HEV resembles HAV in the manner of spread and is prevalent in Asia, Mexico, and Africa. HEV typically causes an acute disease with low mortality, except in pregnant women, where there is a high risk of death - up to a 30% fatality rate among women infected with HEV during pregnancy in developing nations.
Hepatitis D virus (HDV), or delta virus, is exceptional in that it is dependent on co-infection with HBV for causing disease, and can modify the illness associated with that virus. Recently, novel blood-borne viruses were discovered and named hepatitis GB virus, (HGBV) a Flavivirus-like agent, and hepatitis G virus (HGV). Both are positive, single-stranded RNA viruses and resemble HCV. The HGBV are further subdivided into GB-A, GB-B, and GB-C, although HGB-C is actually HGV. HGB-A viruses appear to be indigenous to New World Primates. HGBV-A-like viruses have been detected in Saguinus mystax, S. labiatus, S. oedipus, S. nigricollis, Callathrix jacchus, and Aotus trivirgatus. These animals appear to be chronically infected, and no apparent disease has been seen with infection with HGB-A. Although HGV was initially isolated from a human, HGBV-A and -B are not currently thought to be infective to humans.
Animal Models of Viral Hepatitis
Hepatitis A Virus: Macaques (Macaca spp.), owl monkeys (Aotus spp.), and tamarins are susceptible to infection with HAV, although they rarely, if ever, exhibit clinical signs of infection other than liver enzyme elevations and seroconversion. Most commonly, the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and mustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax) are used in HAV research. Although some types of HAV may be grown in vitro, wild-type HAV is isolated and biologically amplified in cell culture only with great difficulty, and some strains of HAV are completely refractory to isolation in cell culture. Thus, many strains of HAV cannot be studied without a nonhuman primate host.
Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Viruses: Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are the only species, other than humans, that are susceptible to infection with HBV and HCV. Although chimpanzees rarely show any clinical signs, liver enzyme elevations and antibody formation occurs, and some viruses may be re-isolated from the liver of infected animals.
Hepatitis E Virus: Macaques and Aotus can be infected with HEV. Nonhuman primates are vital for the study of HEV, since it has not been replicated in cell culture. Nonhuman primates serve to biologically amplify HEV, thus allowing study of this virus.
Hepatitis G and GB Virus: Tamarins can be infected with HGV (a.k.a. HGB-C) or HGB-B and develop hepatitis. Many New World species appear to be chronically infected with HGB-A and suffer no ill effects.
Other Hepatitis Viruses: Of all the species of nonhuman primates, only chimpanzees can be infected with all known human hepatitis viruses. Therefore, novel hepatitis viruses may be inoculated into chimpanzees (who show no adverse effects from infection), which serve as a biological amplification system, allowing study of these viruses.
Nonhuman primate models have been exceedingly important in hepatitis virus research. Isolation and identification of many exotic viruses has been possible only through the use of nonhuman primates. Development of vaccines for both hepatitis A and B was done in nonhuman primates, and these vaccines have done much to reduce morbidity and mortality in susceptible human populations. In 1980, Taiwan started a program of vaccinating all infants, which resulted in a ten-fold reduction in HBV carrier state and a five-fold reduction in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in Taiwanese children.
Since the highest incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma occurs in the sixth decade of life in humans, it will be many years before we realize the full extent of reduction of mortality due to vaccination. Since 1990, the World Health Organization has recommended a policy of universal vaccination of all children for HBV. Eighty-five countries throughout the world are currently participating, including the United States.
While HAV does not appear to cause chronic infections or increase the risk of development of cancer, as does HBV, it causes tremendous morbidity and some mortality in immunocompromised persons. The recent introduction of a vaccine for HAV (Havrix) appears to be contributing to its decrease in populations which are most at risk (as well as most likely to be offered vaccination, i.e. health care workers, persons traveling to developing nations, etc.).
Recommendations for Vaccination: Personnel working with nonhuman primates or human cell culture/body fluids should consider vaccination for both HAV and HBV. In addition, some facilities have chosen to vaccinate their nonhuman primates for HAV and HBV if these animals will be part of a study in which liver enzymes, or other clinical parameters that may be affected by infection, are to be monitored. Although the nonhuman primates that are susceptible to human hepatitis viruses do not appear to experience any adverse effects following infection, study directors may wish to have their animals vaccinated so that they may rule out HAV or HBV as a potential cause in the event of a rise in liver enzymes. When performing viral hepatitis research, it is important to screen all incoming nonhuman primates for seroconversion to the various hepatitis viruses prior to putting them on study. Given the prevalence of hepatitis viruses among the general human population and the ease of spread, particularly of HAV and HEV, it is not uncommon to find primates that have already been exposed via their human caretakers.
Bukh, J., & Apgar, C. L. (1997). Five new or recently discovered (GBV-A) virus species are indigenous to New World monkeys and may constitute a separate genus of the Flaviviridae. Virology, 229, 429-436.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1997). Hepatitis, Viral, Acute. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Recommendations & Reports, 46[RR-10], 18-19.
Koelle, D. M., & Wilson, R. A. (1996). Hepatitis C. In D. A. Spach & T. M. Hooton (Eds.), The HIV Manual. New York: Oxford University Press.
MetPath (1989) Viral Hepatitis. MetPath Lab Update, Teterboro, NJ.
Miyakawa, Y., & Makoto M. (1997). Hepatitis G: A true hepatitis virus or an accidental tourist? New England Journal of Medicine, 336, 795-796.
Montali, R. J. (1993). Callitrichid Hepatitis. In T. C. Jones, U. Mohr, & R. D. Hunt (Eds.), Nonhuman Primates II, New York: Springer-Verlag.
Zuckerman, A. J. (1997). Prevention of primary liver cancer by immunization. New England Journal of Medicine, 336, 1906-1907.
* * *
In the Recent Books and Articles section of the last (July) issue, we misspelled the name of the second author of Social Influences on Vocal Development, which was edited by C. T. Snowdon and M. Hausberger.
* * *
Steven J. Schapiro, Michale E. Keeling, and Marilyn J. Hill
The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center,
What you're about to read will not be "scientific", but will supply you with some information that might be useful to you and your facility. We run Elderhostel programs at the Department of Veterinary Sciences of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in Bastrop, Texas. We'll tell you a little about Elderhostel, what we do with Elderhostel, why we do it, and how it has turned out so far. We'll close with a letter/story that a couple of our Elderhostelers wrote shortly after attending one of our programs. In brief, Elderhostelers, in general, are a group of people that (1) can appreciate the importance of primate models to biomedical research and the importance of conserving endangered primates; (2) are actively seeking knowledge about biomedical research techniques and progress; and (3) are absolutely thrilled when you tell them and show them how you are working with nonhuman primates in a research environment.
Elderhostel is an international organization devoted to providing low-cost, high-quality continuing education programs to adults 55 years of age and over. Thousands of different programs, on virtually every topic you could think of, are offered every year throughout the world. About 300,000 adults enroll in programs each year. A typical Elderhostel program lasts 6 nights (5 days) and includes three separate 7.5 hour courses, but there are as many exceptions to this rule as there are exemplars. Intensive programs, service programs, intergenerational programs, and longer programs are all included in the quarterly catalog. The key to all the programs are the Elderhostelers: people who have chosen to participate in your particular program, and are thus highly motivated to learn about your topics.
At the Department of Veterinary Sciences, we were searching for a low-risk way to publicize the high-quality research we were doing. We know how well we care for our nonhuman primates and other animals, and how this improves the quality of studies that are performed using these well-defined animal models. But it was becoming increasingly obvious that the average person in the public did not know this. We decided that people 55 and older - people who had seen health problems that existed prior to the recent rapid advancements of biomedical research, people who had lost loved ones to afflictions that we are now making progress toward conquering, people who are well-educated and respected in their communities - would be an ideal pilot target audience for us to open our facility to and show all that we do. While we recognize (as do most of the animal rights groups) that school-age individuals are probably the most important subset of the population to "go after" for long-term impact, we wanted to make our initial foray into proactive community education with an audience that we considered likely to be sympathetic to our work and goals.
We offer our Elderhostel program twice a year, in mid-spring and in early fall - the weather is a major influence on our schedule of offerings in Central Texas. Each program consists of three courses and a variety of extracurricular and social activities. The three courses we typically offer are (1) Primate Behavior, (2) Veterinary Medicine and Human Medicine, and (3) The Immune System. All courses are taught by M. D. Anderson faculty and are fairly challenging and rigorous. Courses include lectures, demonstrations, hands-on activities, and numerous readings. Primate-related activities include behavioral observation of chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys, demonstrations of enrichment and positive reinforcement training, and observation of chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys receiving their annual physical exams.
About 88 Elderhostelers have now participated in our programs; both hostelers and our staff have been quite pleased with how the programs have turned out. We still make minor adjustments from one offering to the next, but in general, we have a very workable program in place. We routinely challenge participants at "graduation" to become active and vocal advocates of animal research in general, and primate research in particular. This past April, we were challenged by the participants to do a better job at getting our message to the public. They were so enthusiastic about our program that they wanted us to help them organize a "Bastrop Elderhostel Alumni Network" to really make a difference. We are in the process of doing so now.
We will close with a letter/story written by Mary J. and Phil Zenchoff, two participants at our most recent (April, 1997) Elderhostel program. Obviously, every participant does not send us a similar piece, but the Zenchoffs' story should illustrate (1) what type of impact this kind of educational program could have on the people who come to learn; and (2) what type of community outreach benefits could be gained by your primate research facility from participating in such a program.
We would be happy to talk about our experiences in developing an Elderhostel program and the nuts and bolts of running such a program. (You won't make any money, but if it's done right, you probably won't lose any money, either.) Just contact us at the address above.
Welcome to the Planet of the Apes!
"What's your best Elderhostel?" we are often asked, having racked up 37 of these programs during the past 10 years. Until our week in Science Park at the Department of Veterinary Sciences in Bastrop, Texas this April, we always burbled and said, "They're all great - how can we choose?" Now, with apologies to all the other great ones we've experienced, we answer, "The Planet of the Apes beats them all!"
"What!! Science - chimps - labs! But you're not scientific, Mary" and our friends' noses would wrinkle as I described our plans. Ah yes, but my woman's intuition told me, from the first reading of the descriptive blurb in the Elderhostel catalog, that this week would be wonderful beyond belief. My scientific husband, on the other hand, feared that the technical courses would be so watered down that he would lose interest. By the end of the first class, he was "champing at the bit" for a longer program, and I, of course, was ecstatic, both for myself and for him. Now why was this program so different from all our other trips?
Well, first of all, the science focus was far deeper than any program we had ever experienced before. Our friends' fears that it would be "beyond" anyone without a background in immunology, cancer research, microbiology, primate behavior, and so on, proved to be unfounded. This program was set up as "one size fits all." If you could barely tell an atom from an elephant, you still learned and felt comfortable in the classes.
On the other hand, if you had a fairly solid background in the areas mentioned above, you leaned back happily and soaked in more data. The veterinarians and scientists used slides, hand-outs, and clear graphic explanations to present their points. In addition, we had a fantastic loose-leaf binder packed full of relevant articles that we could peruse at our leisure.
After our classroom lecture each day, we marched off to the lab and saw many of the processes just described in class, such as the cloning of cells, implemented before our wondering eyes. There is a feeling of awe that sweeps over you when you listen to a scientist who has made breakthroughs in creating a vaccine against AIDS, explaining his findings in his inimitably enthusiastic way. Somehow there is a profundity to the experience that remains with you forever.
Then there were the early morning (optional) walks with one of the veterinarians through the wild-flower-dotted fields of Science Park. As we walked, she explained the work being done on bone-replacement after the removal of tumors. At Science Park, sheep are used for this research. We watched in amazement as the research sheep gamboled around their pasture on their sturdy, new-growth legs, with nary a baa-d step, and we rejoiced at the thought of humans, who can someday soon have bone tumors removed, and walk unaided thereafter. Besides, we got into breakfast first if we went on the early walk! Speaking of breakfast, the food was fabulous. The staff prepared both breakfast and lunch, and Southern hospitality was the keyword all week. Dinners were in a class by themselves and will be described later.
And ah! The chimps! We watched with our surgical masks carefully positioned (so WE wouldn't infect the chimp) as he had his yearly physical. There he was, outstretched on the examining table (under light anesthesia, of course) while the veterinarian took a sonogram, measured his body-fat, and yes! checked his prostate. We had a blow-by-blow explanation as the vet performed the procedures - and no, the anesthesia didn't wear off while we were there! I think I heard the chimp mutter, "Next time, Doctor, it's MY turn," but maybe that was my imagination.
Another day, after a fascinating lecture, we trooped off to the chimp area and practiced our observational skills in teams, monitoring the actions of different chimps as they frolicked after their morning meals. Just as a comfort for those who think of smelly monkey houses when we mention "chimps," all our observations were done outdoors, on the roof of the chimp area, while our evolutionary forebears meandered around their playground, probably observing us as well.
Evenings were not for rest! We ate wonderfully and heartily at a different place each evening, toured beautiful historic homes in Bastrop where the owners themselves showed us around, and kicked up our heels in a country Western dance hall, where the Elderhostel staff made sure that no one was left to flounder. Even the Science Park Director came to share the fun and Texas-two-stepped like a pro. Best of all, the staff took multiple photos of all our activities - and on our last day, we could purchase copies of whichever shots we wanted. My only complaint was that there were no picture postcards of Bastrop available in the local stores. Hey, I had my first sentence all set - "Greetings from the Planet of the Apes!"
Re-reading this letter, I only have one qualm - it just doesn't capture both the profundity and the fun of the Bastrop week. The only way to do that is - try the Science Park Elderhostel yourself! - Mary J. & Phil Zenchoff
* * *
AWI Offers Enrichment Advice
The Animal Welfare Institute (AWI) has long been interested in improvements in the housing and handling of nonhuman primates used in laboratories. Refinement techniques, which have been tested and implemented at the macaque colony of the Wisconsin RPRC, provide inexpensive but safe stimulation for expression of social behavior and a variety of other species-typical activities. These include training techniques to ensure the animals' cooperation during routine handling procedures, thus minimizing distress reactions.
Developed and implemented by ethologist and former WRPRC veterinarian Viktor Reinhardt, the innovations reflect the spirit of the Animal Welfare Act. AWI encourages other institutions to make use of Dr. Reinhardt's expertise and incorporate some of his ideas into their own plans. A 60-slide series entitled "Environmental Enhancement for Caged Rhesus Macaques" and a written summary are available on loan from AWI, P.O. Box 3650, Washington D.C. 20007 [fax: 202-338 9478; e-mail: [email protected]]. This series, including summary text and pictures, are available on the Primate Enrichment Forum website at its new address, <www.primate.edu/pin/pef>, on the Wisconsin Primate Center server on which the Center has generously donated space.
Dr. Reinhardt will visit interested institutions to offer advice on improving primate housing and handling. AWI will cover consultant fees and lodging expenses. Travel expenses must be covered by the institution. If you are interested in having Dr. Reinhardt visit your institution as a consultant, please contact him at 4605 Crescent Road, Madison, WI 53711 [608-274-9056; e-mail: [email protected]].
Geographic Information Systems and Conservation
Cedric Campbell Muir is studying population genetics of the orangutan. He has enlisted the help of some computer people to help create some 3-D maps of the Borneo area using USGS bathometry data (geo-topology matrix). They have created videos which simulate the geographic effect of glacially induced sea level and other changes which allow a "fly-by" perspective of the landscape. He has found these "very useful...to examine possible migratory pathways which have historically been available (e.g., an extensive `land bridge' which joined the islands of Borneo, Java, Sumatra, and the S. Asian mainland)." You can see some demo videos on his web page: darwin.mbb.sfu.ca/imbb/beckenbach/cam.html. To view the video, you will need to have a video plug-in (right click on a PC) or be accessing the web through Windows 95 (or newer). An article with all the technical details of how the videos were created has been submitted to an electronic journal, assemblage, and is currently in review. For more information, you may contact Dr. Muir at the Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C., Canada, V5A 1S6 [e-mail: [email protected]]. - Posted to Primate-Talk
CSU Library Needs Books and Journals
The campus of Colorado State University was damaged in a flash flood on 28 July. CSU's Library was especially hard hit. The Library is nearing the end of a major expansion, and a large part of its holdings was housed in the basement in anticipation of completion of the expansion later this year. The basement suffered extensive damage, and the Library lost all of its bound journals, some 18,000 subscriptions, plus a large number of books. An effort is underway to rebuild the collection, but it will be years before this task is completed.
Kathy Packard, of CSU's Department of Biology, has written asking for help. If anyone nearing retirement is interested in donating back issues of journals or scholarly books to a worthy cause, please consider making the donation to CSU's Library. [Editor's note: We have offered a complete back set of the LPN.]
If you have resources to share, please contact Joel Rutstein, Library, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO 80523 [e-mail: [email protected]], who will be coordinating donations. He asks for your patience: Library staff are stretched thin as they try to cope with the flood as well as day-to-day running of the Library.
* * *
Our awareness as animal care professionals has certainly changed in the past few years about the importance of enrichment for captive animals - it's not just important, it's as necessary as food and water. If an animal in a research setting is stressed, it may very well affect his physical well-being, immune system, etc. which may in turn affect the data people are seeking. In a zoo setting, mentally and physically healthy animals exhibit the most natural behaviors for the public and are the ones producing healthy offspring. However, there is a time lag between the evolution of this consciousness and the policies of the institutions involved. This is most clearly seen in the meager allotment of funds to purchase enrichment items. Another area of concern (a pet peeve of mine) is the statement "the animals really liked it, but they made such a mess with it that the caretakers wouldn't give it anymore". I have read this several times during a discussion of enrichment "failures" on the enrichment e-mail discussion group on line and have been wanting to discuss it ever since. As a zookeeper, often a cleaner of hideous messes, I feel I can speak to this issue from both perspectives: benefit to the animals and cost to the caretakers.
When I first became a keeper seven years ago, enrichment was considered a luxury - if you had the time maybe you'd do it, but if you're short staffed, it's the thing you'd skip. However, a few of us very quickly learned its value in preventing behavioral problems that create far more headache and heartache in the long run. When we attempted to implement it regularly, we were sometimes ridiculed by administrators and other keepers, and accused of frittering away our time "playing" with the animals. When we began a positive reinforcement training program, we had to sneak sessions in during our lunch hours. Then, as we started seeing results - our animals were accepting injections voluntarily, easily shifting into squeeze cages, and letting us treat topical wounds - most of the others began to accept the value of such programs and became our strong supporters. Since then, we have made simple enrichment part of the everyday routine: we have a blank calendar with each square filled in, so the keeper just looks at it each day and knows, for example, it's cardboard box day, gives out boxes, and initials the calendar. Cleaning up those box fragments becomes part of cleaning that cage. Just as feces are a fact of life in a monkey cage, so now is some paper or a pile of hay.
The lag we still see is in staffing - caretakers should not be forced to omit enrichment because they cannot complete their tasks otherwise. In the same way that a budget must include buying enrichment items, it is imperative that there be enough people to handle the new tasks. Likewise, enrichment should be part of a keeper's routine, part of the job description, and part of the understood duties for the day. A keeper who doesn't medicate an animal because it's too much trouble to grind up a pill would obviously be held accountable. This has to happen with enrichment as well. If someone can't or won't do it, there are other people out there who would gladly fill that position and pick up that ball (or should I say - give that ball to a monkey). - From a posting to Primate Enrichment Forum, 25 July 1997
* * *
The WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) is developing a new antimalarial agent, pyronaridine, for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Pyronaridine is a blood schizontocide that was first synthesized in China in 1970. Available data do not support international registration of the drug, yet they do indicate that it may be effective for the treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria and that it is well tolerated after oral administration.
TDR is currently conducting a series of Phase I and IIa clinical trials with a newly designed capsule formulation of pyronaridine that has a better pharmacokinetic profile than the previously available tablet manufactured in China and coated for enteric absorption. These trials have been designed to characterize the pharmacokinetic profile, clinically effective dose, safety, and efficacy of the new capsule formulation of pyronaridine when used for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. - From the TDR Newsletter 53, June 1997
* * *
Advanced Course in Tropical Epidemiology
The fifth Advanced Course in Tropical Epidemiology will be held 10-21 November, 1997, at the Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, in collaboration with the SEAMEO TROPMED Network. This intensive 2-week course, conducted in English, is intended for health professionals who already have a basic knowledge of epidemiology and statistics. For more information, contact Dr. Nilarat Premmanisakul, Dept of Tropical Hygiene, Fac. of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol Univ., 420/6 Rajvithi Rd, Bangkok 10400, Thailand [662-644-7483; telex: 84770 UNIMAHI TH; fax: 662-644-4436; e-mail: [email protected]].
Hastings Center Programs
The Hastings Center has several programs for scholars in various fields of ethics, at various educational levels. Contact Strachan Donnelley, Director of Education, Hastings Center, 255 Elm Rd, Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510 [914-762-8500; fax: 914-762-2124] for information about the Student Intern Program, for research in an area of bioethical issues; the International Biomedical Ethics Research Program, for advanced scholars and medical professionals who have made or will make significant contributions to bioethics in their countries; the Journalist-in-Residence Program, giving journalists covering medical and scientific issues up to a month to perform research on topics of interest to their readers; and the Visiting Scholar Program, in which professionals in the academic, biomedical, or legal fields perform research on ethical issues in medicine, biosciences, or related fields.
Internship in Research and Animal Behavior, Kansas
The Sedwick County Zoo is developing an internship program in the area of research and animal behavior. The program will be designed to train students to conduct research in the zoo setting. Projects will range from observational studies of animals in their environments, to biological studies of such diverse topics as stress and reproduction.
The students sought are: * Juniors, seniors, and graduate students in the fields of comparative psychology, psychobiology, zoology, and related fields. * Those who have had at least one semester of statistics, one semester of animal behavior, and at least classroom experience in research methods. * Self-starters and self-motivators. * Those able to work flexible and sometimes unusual hours. * Those who have good library skills. A GPA of at least 3.0 is recommended.
Students will be expected to write proposals, gather data, conduct literature searches, and accept other research responsibilities. While it is expected students will understand the basics of these areas, they will be taught how to conduct such tasks. Some projects will call for hands-on opportunities with the zoo collection, while others will focus more on samples and/or observation.
For more information contact: Emily Weiss, Consulting Curator of Research and Animal Behavior, Sedwick County Zoo, 5555 Zoo Blvd., Wichita, Kansas, 67212 [316-942-2212 (X257); fax: 316-942-3781; e-mail: [email protected]].
Postdoctoral Training in Laboratory Animal Medicine
The Department of Comparative Medicine at the University of Washington is inviting applications for postdoctoral training positions starting on or after July 1, 1998. This program is designed to provide individuals with a broad foundation to build a career in teaching, research, and service in the laboratory animal medicine field and to prepare them for ACLAM board certification. Candidates with a strong interest in research are sought. One year of clinical training in laboratory animal medicine supported by the University is followed by three years of research training which is supported by an National Center for Research Resources (NIH) training grant. Financial support for the training includes stipend support ($23,772 for the first-year internship, and $20,292 to $32,300 per year, commensurate with experience, for the three years of research training), travel, medical/dental insurance, and partial support of tuition (in accordance with NIH policies). Prerequisite for the program is a veterinary medical degree (D.V.M.) or equivalent. Opportunities exist for qualified trainees to pursue advanced study for a M.S. or Ph.D. degree. To be eligible for support, individuals must be U.S. citizens or have been lawfully admitted for permanent residence in the U.S. at the time of appointment. Individuals on temporary or student visas are not eligible. Persons interested in exploring the opportunity further may request a brochure containing a more detailed program description and an application by contacting Ms. Alice Ruff, Dept of Comp. Med., Univ. of Washington, Box 357190, Seattle, WA, 98195-7190. The University of Washington is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer; individuals from minority groups that are underrepresented nationally in the biomedical and behavioral sciences are encouraged to apply.
Skilled Field Assistants, Suriname
Skilled field assistants are sought for a 3-year project observing monkeys in Raleighvallen, Suriname. For each year of the study, at least two field assistants are needed to collect detailed data on squirrel monkey (and to a lesser extent capuchin) behavior as well as fruit and arthropod phenology. The data gathered in this Surinamese field project will be used in detailed comparisons with previous studies of the behavior and ecology of squirrel monkeys in Costa Rica and Peru.
An extended time committment is required. Other important qualifications include: 1) proven ability to collect detailed behavioral data of publishable quality; 2) field experience in the tropics, preferably wet tropics, or at least some field courses; 3) some graduate coursework or stellar undergraduate performance; 4) resourcefulness, willingness to work hard, and ability to live closely with others; 5) knowledge of New World primates; 6) strong recommendations.
Assistants, given reasonable success in the field, will be included as co-authors on at least some of the resulting publications. Those participating in the analysis and writing of manuscripts will be recognized with co-authorship of additional publications. Moreover, successful field assistants will be given glowing recommendations and other support useful for admittance to graduate programs, fellowships, jobs, etc. In addition to round-trip airfare and glorious camp cuisine, there will be modest monthly salaries. A permanent, comfortable field camp is being constructed. Other remunerations come from the pristine tropical wet forest community at Raleighvallen, including jaguars, giant river otters, cock-of-the-rock, harpy eagles, and eight species of primates. Experience worth more than mere money is available in abundance!
The application deadline is the end of October, 1997 for the first year's field assistants. Late January, 1998, is the target start-up date. Contact Sue Boinski, Department of Anthropology, 1350 Turlington Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-7305 [352-392-2031; fax: 352-392-6929; e-mail: [email protected]]. Please send e-mail or phone, if at all possible.
Tropical Ecology and Conservation Biology Course
Cleveland Metroparks Zoo and Cleveland State University are offering a course entitled "Field experience in Tropical Ecology and Conservation Biology" on December 1-19, 1997. The course is taught in the tropical dry forest of western Venezuela. Primate species occurring at the site include red howlers, hybrid spider monkeys, and white-fronted capuchins. Students can study habitat use and activity patterns of these monkeys as well as participate in other studies. Program costs are approximately $2000/student, which includes airfare, lodging, ground transportation and most meals. For more informtion contact Tammie Bettinger, Research Coordinator, Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, Brookside Park, Cleveland, OH 44109[216-661-6500 ext. 214; e-mail: [email protected]].
* * *
"HELP Congo" ("Habitat Ecologique et Liberté des Primates") is a not-for-profit organization dedicated to the rehabilitation of ex-captive chimpanzees in the Conkouati Sanctuary, South Congo (near Pointe Noire). Since 1990, HELP has been taking care of seized orphan chimpanzees. Today, a total of 45 young chimpanzees are kept on several small islands and supplemented with food.
In November 1996, Caroline Tutin and other primatologists organized the first release operation. Seven chimpanzees were released into the Triangle area, a larger island with crossing paths to the main land, which already supports a small wild chimpanzee population. The released chimps were fitted with radio-collars, so their movements and basic activities can be monitored. HELP activities in the Coukouati Sanctuary also include a program of public awareness in the local communities (anti-poaching), the establishment of a tree nursery, and the development of ecotourism.
HELP is currently looking for volunteers to assist in various activities (ecological data collection on released chimpanzees, care of the 45 orphan chimps, public awareness and local capacity building, veterinary and administrative aspects, etc.). Volunteers may come for at least one month, but long-term involvements (3 months or more) are strongly encouraged. Background in primatology, eco-ethology, or telemetry and prior field work experience are preferred but not necessary. Volunteers must be able to cover their airfares and their living expenses in the Conkouati Sanctuary (allow US$900 per month).
HELP is also currently raising funds to purchase telemetry and forestry equipment for future release operations (US$5,500). Any suggestion on potential funding sources is welcome.
For more information, visit the HELP Congo site at <http://www.cybsnack.mnet.fr/conk.html> or contact: Sophie Descamps [33-18.104.22.168.84; e-mail: [email protected]].
* * *
Wakuluzu Friends of the Colobus Trust, a conservation organization based in Diani Beach, Kenya, is charged with the conservation of the Angolan colobus monkey. This species is disappearing with forest loss, road kills and electrocution on high voltage wires. Every two months a two-page Update is printed and distributed locally and further afield. It is aimed at raising public awareness, and is fun and informative. To receive a copy, contact Paula Kahumbu, Secretary, Wakuluzu Friends of the Colobus Trust, P.O. Box 5380, Diani Beach, Kenya [254-127-3519/7; fax 3223; e-mail: [email protected]s.africaonline.co.ke].
Primate-Talk Directory Name Change
The Primate-Talk "Directory of Members" has recently been renamed the World Directory of Primatologists (WDP) to reflect the fact that it's not really tied to membership on the Primate-Talk mailing list. The Directory's Web location is now a little different. You can view it at: <www.primate.wisc.edu/pin/wdp/>
E-mail Lists of Interest
* Americans for Medical Progress alerts list, AMP News, warns of possible anti-research violence. Write to Jacquie Calnan, Director of Public Affairs, at [email protected]
*ABSnet is now on a different computer. Send your news items or other requests to be included to: [email protected] To subscribe or unsubscribe write to [email protected]
*CompMed has also changed computers. Send your news items to: [email protected] To subscribe or unsubscribe write to [email protected]
* Distance Sampling, a new forum for sharing ideas and information about distance sampling survey methods. Distance sampling is a widely used technique for estimating the abundance of biological populations. Methods include line transects, point transects (variable circular plots), cue counting, trapping webs, and migration counts. To join, send an e-mail message to the address [email protected] with the following message: "join distance-sampling Firstname Lastname" Mail questions about the list to the list administrator at [email protected]
* A mailing list for Neurosciences: a moderated list including everything from molecular neurobiology to clinical neuroscience. To subscribe, send e-mail to [email protected] with the message in the body: "subscribe neurosci" or "subscribe neurosci-digest".
Persons concerned about great apes and other endangered animals are invited to use and contribute to a working bibliography being developed on hunting and bushmeat commerce in West and Central Africa. With over two hundred entries, this already may be the largest organized reference list on such topics. However, it is far from finished. More input is needed to make this a comprehensive tool which can be used to substantiate and direct programs to stop the commercial slaughter of endangered animals for their meat.
A first draft of the bibliography can be accessed now through the web page at <biosynergy.org/bushmeat/>. Future drafts will include annotations, additional references, and new sections. Some material will be omitted and much more added. Unpublished talks and position papers will eventually be separated out from published work. The quality and usefulness of this tool will depend in large part on your support.
Authors who have done work in areas related to hunting and bushmeat commerce are hereby urged to send us your citations and abstracts. If we have left out or mis-cited something you have done, please forward the corrections. Persons familiar with written work on these topics are invited to contribute titles and brief annotations describing the materials and how to access them. Anyone with ideas for expanding the topics covered, please send your recommendations. And if you have a bibliography on these topics, please contact us so we can merge the works and include you in the list of "compilers." Contact Anthony L. Rose, The Biosynergy Institute/Bushmeat Project, P.O. Box 488, Hermosa Beach, CA 90254 [310-379-1470; fax: 310-379-7042; e-mail: [email protected]].
Mimicry in Primates
Clara Jones is seeking any information, speculations, anecdotes, etc. regarding Mimicry in primates (including social mimicry, as in social parasitism). "I am especially interested in receiving feedback about observations that are not included in Napier & Napier (1967), in Wickler's work, and in my Neotropical Primates note (1995). I am also interested in any cases of developmental mimicry, for example, delayed maturation in male mantled howler monkeys, who resemble adolescent females. I appreciate and will acknowledge any responses." Send information to Clara B. Jones, Ph.D., 1406 East Front St, Plainfield, NJ 07062 [e-mail: [email protected]].
More Interesting Web Sites
* AAALAC International: www.aaalac.org
* Roger Williams Park Zoo: users.ids.net/~rwpz/index.htm
* Americans for Medical Progress: www.ampef.org
* Science Net: www.campus.bt.com/CampusWorld/pub/ScienceNet/
* Consortium of Aquariums, Universities and Zoos: www.selu.com/~bio/cauz/
*The Great Ape Project: www.envirolink.org/orgs/gap/gaphome.html
* Hardin Meta Directory Microbiology/Infectious Diseases: www.arcade.uiowa.edu/hardin-www/md-micro.html
*Primate Research Lab., Univ. of South Alabama's Neotropical Primates website with a variety of husbandry and clinical information, including clinical chemistry and hematology values: <www.saimiri.usouthal.edu/prl>.
* VetBase, database of doses of veterinary drugs derived from the literature, contains references to over 12,000 doses for 800 veterinary drugs in 130 species. A free demo version of VetBase, fully functional, but only for antithelminthics in rodents, can be downloaded from <oslovet.veths.no/databasesintro.html#VetBase>
* Japan Ethological Society and Journal of Ethology: meme.biology.tohoku.ac.jp/JE/JESOC.html
* Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz: www.dbbm.fiocruz.br/www-mem
* American Veterinary Medical Association: www.avma.org/
* American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine: www.aclam.org
* Smithsonian Institution's Mammals of the World: www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/
* Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International: www.aaalac.org
Some Key Department of HHS Web Addresses
* Department of Health and Human Services: www.hhs.gov
*Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR): www.ahcpr.gov
* Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): www.cdc.gov
* Food and Drug Administration (FDA): www.fda.gov
* Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA): www.hrsa.dhhs.gov
* National Institutes of Health (NIH): www.nih.gov
* Healthfinder: www.healthfinder.gov
* Medline: www.nlm.nih.gov
* NIH Health Information Page: www.nih.gov/health/
* Travelers Information: www.cdc.gov/travel/travel.htm
* Treatment Findings: www.ahcpr.gov
The National Library of Medicine (NLM) has announced free web-based MEDLINE accessible through PubMed and Internet Grateful Med. PubMed is an experimental search system that provides free access to MEDLINE in a single search. The search features include: * Sets of related articles pre-computed for each article in MEDLINE; * Choice of search interfaces from simple keywords to advanced Boolean expressions; * Searching by main topics and subheadings index terms and field restrictions; * Links to publishers' Web sites for full-text journals. Initially 24 journals are available, some by subscription only; Clinical query form with search filters for diagnosis, therapy and prognosis; Links to molecular biology database of DNA/protein sequences and 3-D structure data.
Internet Grateful Med provides free access to MEDLINE, as well as AIDSLINE and HealthSTAR. The features include: * Use of the full range of Medical Subject Headings and the UMLS Metathesaurus; * Ability to limit searches by language, publication type, age groups, etc., using pull-down menus; * Loansome Doc document delivery service. A new version to be released in July will include free access to several additional databases (AIDSDRUGS, AIDSTRIALS, DIRLINE, HIST-LINE, HSRPROJ, OLDMEDLINE and SDILINE) and will no longer require a User ID.
Free MEDLINE is limited to Web-based searching via the Internet because of great savings to NLM in telecommunications and software costs. Thus, access to all NLM nonWeb-based systems will continue to be billed (i.e., direct command language searching of ELHILL; TOXNET; PDQ; and the DOS, Macintosh and Windows versions of Grateful Med whether access is by direct dial, FTS2000, or the Internet). Hot links to IGM and PubMed are available on the NLM home page (see URL above).
Larry Jacobsen, of the Wisconsin RPRC Library, has a section of his Primate Information Network <www.primate.wisc.edu/pin> containing the basic outlines of 14 different courses, mostly introductory, in primatology. These include textbooks, videos, class assignments, projects, etc. This was intended for faculty putting together a new course in primatology, but can be useful for students or others. Look in the PIN under "Syllabi". Larry welcomes new syllabi from others teaching such classes. Contact him at the Library, Wisconsin RPRC, 1223 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715-1299 [608-263-3512; fax 608-263-4031; e-mail: [email protected]].
* * *
At the request of the National Institutes of Health, the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Acad-emy of Sciences (NAS), appointed 12 experts in biomedical research, colony management, demography, population genetics, conservation, and humane issues to provide recommendations on future scientific needs for chimpanzees in biomedical research and their long-term care.
Recommendations centered around: 1) the number of captive chimpanzees needed for future research and how they might best be provided; 2) the number of chimpanzees needed to provide offspring sufficient to meet future biomedical requirements and sustain a U.S. chimpanzee population; 3) options for long-term care and funding for chimpanzees no longer needed for research or breeding.
The committee also considered the following: population management strategies, including birth control and selective euthanasia; research with animals no longer needed for biomedical research; the role and mechanisms of non-government organizations in managing these animals; and the roles of both government and non-government agencies and institutions in providing support and funding for long-term care facilities.
The committee's report, Chimpanzees In Research: Strategies For Their Ethical Care, Management, And Use, were made public on July 16, 1997. The Committee suggests the existing chimpanzee population is more than adequate to meet research needs for at least five years. Moreover, increasing the number of chimpanzees maintained in the major NlH-supported biomedical chimpanzee facilities would risk eroding the quality of their care as a result of overcrowding, pressure on limited resources, and contamination of breeding and other research-naive animals by those used in infectious-disease studies. Therefore, the following recommendations were made:
(1) A breeding moratorium should be imposed for at least five years (1997-2001).
(2) Euthanasia should not be endorsed as a general means of population control.
(3) A core population of approximately 1,000 chimpanzees should be assured lifetme support by the federal government, and ownership of these animals should be transferred to the government.
(4) The concept of sanctuaries capable of providing for the long-term care and well-being of chimpanzees that are no longer needed for research and breeding should become an integral component of the strategic plan to achieve the best and most cost-effective solutions to the current dilemma.
(5) A single multiagency organized unit, the Chimpanzee Management Plan (ChiMP) should be established within the office of the Director of the National Institutes of Health, or as described below, and be given direct administrative and fiscal responsibility for government-owned animals that are considered necessary to meet current and long-term national needs.
(6) An appropriate advisory council of non-government experts should be created as a chartered committee for the purpose of establishing policies of ChiMP and for monitoring the short-term and long-term implications of these recommendations, including implications for research use, breeding colony size, demography, genetics, and long-term care. Copies of the full report are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave N.W., Washington, DC 20418. -From the Primate Foundation of Arizona's NEWSLETTER, 1997, 9, 4-5. * * *
An updated Directory will be published in the January, 1998, issue of the Laboratory Primate Newsletter. If you wish your program to be represented in this Directory or to revise your present entry, please send us the necessary information, following the format shown here as closely as possible. Return the information as soon as possible, but not later than December 1, 1997, to the Laboratory Primate Newsletter, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 [[email protected]]. Please note that the Directory is not intended for postdoctoral programs, though any such sent to us will be listed separately.
For examples, see the 1996 Directory in the LPN, 1996, 34, 21-30. Recommended format:
3. Division, Section, or Department:
4. Program Name and/or Description:
5. Faculty and Their Specialties:
6. Address for Further Information:
* * *
The Association of Primate Veterinarians will meet 14-16 November, 1997 (just prior to AALAS meetings) at the Doubletree Hotel, Santa Monica, CA. Contact James Blanchard, D.V.M. Ph.D., Head, Vet. Sciences Dept, Tulane Regional Primate Research Center, 18703 Three Rivers Rd, Covington, LA 70433 [504-892-2040; fax: 504-893-1352; e-mail: [email protected]].
The American Association For Laboratory Animal Science will hold its annual meeting 16-20 November, 1997, in Anaheim, CA. For more information, contact Betty Cartwright [e-mail: [email protected]; <www.aalas.org/nmeet.htm>].
The Registry of Comparative Pathology will host an Animal Model Symposium December 8-10, 1997, at NIH, 9000 Rockville Pike (Bldg 1, Wilson Hall), Bethesda, MD. The title is "Animal Models of Human Disease for the 21st Century." For information about the symposium and registration, contact the Registry, Armed Forces Inst. of Pathology, Washington, DC 20306 [202-782-2440; fax: 202-782-9150; e-mail: [email protected]].
The Scientists Center for Animal Welfare and the University of Texas Health Science Center will cosponsor a conference, "Hot Topics for Animal Care and Use Committees," December 11-12, 1997, in San Antonio, TX. Speakers will include J. K. Hilliard, M. E. Keeling, and J. Fritz. For information contact SCAW, 7833 Walker Dr., Suite 340, Greenbelt, MD 20770 [301-345-3500; fax: 301-345-3503; e-mail: [email protected]].
Busch Gardens, Tampa Bay, FL, is hosting Zoos Committing to Conservation, a conference "to help determine the role zoos and aquariums will play in conservation in the 21st century," December 11-14, 1997. For more information, contact Zoo Dept, Busch Gardens, P.O. Box 9158, Tampa, FL 33674-9158 [813-987-5447; fax: 813-987-5548].
The Third Annual International Wildlife Law Conference will take place at American University's School of Law in Washington, DC on March 31, 1998, sponsored by the GreenLife Society and co-sponsored by the American Society of International Law's Wildlife Section; the GreenLife Society-North American Chapter; Detroit College of Law-Michigan State University; American University School of Law; the Journal of Wildlife Management Law & Policy; and the Department of Law, University of Nottingham. The panels for the conference will be: The Interface of the World Trade Organization and International Wildlife Treaty Regimes/National Wildlife Conservation Legislation; Sustainable Use of Wildlife: Opportunity or Oxymoron? and Regional Wildlife Treaty Regimes: Problems and Prospects. Those interested in participating in the conference should submit 1-2 page abstracts to the address below. Limited funds may be available for speakers traveling from outside the United States. To be placed on the mailing list for program/registration materials, contact Wil Burns, Exec. Dir., GreenLife Soc.-North American Chapter, 700 Cragmont Ave., Berkeley, CA 94708 [510-558-0620; e-mail: [email protected]; <EELINK.umich.edu/greenlife/index.html>].
The Animal Behavior Society's Annual Meeting will be held July 18-22, 1998, hosted by Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. For information, contact Lee Drickamer [e-mail: [email protected]].
* * *
The Twenty-first meeting of the American Society of Primatologists will be cohosted by Southwestern University, in Georgetown, TX, and the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, in Bastrop, TX, June 28-July 1, 1998. The majority of events will take place on the Southwestern Univ. campus, but a tour, the banquet, dance, and closing ceremonies will occur at the Science Park on July 1. Standing committee meetings will be held on the afternoon of Sunday, June 28, followed by a reception for all registrants. Scientific sessions will begin on Monday morning and continue through Wednesday afternoon.
Reasonably priced, fully air-conditioned dormitory accomodations are available for all participants, and will include breakfast and lunch in the dining hall. Meeting rooms, dormitories, and the dining hall are all located within a 2-minute walk. There are three motels in Georgetown, for those who do not wish to stay in the dorms, and there is free parking on campus.
It will be very hot, but there are plenty of indoor activities available on campus, including a track, swimming pool, racquetball and basketball courts, weight room, etc. For more information, or answers to questions about the meeting, or about Texas, contact the Chair of the Local Arrangements Committee, Steve Schapiro, UTMDA Cancer Center, Rte 2, Box 151-B1, Bastrop, TX 78602 [521-321-3991; e-mail: [email protected]].
* * *
The 1998 meeting of the International Primatological Society will take place 9-14 August at the University of Antananarivo, Antananarivo, Madagascar. Note that this is a change from the date previously announced!
This Congress is intended to promote good science and discussion of research concerns. The deadline for registration and submission of poster or paper abstracts is February 1, 1998. Registration fees are US$300 for regular members; $100 for students; $350 for guests. After February 1, 1998, rates increase by $50. Hotels and dormitories are within 2-8 km of the University. Prices range from US$15 to US$192. Note the following deadlines: (1) Abstracts for symposia, workshops and roundtable discussions: October 31, 1997; (2) Reservations for dormitories: January 1, 1998; (3) Registration; abstracts for posters and papers: February 1, 1998; and (4) Reservations for hotels: May 1, 1998. For registration materials and Congress information, contact XVIIth Congress of the International Primatological Society, Faculty of Sciences, Bldg P, Door 207, P.O. Box 906, Antananarivo 101, Madagascar [261 26991, ext. 24; fax: 261-2-31398]. For hotel accommodations, contact Mlle. Hanitra Ramaroson, Maison du Tourisme, Palace de l'Independance Antaninarenina, Antananarivo 101, Madagascar [261-2-32529; fax: 261-2-32537]. For dormitory accommodations contact Mr. Soava Rakotoarisoa at the Congress Secretariat (address above).
* * *
Measuring Behavior `98, the second international workshop on measuring behavior, will address the integration of advanced behavioral research with physiological measurements. New developments both in the behavioral and physiological sciences make such an integration feasible. The development of techniques and generic software tools can form a bridge between disciplines, which are often unaware of techniques already available in other fields. For example, data analysis methods stemming from ethology are now being used by applied psychologists, and path analysis techniques originally designed by entomologists are proving useful for behavioral pharmacologists studying rodents. Moreover, recent developments in radiotelemetry, brain imaging, chip technology and biosensor techniques originally used by physiologists are now being used for simultaneous recording of physiological processes and behavior. The sponsors hope that Measuring Behavior `98, like Measuring Behavior `96, will serve as a common ground for crossfertilization of research disciplines.
Measuring Behavior `98 will be held in Groningen, The Netherlands, 18-21 August, 1998. It will consist of plenary sessions, demonstrations, training sessions, scientific tours, user meetings, etc. For further information, contact Measuring Behavior `98, Workshop Secretariat, Attn: Rosan Nikkelen, P.O. Box 268, 6700 AG Wageningen, The Netherlands [+31-(0)317-497677; fax: +31-(0)317-424496; e-mail: [email protected]].
* * *
Larry Jacobsen is Distinguished, too!
Congratulations to Larry Jacobsen, head of Library Services at the Wisconsin RPRC, who received a Distinguished Service Award from the American Primatology Society at its meeting this June in San Diego. Larry is well known in the world primate community, not only for his services to the WRPRC, but as the originator of Primate-Talk, the on-line discussion group, and the Primate Information Network on the World Wide Web.
Conservation Awards at ASP
Also honored at the June meeting were Nancy Czekala-Gruber, of San Diego, CA, for her extensive work in the reproductive biology of primates, and Jeremy J. C. Mallinson of the Wildlife Preservation Trust. Czekala-Gruber and Mallinson each received a "Senior Biology and Conservation Award." The Conservation Award, which carries a prize of $500, went to Juan Carlos Serio Silva of Mexico "for his efforts to preserve the habitats and primates of Mexico through his field research, teaching, and outreach efforts." Juan Carlos, who published "Studies of Howler Monkeys (Alouatta palliata) Translocated to a Neotropical Rainforest Fragment" in the January, 1997, issue of the LPN, is responsible for the new Latin-America page, "Primates de las Américas - La Página....", announced on p. 20 of this issue.
* * *
Project Betampona: Lemur Restocking Project
In cooperation with Malagasy authorities, the Madagascar Fauna Group, an international consortium of 30 zoological institutions, is moving forward with plans to re-stock black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) at the Natural Reserve of Betampona, a small (2228 ha) reserve in eastern Madagascar. Betampona is the sole forested mountain range in a vast region where eastern lowland forest has been lost to cultivation. A small Varecia population, at least eight other lemur taxa, and many bird, reptile, and other species will all benefit from increased protection brought by the project. Goals include the development and testing of reintroduction protocols for lemurs, and the integration of captive breeding programs with efforts to increase the viability of Betampona's remaining wild Varcia population. With preliminary behavioral, ecological, and genetic research completed and most of the necessary funds raised (funded in part by a grant from the Walt Disney World Company through AZA's Conservation Endowment Fund), captive-bred animals from the Ruffed Lemur Species Survival Plan population have been selected for release by the AZA Prosimian Advisory Group. Pairs have been formed and are now in "boot camp" at Duke University Primate Center and the Wildlife Conservation Society's St. Catherine's Wildlife Survival Center, located in Georgia, to prepare them for life in the wild. - From Endangered Species Update, March/April, 1997
Primate Imports in 1997 to Date
Shirley McGreal reported on Primate-Talk that IPPL had received from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service a list of live primate imports to the United States from 1 January-2 June 1997. "There may be other shipments not yet entered into the USFWS computer system. There were, according to USFWS, 28 shipments totalling 2691 primates valued at $3,255,124."
Primate Use in Fiscal Year 1996
The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture's FY96 Animal Welfare Enforcement Report indicates that 52,327 nonhuman primates were "in use" in laboratories during last fiscal year. This is to be compared with 55,113 in FY94 and 50,206 in FY95. The National Association for Biomedical Research, in reporting these figures, notes that an "accurate count of primates is difficult to obtain because they live long lives in captivity, and the same animals may be reported over and over from one year to the next."
Another Monkey Species Found in Brazil
A Dutch scientist has proven that a monkey species in the Brazilian rain forest is the world's second smallest monkey species.
A local man arrived at Marc Van Roosmalen's primate orphanage in Manaus, 1,800 miles northwest of Rio de Janeiro, in April, 1996, carrying a tiny monkey. It was mouse-size and greenish-gray, with white fringe around its face, a black crown, and a black tail. "As soon as I saw it I knew it was something new," Van Roosmalen said via telephone from Manaus.
Van Roosmalen identified the monkey as a black-headed Saguinus dwarf. To prove it was a new species, he needed to find a few more of them, but all he knew was that the monkey had been found on a boat on the Rio Madeira. After more than a year of hiking in the jungle, he located them near the Rio Aripuana.
DNA testing confirmed it was a new species in the Saguinus genus. The name Van Roosmalen used will stand until a full scientific description and formal name can be published; it is expected in the Brazilian journal Goeldiana later this year. - Associated Press, August 19, 1997
Fire in Poco das Antas Reserve
A raging fire has destroyed about one-sixth of the Poco das Antas nature reserve, which houses a colony of 350 endangered monkeys, ecologists in Brazil said on August 20. Some 700 hectares of the 5,000-hectare reserve had been destroyed by the blaze, putting at risk the entire population of rare golden lion-tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia), many of which are descendents of monkeys born and raised in zoos. The nature park also houses other animal species, including birds, deer, lynx, otters, snakes, and sloths, as well as various native plants.
Park director Dionisio Pessamilio said arson is suspected. "Since spontaneous combustion is impossible, the only hypothesis is a criminal fire," Pessamilio said.
More than 50 firefighters tried to extinguish the fire, which broke out on August 18. Firefighters were assisted by workers from Brazil's Environmental Institute. The fire is the worst since 1,500 hectares of parkland in the Poco das Antas was destroyed in a 1991 blaze. - Posted to Primate-Talk by Robert Beale, from a report by Agence France Presse
* * *
Director, Lab. Animal Resources, Massachusetts
Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) is seeking a professional to serve as Director of Laboratory Animal Resources for a newly restructured and expanded department. During the past several years MGH and its affiliated partners have experienced significant growth in rodent, primate, and swine utilization. This has led to developments that include the recently opened MGH Core Knockout Facility and the expansion of the primate and swine facilities.
As a result of these developments, we are seeking an experienced Director who will administer centralized Animal Resources and provide broad management of the department. The Director will oversee a staff of 45 (including veterinarians) and will work with a large and exceptional staff of research investigators, ensuring that highest quality care and services are provided. The Director will monitor the Animal Health Surveillance Program, serve on the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, and work with the senior institutional veterinarian and executive management to ensure continued AAALAC accreditation and compliance with applicable laws and regulations.
Qualifications required include a Doctorate in veterinary medicine (D.V.M./V.M.D.), post-doctoral training in laboratory animal medicine, and board certification by the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine. A minimum of five years of additional management experience is needed. Excellent communication and interpersonal skills are required.
Please send your letter of application and qualifications, resume, and three references to William T. Watson, D.V.M., M.S., Director, Animal Programs, Massachusetts General Hospital, Mail Stop 149-1304, 149 Thirteenth St, Charlestown, MA 02129 [fax: 617-726-5705].
Clinical Veterinarian, New Jersey
The University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey School of Medicine Research Animal Facility, has an immediate opening for a Clinical Veterinarian. This busy, 31,500 sq.-ft., AAALAC-accredited facility, serving the UMDNJ-Newark Campus including the Medical School, the Dental School, the Graduate School, and the School of Health Sciences, houses a variety of species and supports many different research projects. The successful candidate will supervise three veterinary technicians, be responsible for the operation of the sterile surgery suite, manage the sentinel surveillance program, be a voting member of the IACUC, and interact with investigators in a stimulating academic environment. The position reports to the Director.
Requirements include experience and/or training in comparative medicine and laboratory animal medicine and good clinical and surgical skills. Excellent interpersonal skills are a must. Preference will be given to a candidate who has completed a training program in comparative and laboratory animal medicine. Salary and compensation will be commensurate with training and experience. UMDNJ-NJMS is an Affirmative Action Employer.
Interested candidates should send their CV and the names of three references to Dr. Eva Ryden, Director, Research Animal Facility, UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, MSB A-604, 185 South Orange Ave, Newark, NJ 07103-2714 [973-972-4669; fax: 973-972-2620; e-mail; [email protected]].
Field Director, Central African Republic
The World Wildlife Fund-Germany invites applications for a field director of an on-going project to habituate western lowland gorillas for tourism in the Dzanga-Sangha National Park, Central African Republic. The position is for one year but is potentially renewable. Responsibilities include organizing, conducting, and supervising habituation of gorillas and promoting eco-tourism. The successful applicant will have completed at least a Bachelor's degree in a related field, will have research experience with African primates in the wild, (preferably with gorillas), and will be fluent in French. The study site is located in a somewhat remote area and requires living in difficult circumstances. A total of US$50,000 will be provided to cover transportation, insurance, salary, and personal expenses. For more information, or to submit an application, contact Allard Blom, WWF, B.P. 1053, Bangui, Central African Republic [fax: 236-61-1085; e-mail: [email protected]]. Applicants should submit a letter of application, CV, and at least three letters of recommendation.
Research Veterinarian, Pittsburgh
The Department of Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry at the University of Pittsburgh seeks a research assistant professor who would also serve as Research Veterinarian in the Infectious Diseases Primate Research Institute. Candidates should posses a D.V.M. degree and be ACCLAM board certified in laboratory animal science. Experience in primate husbandry is required, with infectious disease research experience preferred. This person will be part of a multidisciplinary research program using nonhuman primates in infectious disease research, with emphasis on the pathogenesis of AIDS. S/he will actively participate in research projects and infectious disease research, and maintain procedures for containment of biohazardous infectious agents. Please send a CV and 3 references to Dr. Michael Murphey-Corb, Dept of Molec. Genetics & Biochem., Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Med., E1240 BSTWR, Pittsburgh, PA 15261. U-Pitts-burgh is an Affirmative Action Employer.
Positions Available, Primate Foundation of Arizona
Two full-time positions are available. The position of "Chimpanzee Caregiver" requires two years of college level coursework, two years' experience in the care of exotic animals, or an equivalent combination of experience which provides the required knowledge, skills, and ability. Primate experience will be a plus. This person will assist in caring for approximately 79 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in a breeding colony.
The second position is for a "Chimpanzee Registrar," a professional who will maintain and develop computer records systems to account for inventory and health status of the chimpanzee breeding colony. This person will work directly with the Staff Veterinarian. Applicant must be proficient in Lotus 123 and WordPerfect, type a minimum of 40 WPM, and have good communication skills. Experience in veterinary practice preferred.
Applicants must be willing to make a two-year commitment, and have a negative TB skin test, negative hepatitis B surface antigen test, and evidence of measles booster or natural disease prior to employment. Both positions offer excellent benefits. Please send letter of interest (with requested salary), resume, and three letters of reference to Jo Fritz, Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027 [602-832-3780; fax: 602-830-7039].
* * *
En el mundo existen mas de 360 millones de seres humanos que se comunican en Español. Otra lengua muy importante, el Portugués, también posee un destacado número de parlantes en América; es por lo anterior, que es de reconocerse la oportunidad que Judith E. Schrier, Editor de Laboratory Primate Newsletter brinda a todos los Primatólogos hispanoparlantes a fin de difundir dentro de una revista científica de calidad, y que tradicionalmente se publica en el idioma Ingles, los anuncios, noticias, proyectos y resumenes de investigacones producidas por los Primatólogos en su lengua nativa.
Así, "Primates de las Américas - La Página....", intenta captar a los primatólogos que deseen, mediante su participación en esta página, regresar a sus distintos países (en sus propios idiomas), el conocimiento que han obtenido por medio de sus estudios con los primates Americanos.
Los lineamientos para la preparación de los resúmenes, notas y/o anuncios, deberán ser iguales a los que Laboratory Primate Newsletter utiliza para su edición en ingles, aunque para esta sección en español y/o portugués, se sugiere que las dimensiones de las contribuciones sean breves y que de preferencia no excedan la mitad de una página.
Toda la correspondencia relacionada con "Primates de las Américas - La Página....", deberá dirigirse a: Juan Carlos Serio Silva, Depto de Ecología Vegetal, Doctorado en Ecología y Manejo de Recursos Naturales, Inst. de Ecología, A.C., ap 63, cp 91000, Xalapa, Veracruz, México [52 (28) 42 18 00, ext 1201 - 1204; fax: 52 (28) 42 18 00, ext 1204; e-mail: [email protected]] ó T. Elva Mathiesen, c/o Judith Schrier, Psychology Dept, Box 1853, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA [401-863-2511; fax: 401-863-1300; e-mail: [email protected]].
* * *
T. Burge, Novartis Pharma AG, S-386.0.37, Postfach, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland.
Linda M. Hermann, RR6 Box 509, Lebanon, PA 17046-9609.
Guy B. Mulder, 147 Biological Sciences Administration, Univ. of California, Irvine, CA 92697.
Anne Savage, Disney's Animal Kingdom, P.O. Box 10000, Lake Buena Vista, FL 32830.
Sonya P. Swing, Committee on Comp. Med & Pathology, Animal Resources Ctr, Rm Q-117-B, 5841 S. Maryland Ave, Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637.
Suzette D. Tardif, Dept of Biological Sciences, Kent State Univ., Cunningham Hall, Kent, OH 44242-0001.
William R. Voss, 3507 Woodbridge, Portage, MI 49024-4091.
* * *
Innovative Approaches to Develop New Technologies
The mission of the Biomedical Technology area of the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) is to support research to identify, create and develop innovative technologies and to provide these technologies for biomedical research. Areas of emphasis are biomedical engineering, biomedical computing, and technologies for the study of structure and function at all levels of living systems. The purpose of this Program Announcement (PA) is to encourage submission of new Exploratory/Developmental Grant applications to explore new research paradigms in engineering, instrumentation, physical sciences, mathematics, or computer science as applied to biomedical research. The projects should provide the opportunity to develop new technologies, methods, devices, and materials that provide greater understanding of fundamental elements of biological phenomena. These efforts should lead to new approaches to the solution of basic research questions in order to prevent, diagnose, and treat disease and disability and ultimately to improve human health. The technologies/instruments/ methodologies to be developed under this program must be applicable to a variety of NIH research areas. Applications to develop technologies that apply only to one categorical NIH institute or a specific disease generally do not meet the guidelines for this program. Such applications will be considered only if the applicant clearly demonstrates the long-term potential of the technology for having a broad impact on biomedical research.
Application receipt date is October 17, 1997. The PA, which describes the research objectives, application procedures, review considerations, and award criteria for this program, may be obtained electronically through the NIH Grant Line (data line 301-402-2221), the NIH GOPHER (gopher.nih.gov), the NIH Website <www.nih.gov>, and by mail and email from Dr. Dov Jaron, Biomedical Technology, NCRR, 6705 Rockledge Dr., Rm 6160, MSC 7965, Bethesda, MD 20892-7965 [301-435-0755; fax: 301-480-3659; e-mail: [email protected]].
Mucosal Immunity in Disease
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) invite applications for investigator-initiated basic and preclinical research into the human mucosal immune system and its regulation. Included are the gastrointestinal, oral, respiratory, reproductive, and urinary mucosa, with their specialized lymphoreticular structures and cells. The goal of this announcement is to increase high quality research on the mechanisms of response of the human mucosal immune system to disease-specific antigens. Use of primate models may be appropriate. Increased understanding of the human mucosal immune system and its response in disease and to exogenous factors should allow the design of more rational immunotherapies and vaccines for the treatment or prevention of autoimmune and infectious diseases, including HIV infection and its complications.
For further information, contact the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Hannah Peavy [301- 435-0222; fax: 301-480-3557; e-mail: [email protected]]; National Institute on Aging, Anna McCormick [301-496-6402; fax: 301-402-0100; e-mail: [email protected]]; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation, Elaine Collier [301-496-7104; fax: 301-402-2571; e-mail: [email protected]]; AIDS, Patricia Fast [301-435-3727; fax: 301-402-3684; e-mail: [email protected]]; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Dennis Lang [301-496-7051; fax: 301-402-1456; e-mail: [email protected]]; National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, Susana Serrate-Sztein [301-594-5032; fax: 301-480-4543; e-mail: [email protected]]; National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Kenneth Gruber [301-402-3458; fax: 301-402-6251; e-mail: [email protected]]; National Institute of Dental Research, Dennis F. Mangan [301-594-2421; fax: 301-480-8318; e-mail: [email protected]]; National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Frank A. Hamilton [301-594-8877; fax: 301-480-8300; e-mail: [email protected]]; Office of Research on Women's Health, NIH, Katrina Johnson [301-402-1770; fax: 301-402-1798; e-mail: [email protected]].
Novel HIV Therapies: Integrated Program
The Division of AIDS (DAIDS), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), invites applications for the discovery, preclinical evaluation, development, and/or pilot clinical study of novel agents and strategies to suppress HIV replication, interfere with disease progression, and ameliorate the consequences of infection. The National Institute of Mental Health invites applications to identify and treat the nervous system complications of HIV infection that result in CNS dysfunction. The Integrated Preclinical/Clinical Program (IPCP) described in this PA combines applications for the National Cooperative Drug Discovery Groups for the Treatment of HIV Infection, which supports preclinical discovery of new therapeutics; applications from collaborative groups seeking transition from preclinical to clinical studies during the award period; and applications for the Strategic Program for Innovative Research on AIDS Treatment, which supports pilot clinical studies of novel treatments. By combining these into a single PA, the IPCP will provide a continuous spectrum of research opportunities to groups interested in the discovery and development of new therapies for HIV infection. This PA is designed for multi-disciplinary preclinical and clinical research groups, each consisting of a minimum of three interrelated projects, in which the participation of the private sector is strongly encouraged. Responsive applications will involve creative and original therapeutic research that emphasizes diverse facets of HIV infection. Excluded from this PA are targets and approaches already under extensive investigation by academia and the pharmaceutical sector, non-targeted random screening of potential inhibitors, and research on AIDS-associated opportunistic pathogens and malignancies.
The preclinical portion of the IPCP supports the discovery and development of a specific therapeutic approach or strategy in a concerted manner with obvious contribution by and need for each project and core to the overall group objective and development plan. A successful preclinical group should develop a new therapeutic strategy that can subsequently be translated to clinical evaluation.
Application receipt date is November 12, 1997. Direct inquiries to Nava Sarver, NIAID, DAIDS, Chief, Targeted Interventions Branch, Solar Bldg, Rm 2C01, Bethesda, MD 20892-7620 [301-496-8197; fax: 301-402-3211; e-mail: [email protected]].
Innovative Research on Addiction
The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) will support innovative, integrated preclinical and clinical research to validate novel approaches and identify potential compounds that are safe and effective short-term (to reduce and stop cocaine and other psychomotor stimulants use) and long-term (to prolong abstinence) pharmacotherapies for the treatment of cocaine and other psychomotor stimulants addiction. A Strategic Program for Innovative Research on Cocaine (and other psychomotor stimulants) Addiction Pharmacotherapy can focus its therapeutic research activities on, for example, modulating specific receptor sites, (e.g., the dopamine transporter, D3 receptor, a serotonin receptor, etc,) or neurotransmitters that are believed to be involved in cocaine and other psychomotor stimulants addiction, or on development of biologically based anti-cocaine medications, such as antibodies, enzymes, and catalytic antibodies, or on advancing the neurobiological understanding of cocaine and other psychomotor stimulants addiction that will construct new therapeutic concepts. Studies should have a truly novel or innovative approach. This program complements existing, more traditional preclinical and clinical programs for the development of cocaine and other psychomotor stimulants treatment medications.
Letter of Intent receipt date is October 14, 1997; Application receipt date is November 14, 1997. Direct inquiries to Betty Tai, Medications Development Div., NIDA, Parklawn Bldg, Rm 11A-55, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857 [301- 443-3318/1428; fax: 301-443-2599; e-mail: [email protected]].
Research on Immune Tolerance
NIH invites applications that will elucidate basic mechanisms responsible for inducing and maintaining antigen-specific immune tolerance, that will facilitate translation of experimental knowledge on immune tolerance into clinical therapies for the treatment or prevention of immune-mediated disease, or that will promote more effective development of vaccines by preventing pathogen-induced immune tolerance.
For more information, contact Helen Quill, NIAID, DAIT [301-496-7551; fax; 301-402-2571; e-mail: [email protected]]; Lee Hall, NIAID, DMID [301-496-2544; fax: 301-402-2508; e-mail: [email protected]]; Scott Cairns, NIAID, DAID [301-496-8197; fax: 301-402-3211; e-mail: [email protected]]; Judith Massicot-Fisher, NHLBI [301-435-0504; fax: 301-480-1454; e-mail: [email protected]]; Anna M. McCormick, NIA [301-496-6402; fax: 301-402-0010; e-mail: [email protected]]; or Allan Lock, NICHHD [301) 496-5541; fax: 301-402-4083; e-mail: [email protected]].
Immunological Aspects of Hematopoietic Stem Cells
NIH invites applications for studies of the early stages of lymphoid lineage commitment and development from hematopoietic stem cells. Although much has been learned in recent years to enhance understanding of the later stages of T, B and natural killer (NK) cell development, definition of the complex processes that regulate lymphoid lineage commitment and early lymphoid progenitor cell differentiation requires expanded research efforts. Work in this area is expected to provide basic information needed for future applications to human immunodeficiency diseases, autoimmune diseases, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and gene transfer therapy.
For more information, contact Helen Quill or Anna M. McCormick [addresses above]; Alan Levine, NHLBI [301-435-0050; fax: 301-480-0868; e-mail: [email protected]]; or David G. Badman, NIDDKD [301-594-7717; fax: 301-480-3510; e-mail: [email protected]].
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), NIH, invite applications that propose to investigate the "latent" phase of infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and the mechanism(s) by which M.tb is reactivated in some hosts. For the purposes of this initiative, "the latent state" refers to that state of infection during which clinical disease is inapparent, yet infection of the host has been established. The mechanisms by which this phase terminates in some hosts and persistent bacilli are re-activated, leading to development of active disease, are also of interest.
For information, contact Ann M. Ginsberg, Div. Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, NIAID, 6003 Executive Blvd, Rm 3B06, Bethesda, MD 20892-7630 [301-496-5305; fax: 301-496-8030; e-mail: [email protected]]; or Hannah H. Peavy, Div. Lung Diseases, NHLBI, 6701 Rockledge Dr., Suite 10018, MSC 7952, Bethesda, MD 20892-7952 [301-435-0222; fax: 301-480-3557; e-mail: [email protected]].
Chemical Modifiers: Radiation Response of Tumors
The Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis, and Centers (DCTDC) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) invites research grant applications from interested investigators for preclinical exploration of the therapeutic potential of new and novel chemical modifiers of radiation response of tumors. Optimization of leads arising from the applicant's own work or from the published literature should include the design and synthesis of new compounds, using combinatorial chemistry, and preclinical evaluation in vitro and in vivo.
Application receipt dates are October 1, February 1 and June 1. For more information, contact Helen B. Stone, DCTDC, NCI, 6130 Executive Blvd, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892-7440 [301-496-9360; fax: 301-480-5785; e-mail: [email protected]].
Antigen Recognition in Allograft Survival
The National Institutes of Health invite applications for studies to further our understanding of the immune response to direct or indirect presentation of allogeneic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and to determine the contribution of each pathway to acute and chronic graft rejection. Research to date has focused on direct recognition of allogeneic MHC; therapies designed to block this pathway have been successful in reducing acute rejection of transplanted organs. However, chronic rejection is still an impediment to long-term survival. The indirect pathway of allorecognition has recently been implicated primarily in chronic graft rejection; however, an additional role for this pathway in the enhancement of acute rejection has been suggested. Knowledge from basic, preclinical and clinical studies aimed at characterizing the relative role of the direct and the indirect allorecognition pathways in enhancing or preventing graft rejection could lead to the development of specific interventions to modulate immune recognition after transplantation and ultimately increase graft survival.
For information, contact Janet M. Connolly, NIAID [301-496-5598; fax: 301-402-2571; e-mail: [email protected]]; LeeAnn Jensen, NHLBI [301-435-0066; fax: 301-480-1060; e-mail: [email protected]]; Lawrence Agodoa, NIDDKD [fax: 301-480-3510; e-mail: [email protected]]; or Susana Serrate-Sztein, NIAMSD [301-594-5032; fax: 301-480-4543; e-mail: [email protected]].
Minor Histocompatibility Antigens
NIH invites applications for studies to further our understanding of the role of minor histocompatibility antigens (MiHA) in graft vs. host disease (GVHD) following bone marrow transplantation and the possible involvement of MiHAs in chronic graft rejection of solid organ transplants. Most of the research efforts to date have centered on the role of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens in rejection of transplanted tissues and organs. This Program Announcement is directed at characterizing the immunologic response to MiHA and at defining the manner and extent to which that response affects successful long-term engraftment. The immune response to MiHA is a major, if underappreciated, cause of graft failure in bone marrow transplantation. This initiative is designed to promote research to characterize the immunologic response to MiHA, and to attempt to define how that response can be prevented to enhance graft survival. It will support basic, pre-clinical, and clinical studies using molecular and cellular approaches to dissect the immune response to these antigens. These studies may lead to new information with the potential for clinical applications thereby improving long-term graft survival in bone marrow and solid organ transplant recipients.
For information, contact Janet M. Connolly, LeeAnn Jensen, or Lawrence Agodoa [addresses above], or Anne K. Heath, NCI [301-496-7815; fax: 301-496-8656; e-mail: [email protected]].
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR), National Institutes of Health (NIH), invite applications for research studies of the innate immune system. Two general systems of immune recognition have been selected through evolution: innate immunity and acquired immunity. The innate immune system provides broad, but relatively nonspecific host defenses that lack the properties of antigenic specificity and immunologic memory that characterize acquired immunity. However, recent discoveries point to many robust mechanisms of innate immunity and have highlighted important functional links between the innate and acquired immune responses. The purpose of this announcement is to support basic and preclinical studies of the mechanisms of innate immunity in order to: a) develop new strategies to augment antimicrobial defenses; b) develop novel approaches for immunomodulation in chronic infectious and inflammatory disorders; and c) identify new methods, based on mechanisms of innate immunity, to modulate acquired immune responses (e.g., to enhance vaccine efficacy).
For information, contact Daniel Rotrosen, Div. of Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation, NIAID, Solar Bldg, Rm 4A24, 6003 Executive Blvd, Bethesda, MD 20892-7640 [301-496-8974; fax: 301-402-0175; e-mail: [email protected]]; or Dennis F. Mangan, Div. of Extramural Research, NIDR, Bldg. 45, Rm 4AN-32F, Bethesda, MD 20892-6402 [301-594-2421; fax: 301-480-8318; e-mail: [email protected]].
Immune Response to Xenotransplant Antigens
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), and National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) invite applications to enhance our ability to transplant organs and tissues across species barriers (xenotransplantation) by increasing our understanding of the human immune response to antigens present on the surface of organs or tissues from nonhuman species, and the development of methods to allow rapid identification and treatment of infectious diseases that might occur by transmission of disease-causing organisms across species barriers. This research would lead to the development of new therapies to allow xenografts to survive and function in humans and the generation of new, sensitive detection methods to decrease the risk of infectious disease associated with xenotransplantation.
Direct inquiries to Stephen M. Rose, Chief, Genetics and Transplantation Branch, Div. Allergy, Immunology & Transplantation, NIAID, Solar Bldg, Rm 4A14, 6003 Executive Blvd., Bethesda, MD 20892-7640 [301-496-5598; fax: 301-402-2571; e-mail: [email protected]]; Judith Massicot-Fisher, Heart Failure SRG Leader, Div. Heart & Vascular Diseases, NHLBI, 6701 Rockledge Dr. MSC 7940, Bethesda, MD 20892-7940 [301-435-0504; fax: 301-480-1454; e-mail: [email protected]]; or Joan T. Harmon, Chief, Diabetes Research Section, Div. Diabetes, Endocrinology & Metabolic Diseases, NIDDKD, Natcher Bldg, Rm 5An-18G, Bethesda, MD 20892-6600 [301-594-8813; fax: 301-480-3503; e-mail: [email protected]].
Inflammation in Asthma and Allergy
The National Institutes of Health are interested in stimulating a wide range of basic and clinical studies to: characterize the role of tissue inflammation in the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic diseases; identify factors responsible for the initiation and maintenance of inflammation in asthma and allergic diseases; and, based on this knowledge, develop new and improved approaches to treat and prevent these disorders. For information, contact Daniel Rotrosen, NIAID [301-496-8974; fax: 301-402-0175; e-mail: [email protected]]; Susan Banks-Schlegel, NHLBI [301-435-0202; fax: 301-480-3557; e-mail: [email protected]]; or George S. Malindzak, Jr., NIEHS [919-541-3289; fax: 919-541-2843; e-mail: [email protected]].
Gene Therapy in Aging
The National Institute on Aging, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institute of Mental Health, and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke are interested in supporting research on strategies to prevent or delay adverse aging-related changes and diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, using genetic and cellular engineering approaches.
The PA, which describes the research objectives, application procedures, review considerations, and award criteria for this solicitation, may be obtained electronically through the NIH Grant Line (data line 301/402-2221), the NIH GOPHER (gopher.nih.gov), and the NIH Website <www.nih.gov>, and by mail and e-mail from Huber R. Warner, Biology of Aging Program, NIA, Gateway Bldg, Suite 2C231, Bethesda, MD 20892-9205 [301/496-6402; fax: 301/402-0010; e-mail: [email protected]].
* * *
At the ASP meeting in San Diego, a large group of primatologists were seen doing the latest dance craze, The Macaque-arena! Developed by Sally Boysen and Steve Schapiro, refined by Karyl Swartz, and renamed by Your Editor (the "old" name was simply Monkeyrena), it's sure to be seen often in primate circles...or rather, lines! Here are the steps: * wrist-present, wrist-present * floating limb, floating limb * self-bite, self-bite * eye-poke, eye-poke * scratch, scratch * threat, threat * PRESENT!
* * *
*Tano & Binti: Two Chimpanzees Return to the Wild. A. &
L. DaVolls. New York, NY: Clarion Books, 1994.
. . . A picture book, based on the return to Gambia of two chimps from the London Zoo.
*NCRR Highlights, 1994-1995. Bethesda, MD: National Center for Research Resources. NIH Publ. No. 97-2309, 1997. [NCRR, NIH, 1601 Research Blvd, Rockville, MD 20850-3173]
Magazines and Newsletters
*Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter, Spring 1997,
8. [National Agricultural Library, AWIC, 10301 Baltimore Ave,
Beltsville, MD 20705-2351]
. . . Includes "30 years of the Animal Welfare Act," by Congressman G. E. Brown, Jr.; and "AWIC: It's not just the `Law,' it's a good idea!" by S. Dubin.
* Boletín de la Asociación Primatológica
Española, Enero-Mayo 1997, 4[1-2].
* Boletín de la Asociación Primatológica Española, Septiembre 1997, 4. [Área de Psicobiología, Dpcho. 31, Univ. Autónoma de Madrid, 28049-Madrid, Spain]
* CCC Update, Spring/Summer 1997, 8. [Community Conservation Consultants, Howlers Forever, Inc., RD 1, Box 96, Gays Mills, WI 54631]
* Neotropical Primates: A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, March, 1997, 5. [Conservation
International, Ave. Antônio Abrahão Caram 820/302, 31275-000, Belo
Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil]
. . . Contents include: Biometry and stomach contents of some Atlantic forest primates, with a note on Brachyteles tooth replacement, by F. Olmos, G. A. D. Corrêa Franco, & P. Auricchio; Comportamiento social en aulladores: El caso de la emigración de una hembra subadulta en Alouatta caraya, by A. M. Giudice; La dentición de Callicebus y morfotipo ancestral de los Platirrinos, by M. F. Tejedor; Subspecific differences in vulva size between Alouatta palliata palliata and A. p. mexicana: Implications for assessment of female receptivity, by C. B. Jones; Population genetics and conservation of owl monkeys (Aotus azarai) in Argentina: A promising field site, by E. Fernández-Duque & S. P. Bravo; Utilização de rádio telemetria em sauás, Callicebus personatus, resgatados durante a implantação da usina hidrelétrica nova ponte, Minas Gerais, by F. M. Neri, A. B. Rylands, V. T. Fraiha, & M. B. Ferreira.
* The Newsletter, 1997, 9. [Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O.
Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027]
. . . Includes "Space use and behavior patterns of captive chimpanzees in a large indoor enclosure," by C. Kuhar.
* Positively Primates, 1997, 3[1-2]. [DuMond Conservancy, 14805 S.W. 216 St, Miami, FL 33170]
* Primate Eye, June 1997, No. 62. [Bill Sellers, Primate Soc. of Great
Britain, Dept of Anatomy, Univ. of Edinburgh, Med. School, Teviot Pl.,
Edinburgh EH8 9AG, Scotland]
. . . This issue includes abstracts from the 1997 Spring Meeting of the Primate Society of Great Britain.
* Animal Welfare Enforcement: Fiscal Year 1996 Report of the Secretary of Agriculture to the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives. [Free from Dr. Jerry DePoyster, USDA, APHIS, AC, 4700 River Rd, Unit 84, Riverdale, MD 20737-4978; or can be downloaded from <www.aphis.usda.gov/ac>]
* Primate Report, June, 1997, 48. [German Primate Center (DPZ),
Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany]
. . . The Annual Scientific Report 1996 of the German Primate Center (DPZ).
Special Journal Issues
* Protecting personnel. Lab Animal, 1997, 26.
. . . Includes two articles, "Developing and implementing personnel safety programs. Part I: Occupational health and safety program in a research animal facility," by R. Bascom; and "Part II: Safety training and education in animal research," by R. Green.
* Program and abstracts of the twentieth annual meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, June 27-July 1, 1997, The Bahia Hotel, San Diego, CA. American Journal of Primatology, 1997, 42.
Anatomy & Physiology
* Hormonal response to restraint in rhesus monkeys. Gauquelin-Koch, G.,
Blanquie, J.-P., Viso, M., Florence, G., Milhaud, C., & Gharib, C. (C. G.,
Lab. Physiol. de l'Environ., Fac. de Méd. Lyon Grange-Blanche 8, Ave.
Rockefeller, 69373 Lyon cedex 08, France). Journal of Medical Primatology,
1996, 25, 387-396.
. . . Blood-volume-regulating hormones were measured in four adult male monkeys during (1) 10 days in a metabolic cage; (2) 16 days restrained in a metabolism chair; and (3) 10 days in the metabolic cage. An increase of active renin (30%) and vasopressin (25%) was observed at the end of (2). A decrease of atrial natriuretic peptide, urodilatin, and Na excretion occurred during the first days of (2). A dramatic increase (tenfold) in urinary excretion of growth hormone occurred during all of (2) and the beginning of (3).
* Development of spontaneous endometriosis in baboons. D'Hooghe, T. M., Bambra,
C. S., Raeymaekers, B. M., & Koninckx, P. R. (Dept of Ob/Gyn, University
Hospital Gasthuisberg, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium). Obstetrics &
Gynecology, 1996, 88, 462-466.
. . . Twenty-four baboons with laparoscopically confirmed normal pelves underwent laparoscopies over 32 months. The cumulative incidence of minimal endometriosis (proven by histology) was 64% up to 32 months of follow-up. The 8 baboons that developed proven endometriosis were followed over longer periods of time and had undergone more laparoscopies than the animals that did not develop the condition.
* Isolated cerebral hypothermia by single carotid artery perfusion of
extracorporeally cooled blood in baboons. Schwartz, A. E., Stone, J. G.,
Finck, A. D., Sandhu, A. A., Mongero, L. B., Adams, D. C., Jonassen, A. E.,
Young, W. L. & Michler, R. E. (Dept of Anesthesiology, Box 46, College of
Physicians & Surgeons, Columbia Univ., 630 W. 168th St, New York, NY
10032). Neurosurgery, 1996, 39, 577-582.
. . . Bilateral cerebral deep or moderate hypothermia can be induced by selective perfusion of a single internal carotid artery, with minimal systemic cooling and without cardiovascular instability. This global brain hypothermia results from profoundly altered collateral cerebral circulation during artificial hypothermic perfusion.
* Antibodies against CD14 protect primates from endotoxin-induced shock.
Leturcq, D. J., Moriarty, A. M., Talbott, G., Winn, R. K., Martin, T. R., &
Ulevitch, R. J. (Johnson Pharm. Res. Inst., 3535 General Atomics Ct, San Diego,
CA 92121). Journal of Clinical Investigation, 1996, 98,
. . . Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), residing in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, is considered a major initiating factor of gram-negative septic shock syndrome in humans. LPS forms a complex with binding protein in plasma, which engage a specific receptor, CD14, on the surface of myeloid cells, leading to the production of potent proinflammatory cytokines. Cynomolgus monkeys were treated with one of two different inhibitory anti-CD14 mAbs, then challenged with intravenous endotoxin. The anti-CD14 treatment regimens were successful in preventing profound hypotension, reducing plasma cytokine levels, and inhibiting the alteration in lung epithelial permeability that occurred in control animals.
* Fecal short-chain fatty acids associated with inflammation in
cotton-top tamarin model for idiopathic colitis. Stonerook, M. J., Tefend, K.
S., Sharma, H. M., Peck, O. C., & Wood, J. D. (J. D. W., Dept of
Physiology, College of Med., Ohio State Univ., 300 Hamilton Hall, 1645 Neil
Ave, Columbus, OH 43210). Digestive Diseases & Sciences, 1996,
. . . Tamarins with moderate or severe colitis had significantly reduced levels of fecal short-chain fatty acids.
* IL-4 induced leucocyte trafficking in cynomolgus monkeys: Correlation
with expression of adhesion molecules and chemokine generation. Gundel, R.,
Lindell, D., Harris, P., Fournel, M., Jesmok, G., & Gerritsen, M. E.
(Preclinical Research, Bayer Corp., 400 Morgan Lane, West Haven, CT 06516).
Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 1996, 26, 719-729.
. . . Interleukin-4 (IL-4) induces a selective recruitment of lymphocytes from the vasculature while the number of neutrophils are increased in the circulation. IL-4 treatment caused the percentage of CD16+ cells in the circulation to decrease and induced a rapid and sustained increase in hematocrit. IL-4 induced the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on the surface of the endothelium and caused a dramatic increase in plasma levels of MCP-1. IL-4 may have a primary role in the early selective recruitment of lymphocytes to sites of tissue inflammation by the induction of VCAM-1 and the release of large amounts of potent chemoattractants, and may represent a target in the development of new therapeutics for the treatment of inflammatory disease.
* Immune response to epitopes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) structural
proteins in HCV-infected humans and chimpanzees. Wang, Y.-F., Brotman, B.,
Andrus, L., & Prince, A. M. (A. M. P., Lab. of Virology & Parasitology,
New York Blood Ctr, 310 E. 67th St, New York, NY 10021). Journal of
Infectious Diseases, 1996, 173, 808-821.
. . . The patterns of immune response in HCV-infected humans and chimpanzees were in many ways dissimilar in terms of antibody response to HCV capsid and GOR epitopes and reactivity with different linear epitopes on HCV E2.
* Respiratory effects of opioid full and partial agonists in rhesus monkeys.
Libuori, A., Morse, W. H., & Bergman, J. (Harvard Med. School, NERPRC, Box
9102, 1 Pine Hill Dr., Southborough, MA 01772-9102). Journal of
Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, 1996, 277, 462-472.
. . . Respiratory and behavioral effects of the -selective opioids levorphanol, methadone, and codeine and the mixed-action opioids buprenorphine, butorphanol, and nalbuphine were studied in awake, seated rhesus monkeys wearing plastic masks through which they breathed air or differing concentrations of CO2 mixed in air. All opioids produced dose-dependent decreases in ventilation that were more pronounced as the concentration of CO2 increased. In behavioral experiments, all drugs produced dose-related decreases in responding under a 30-response fixed-ratio schedule.
* Vaccine protection by a triple deletion mutant of simian
immunodeficiency virus. Wyand, M. S., Manson, K. H., Garcia-Moll, M.,
Montefiori, D., & Desrosiers, R. C. (R. C. D., Address same as above).
Journal of Virology, 1996, 70, 3724-3733.
. . . Twelve rhesus monkeys were vaccinated with SIVmac316nef (lacking nef sequences), and 12 were vaccinated with SIVmac2393 (lacking nef, vpr, and upstream sequences in U3). Seventeen of the animals developed persistent infections with the vaccine viruses. Seven, however, developed infections that were apparently transient in nature. Six of these yielded virus from peripheral blood when tested at weeks 2 and/or 3, three had transient antibody responses, but none had persisting antibody responses. All 24 monkeys were challenged with 10 rhesus monkey infectious doses of wild-type, pathogenic SIVmac251 at weeks 8, 20, and 79 following receipt of vaccine. None of the 7 with apparently transient infections were protected upon subsequent challenge. Analysis of cell-associated viral loads, CD4+ cell counts, and viral gene sequences in the remainder of the monkeys led to these conclusions: 1) There was a trend toward increased protection with length of time of vaccination. 2) Solid vaccine protection was achieved by 79 weeks with the highly attenuated SIV2393. 3) Solid long-term protection was achieved in at least 2 animals in the absence of complete sterilizing immunity. 4) Genetic backbone appeared to influence protective capacity: animals vaccinated with SIV2393 were better protected than animals receiving SIV316nef. 5) The titer of virus-neutralizing activity in serum on the day of challenge correlated with protection when measured against a primary stock of SIVmac251, but not when measured against a laboratory-passaged stock.
* Recombinant subunit vaccines as an approach to study correlates of
protection against primate lentivirus infection. Hu, S.-L., Polacino, P.,
Stallard, V., Klaniecki, J., Pennathur, S., Travis, B. M., Misher, L., Kornas,
H., Langlois, A. J., Morton, W. R., & Benveniste, R. E. (Bristol-Myers
Squibb Pharm. Res. Inst., 3005 First Ave, Seattle, WA 98121). Immunology
Letters, 1996, 51, 115-119.
. . . Envelope gp160 vaccines, when used in a live recombinant virus-priming and subunit-protein-boosting regimen, protected long-tailed macaques against low-dose intravenous infection by a cloned homologous virus SIVmne E11S. The same regimen was also effective against intrarectal challenge by the same virus and against intravenous challenge by E11S grown on primary macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, only limited protection was observed against uncloned SIVmne. Priming with live recombinant virus was more effective than immunization with subunit gp160 alone, indicating a potential advantage of native antigen presentation and the possible role of cell-mediated immunity in protection. Whole gp160 was more effective than the surface antigen (gp130), even though both antigens elicited similar levels of neutralizing antibodies. These and other results indicate that multiple mechanisms may contribute to protection. It may be advantageous to incorporate multiple antigens in the design of recombinant subunit vaccines against AIDS.
* Videostimulation as enrichment for captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca
mulatta). Platt, D. M. & Novak, M. A. (Behavioral Biology, NERPRC, One
Pine Hill Dr., Southborough, MA 01772). Applied Animal Behaviour Science,
1997, 52, 139-155.
. . . Nine monkeys were exposed to 5 experimental phases: no monitor, blank monitor, videotape, blank monitor, and video game. Monkeys both watched selected videotapes and manipulated the video game joystick, but they spent substantially more time watching tapes than manipulating the joystick, and females were more interested in both than were males. Both socially and individually housed monkeys became more active; individually housed monkeys slept less.
* Seasonal trends in intestinal nematode infection and medicinal plant
use among chimpanzees in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. Huffman, M. A.,
Gotoh, S., Turner, L. A., Hamai, M., & Yoshida, K. (Primate Res. Inst.,
Kyoto Univ., Kanrin, Inuyama, Aichi 484, Japan). Primates, 1997, 38,
. . . The incidence of nematode infections was analyzed, over two annual dry and rainy season periods and a third rainy season, for seasonal trends to elucidate the possible influence of parasite infection on previously reported seasonality of medicinal plant use. Observations were consistent with previous reports for increased use of these plants during the rainy season and with the hypothesis that use of the plants is stimulated by presence of parasites.
* Immigration in wild groups of golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus
rosalia). Baker, A. J. & Dietz, J. M. Philadelphia Zoo, 3400 W.
Girard Ave, Philadelphia, PA 19104). American Journal of Primatology,
1996, 38, 47-56.
. . . Seventeen territorial groups of wild golden lion tamarins were monitored for 10 to 76 months. Immigration into established groups was rare and occurred mostly in the context of replacement of breeding individuals. Aggression by resident tamarins toward potential immigrants appeared to be the proximate factor limiting movement into groups. Most such aggression was intrasexual, but potential female immigrants were sometimes chased by male as well as female residents. Immigration was highly male-biased (85% of individuals). Factors possibly contributing to this bias were inheritance of breeding positions by adult daughters, ability of males but not females to join groups already containing a same-sex breeding individual, and the fact that potential female immigrants appeared to face some intersexual as well as intrasexual aggression.
* Adsorptive capacity of charcoals eaten by Zanzibar red colobus monkeys:
Implications for reducing dietary toxins. Cooney, D. O. & Struhsaker, T.
T. (Dept of Chem. Engineering, Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071).
International Journal of Primatology, 1997, 18, 235-246.
. . . Colobus monkeys on Zanzibar eat charcoal from burned trees and lying near kilns. Charcoal from burned stumps and from kilns were compared with commercial activated charcoals for their ability to adsorb organic material. The charcoal from kilns compared well to the commercial product, supporting the hypothesis that the monkeys have learned to eat it to counteract toxicity due to phenolic and similar compounds that occur in significant concentrations in the Indian almond and mango leaves which constitute a major part of their diet.
Development and Aging
* Characterization of dermatologic changes in geriatric rhesus macaques.
Huneke, R. B., Foltz, C. J., VendeWoude, S., Mandrell, T. D., & Garman, R.
H. (Wash-ington Univ. School of Med., Div. Comp. Med., 660 S. Euclid Ave,
Campus Box 8061, St. Louis, MO 63110). Journal of Medical Primatology,
1996, 25, 404-413.
. . . Skin and blood samples from 9 geriatric animals (mean age = 25 yr) were examined and compared with those of control adult (mean age = 10 yr) and sun-exposed (mean age = 11 yr) animals. Major gross findings included increased areas of erythematous skin, wrinkling, focal skin scaling, thinning of hair, foot calluses, and exudative lesions. Histologic skin changes included subacute dermatitis, acanthotic dermatitis, and a lesion resembling an early solar lentigo in the sun-exposed animal. These changes were not associated with hormonal abnormalities or bacterial pathogens. Histologic changes are compatible with nonspecific skin changes observed in elderly humans.
* Age-related changes in ovarian morphology from birth to menopause in the
Japanese monkey, Macaca fuscata fuscata. Nozaki, M., Yamashita, K.,
& Shimizu, K. (Sado Marine Biol. Station, Niigata Univ., Sado, Niigata
952-21, Japan). Primates, 1997, 38, 89-100.
. . . Ovarian morphology was studied in 47 nonlactating females of various ages, ranging from newborn to 28 years. Ovary size increased during the first decade of life, reached a plateau around 10 years, and declined gradually thereafter. The ovarian cortex of newborn animals consisted of numerous clusters of mitotic primordial germ cells, which were found up to 28 days of age. Corpora lutea or corpora albicantia were found in ovaries more than 4 years old, while remnants (together with thick-walled blood vessels and fibrosis) appeared in some ovaries after 16 years and were observed in most after 26 years of age.
* Gongylonematiasis in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).
Brack, M. (Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Abt. Pathologie u. Tierärz.
Versorgung, 37077 Göttingen, Ger-many). Laboratory Animal Science,
1996, 46, 266-270.
. . . Two cases of gongylonematiasis in marmosets at two research facilities in Germany are reported. The hel-minthiasis was transmitted from colony A to colony B by one infected female and within colony B by cockroaches. Clinical signs of disease in the infected animals consisted of intense itching and scratching of the edematous and slightly hyperemic perioral tissues. Histologically the adult helminths lodged predominantly in the mucous membranes of the upper and lower lips; less frequently in the labial cutaneous parts or in the tongue.
* Hemorrhagic typhlocolitis associated with attaching and effacing
Escherichia coli in common marmosets. Thomson, J. A. & Scheffler,
J. J. (Wisconsin RPRC, Univ. of Wisconsin, 1223 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI
53715-1299). Laboratory Animal Science, 1996, 46, 275-279.
. . . Three common marmosets were necropsied during an outbreak of hemorrhagic diarrhea in a colony of 230 animals. Necropsy revealed consistent hemorrhagic typhlocolitis and variable ileitis associated with gram-negative bacilli closely adherent to enterocytes. Electron microscopy revealed bacilli attached intimately to shallow cup-like projections of enterocyte apical membranes with loss of microvilli. E. coli isolates from affected marmosets were serogroup O26 and were positive for the E. coli attaching and effacing locus and negative for shiga-like toxin I and II, heat-stable enterotoxins a and b, and heat-labile enterotoxin by DNA probe hybridization.
* Colonic adenocarcinoma in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).
Johnson, E. H., Morgenstern, S. E., Perham, J. M., & Barthold, S. W.
(Dept of Animal & Vet. Sci., College of Agriculture, Sultan Qaboos Univ.,
P.O. Box 34, Al-Knod, Postal Code 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman). Journal
of Medical Primatology, 1996, 25, 435-438.
. . . A spontaneous colonic adenocarcinoma and endometriosis was diagnosed in a 34-year-old female macaque. The tumor caused partial obstruction of the ascending colon and histologically resembled the commonly described "napkin-ring" tumors of the descending and sigmoid colon found in humans. Serum levels of CA 125, a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein antigen that has been reported elevated in a variety of pathological conditions of the pelvic cavity in humans, was severely elevated. Both the adenocarcinoma and the endometriosis may have contributed to this finding.
* Simian immunodeficiency virus infection in a patas monkey
(Erythrocebus patas): Evidence for cross-species transmission from
African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus) in the wild.
Bibollet-Ruche, F., Galat-Luong, A., Cuny, G., Sarni-Manchado, P., Galat, G.,
Durand, J.-P., Pourrut, X., & Veas, F. (Lab. Rétrovirus, ORSTOM, 911
Ave. Agropolis, BP 5045, 34032 Montpellier cedex 1, France). Journal of
General Virology, 1996, 77, 773-781.
. . . Physical contact has been documented between African green monkeys (AGMs) and patas monkeys. Elevated SIV seroprevalence rates have been reported for AGM species. Among 85 AGMs and 54 patas monkeys studied, 47% and 7.5%, respectively, had antibodies that cross-reacted with HIV-2 envelope proteins. From two AGMs a virus was isolated; from the patas monkeys, virus isolation was generally not possible, but from an ill animal a virus designated pamG31 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For the two SIVagm isolates, an 830 bp region spanning the env and nef genes was amplified and sequenced. Comparisons of sequences from the env/nef region revealed 80% identity between pamGT31 and SIVagm isolates from AGMs of the sabeus subspecies, and 94% identity between the two SIVagm isolates. This is the first report of a lentiviral infection in a patas monkey.
* Genetic diversity of simian immunodeficiency viruses from West African green
monkeys: Evidence of multiple genotypes within populations from the same
geographical locale. Bibollet-Ruche, F., Brengues, C., Galat-Luong, A., Galat,
G., Pourrut, X., Vidal, N., Veas, F., Durand, J.-P., & Cuny, G. (Address
same as above). Journal of Virology, 1997, 71, 307-313.
. . . Genetic diversity of the SIV viruses found in various AGM subspecies far exceeds the diversity observed in the other lentivirus-infected human and nonhuman primates and is thought to reflect ancient introduction of SIV in the AGM population. This paper investigates genetic diversity of SIVagm in wild-living AGM populations from the same geographical locale in Senegal. For 11 new strains, two regions of the genome spanning the first tat exon and part of the transmembrane glycoprotein were PCR-amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences shows that viruses found in sympatric populations cluster into distinct lineages, with at least two distinct genotypes in each troop, suggesting an ancient introduction of these divergent viruses in the AGM population.
* SIVagm infection of its natural African green monkey host. Norley, S.
G. (Paul-Ehrlich-Inst., Paul-Ehrlich-Str. 51-59, 63225 Langen, Germany).
Immunology Letters, 1996, 51, 53-58.
. . . Possible reasons for the apathogenicity of SIVagm in its natural AGM host were investigated. The level of infection in the peripheral blood was reminiscent of the level in asymptomatic HIV-1-infected patients, although never reaching the levels associated with AIDS. Like humans, AGM CD8+ cells secrete a factor able to suppress SIVagm (and HIV-1) replication but, unlike humans, AGMs have a very high percentage of CD8+ lymphocytes in circulation. Also, unlike humans during the asymptomatic stages of infection, AGM lymph nodes do not seem to act as a reservoir for SIVagm and the lymph node structure is not affected.
* 1996 International Studbook Golden Lion Tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia). J. D. Ballou & A. Sherr, Studbook Keepers. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1997. 109 pp. [Available free. Dept of Zoological Research, National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC 20008]
* Characterization of transgenic pigs expressing functionally active
human CD59 on cardiac endothelium. Diamond, L. E., McCurry, K. R., Martin, M.
J., McClellan, S. B., Oldham, E. R., Platt, J. L., & Logan, J. S. (Nextran,
303B College Rd East, Princeton, NJ 08540). Transplantation, 1996,
. . . Using specific lines of transgenic pigs that express low levels of human CD59, a complement regulatory protein that acts at the terminal stage of the complement cascade, evidence is presented that shows that the human CD59 protein inhibits assembly of the membrane attack complex and reduces tissue damage when the heart is transplanted to a baboon.
* * *
All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. [401-863-2511; FAX: 401-863-1300]
Current and back issues of the Newsletter are available on the
World Wide Web at
The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health Service Grant RR-00419 from the Comparative Medicine Program, National Center for Research Resources, N.I.H.
Cover illustration of a cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus oedipus) father carrying twin infants, by Anne M.Richardson
Copyright (c) 1997 by Brown University
Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen