Laboratory Primate Newsletter



Articles and Notes

A Foraging Task Reduces Agonistic and Stereotypic Behaviors in Pigtail Macaque Social Groups, by M. L. Boccia & A. S. Hijazi...... 1

Pairing Macaca fascicularis, by C. Asvestas...... 5

Measurement of Enrichment Device Use and Preference in Singly Caged Baboons, by R. D. Hienz, T. J. Zarcone, J. S. Turkkan, D. A. Pyle, & R. J. Adams...... 6

Placing Hand-Reared Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) into Adult Social Groups: A Technique for Facilitating Group Integration, by K. Pazol, S. McDonald, K. Baker, & B. Smuts...... 11

Pair-housing Male Macaca fascicularis: A Summary, by D. Seelig ...... 14

News, Information, and Announcements

Der Rosenaffe...... 10

Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates...... 17

News Briefs...... 18
. . . Coulston Faces USDA Animal Welfare Charges; Rare Wildlife at Risk as Fires Ravage Borneo; Birth and Death Among Zoo Gorillas; WWF Opens Southern African Wildlife College; Emory University Disputes OSHA Findings; Group Seeking Funds for Air Force Chimpanzees; APHIS Inspection Report on USDA Web Site; Wisconsin Stumptails to Texas; Death of Former Thai Prime Minister; Brundtland New Director General Of WHO

Primates de las Américas...La Página...... 21

Grants Available...... 22
. . . AICR Grant Program; Heart Association Scientist Development Grant; Primate Conservation Incorporated; Infectious Disease International Collaborations; Mentored Research Scientist Development Award; Research Scholar Development Award

Workshop Announcements...... 24
. . . Pathology of Laboratory Animals; Zoo & Wildlife Pathology Workshop

Information Available...... 24
. . . Software for Animal Behavior; More Interesting Web Sites

Research and Educational Opportunities...... 26
. . . GrantsNet; Sedation, Immobilization, & Anesthesia; Internship Program -- KS; Summer Programs in Japan & Korea; Research Fellowships in Japan; Graduate Fellowships -- MS; Analysis of Biological Diversification, AZ

Meeting Announcements...... 28

Conservation Auction, ASP...... 29
. . . To the Auction in Austin, ASP, 1998, by C. Caleffi

Resources Available: Large Animal Behavior Analysis...... 29

Announcements from Publications...... 36
. . . ACLAD Newsletter; Zoocriaderos


Address Changes...... 17

Positions Available...... 25
. . . Assistant Professor of Anthropology, Stony Brook; Veterinarian, U. C. San Francisco; Veterinary Technician, West Virginia; Animal Resources Manager -- Los Angeles; Manager, Husbandry & Facility Operations, NYC

Recent Books and Articles...... 30

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A Foraging Task Reduces Agonistic and Stereotypic Behaviors in Pigtail Macaque Social Groups

Maria L. Boccia and Amal S. Hijazi
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill


Many of the strategies developed for enhancing the environment of socially housed primates involve providing opportunities for foraging behavior (e.g., Bloomsmith, et al., 1988; Chamove and Anderson, 1979; Reinhardt & Roberts, 1997). In the wild, foraging involves spending significant amounts of time finding, obtaining, and processing food -- from 36% to 70% of a typical monkey's day (e.g., Boinski, 1988; Caldecott, 1986; Chamove, et al., 1982). In captivity, this time is typically reduced drastically to the time necessary to consume the easily accessible, provisioned food.

As a way to increase these species-typical behaviors, several types of foraging enrichment strategies -- including mixing forage into substrates or using probe feeders or puzzles -- have been developed (for a review, see Reinhardt & Roberts, 1997). The growing literature in this area indicates wide differences in response to such welfare interventions, from the level of the individual within a species (e.g., Suomi & Novak, 1991) to the level of species and genera differences (Chamove & Anderson, 1989). This variability suggests that any enrichment strat-egy needs to be rigorously tested in an adequately large sample of the specific species for which it is intended before widespread implementation.

The present study was designed to examine the impact of introducing a naturalistic foraging task on agonistic and stereotypic behaviors in a pigtail macaque colony. It is a replication of earlier studies (Boccia, 1989a, b) with a group of monkeys whose behavioral profile was quite different from that of the earlier group. This paper is a direct comparison of these two groups.


Subjects and Environment: Twenty-two laboratory-born pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina), living in two groups, were used in this study. Group 1 consisted of one adult male, six adult females, and three infants, one born during the study. Group 2 (whose results were reported in Boccia, 1989a, b) contained five adult females with their five respective infants, and two young, nulliparous adult females whose mothers were in the group. Both groups were housed in 2.1 x 2.5 x 4.0 m indoor pens, with glazed cinderblock walls and woodchip bedding on cement floors. Pen ceilings were made of wire mesh, with plastic shelves and metal pipes providing additional usable space. One-way mirrors were located on one wall of the pens to permit unobtrusive observations. The groups were fed at 0900 hours, with a diet consisting of standard laboratory monkey chow, supplemented with fruit five days per week. Water was available ad lib, through a standard watering system.

Procedure: The experimental manipulation was the provision of a naturalistic foraging task by spreading approximately one cup of sunflower seeds in the woodchip bedding between 1400 and 1500 hours, five times per week for two months. Seed dispersal was begun after two weeks of baseline observations. Five-minute focal animal observation sessions were conducted for each of the thirteen adult females, during each of three two-week periods: baseline, first two weeks of seed provision, and two months after initiation of seed provision. Behavioral data were collected for six days of each two-week period with one morning (0930-1200 hrs) and one afternoon (1-2 hours after seed provision) session daily. Thus, twelve observation sessions per animal were obtained per experimental period. Behavioral categories included: (1) environmentally directed behaviors (object exploration and bedding exploration); (2) other non-social behaviors (locomotion, stereotypy, and scratching); (3) affiliative behaviors (touching and grooming); and (4) agonistic behaviors (aggression, submission, hairpulling, and brawling -- more than two animals in an agonistic exchange).

Data Analysis: The data were analyzed using analyses of variance (ANOVA) with group, phase (before, during the first two weeks and after two months of seed provision), and time of day (morning and afternoon) as independent variables. Post-hoc tests of significant ANOVAs included simple effects analyses followed by Newman-Keuls tests.


Although provision of the seed foraging task altered the distribution of social, aggressive, abnormal, and exploratory behaviors in the groups studied, this varied between the groups. This was particularly notable for aggression and exploration. Changes in aggression were primarily found in the more aggressive group. Both groups showed changes in stereotypy.

Environmentally Directed Behaviors: Group 1 exhibited a greater amount of time spent in object exploration than Group 2 (Group effect: F = 11.86, 2/22 df, p = 0.0003; see Figure 1). This behavior occurred primarily in the afternoon hours (Time-of-day effect: F = 5.85, 2/22 df, p = 0.0092).

Figure 1: Changes in object exploration in Group 1 (upper graph) and Group 2 (lower graph) across the three phases of the experiment.

Not surprisingly, there were both phase and time of day effects in bedding exploration (see Figure 2). More time was spent performing this behavior after the seeds were introduced than during baseline (Phase effect: F = 6.27, 2/22 df, p = 0.007), and it occurred primarily in the afternoon (Time-of-day effect: F = 18.06, 1/11 df, p = 0.0014). Group 2 spent more time engaged in this behavior than Group 1 (Group effect: F = 12.66, 1/11 df, p = 0.0045; see Figure 2).

Other Non-Social Behaviors: Group 2 was much more active, as indicated by higher rates of locomotion than Group 1 (Group effect: F = 23.02, 1/11 df, p = 0.0006; see Figure 3). Scratching occurred more frequently in Group 1 at baseline, with no difference later (Phase effect: F = 6.48, 2/22 df, p = 0.0061). Stereotypies declined significantly in both groups after the seeds were introduced (Mean Baseline = 4.373, 2 Weeks = 0.800, 2 Months = 0.989; Phase effect: F = 8.24, 2/22 df, p = 0.0021).

Figure 2: Changes in bedding exploration in Group 1 (upper graph) and Group 2 (lower graph) across the three phases of the experiment.

Affiliative Behaviors: Group 1 spent more time in physical contact across all phases of the experiment than Group 2 (Phase effect: F = 15.39,1/11 df, p = 0.0024). There was a trend in both groups to groom longer during baseline, before the seeds were given, than in the subsequent part of the experiment (Mean Baseline = 9.272, 2 Weeks = 5.209, 2 Months = 6.978; Phase effect: F = 2.74, 2/22 df, p = 0.0863).

Agonistic Behaviors: The overall level of aggression was much greater in Group 2 than in Group 1 during the entire course of the experiment (F = 8.49, 1/11 df, p = 0.0141). Group 1, with an already infrequent incidence of fighting among group members, showed no change of frequency in either this behavior, or in submissive behaviors. The more aggressive Group 2, however, exhibited a significant drop in the frequency of fights by the end of the study (F = 3.52, 2/22 df, p = 0.0471; see Figure 4). Not surprisingly, the frequency of submissive behavior also declined within this group, (F = 3.17, 2/22 df, p = 0.0616), probably as a direct result of the drop in the number of fights that took place.

Figure 3: Group differences in behavior across all phases of the experiment.

Figure 4: Changes in agonistic behaviors for Group 1 (upper graph) and Group 2 (lower graph) across the three phases of the experiment.

The remaining agonistic behavior, hairpulling, also showed a significant decrease, especially in the afternoon, when this behavior primarily occurred; see Table 1).

               Group 1       Group 2           
           AM   PM   TOTAL   AM   PM   TOTAL   
Baseline   13   20   33      4    22    26      
Two weeks   9    7   16      2     1     3       
Two months  5    6   11      3     1     4       

Table 1: Frequency of hairpulling.


The results of this study indicate that the introduction of a naturalistic foraging task into groups of socially housed pigtail macaques can have a significant effect on their behavioral repertoire, although there can be significant group differences. These results confirm our preliminary conclusions (Boccia, 1989a, b) that foraging for seeds alters the groups' time budgets. The monkeys increased the time they spent engaged in environmentally directed behaviors, and this correlated with a decrease in time spent in agonistic (for one group) and abnormal behaviors (for both groups).

The particular effects of the foraging task may be related to the original characteristics of the group studied. Some behaviors were equally affected in both groups, while other changes were limited to one group. Group 1, for example, was a relatively non-aggressive group to begin with, and the provision of the seeds did not result in the profound change in the frequency of aggressive encounters seen within the more aggressive Group 2. As expected, however, both groups did significantly increase their time spent exploring the environment.

Both groups also evidenced declines in hairpulling. This behavior has been identified as "an aggressive behavioral disorder" (Reinhardt, et al., 1986). Thus, while their species-typical agonistic behaviors were infrequent and did not change with the foraging task, this aggressive disorder was elevated in the baseline and did decrease significantly with provision of the foraging task.

Stereotypies (such as pacing) also significantly decreased in both groups. Furthermore, the seeds' efficacy continued over a long time, in that these changes in behavior were still evident after two months. Thus habituation to the seed foraging task and reinstatement of the original levels of aberrant behaviors and aggression did not occur. There was no evidence to suggest that the seeds had any deleterious effects on either group. Although there were basic group differences for a number of behaviors, the provision of sunflower seeds did not appear to lead to any reduction in sociability in either group. In addition, the provision of seeds may serve to increase the monkeys' health by supplementing their diet, as well as deterring injuries resulting from fighting.

Overall, in both groups studied, levels of stereotypic and abnormal behaviors decreased, while environmental exploration increased, although some group differences were found. Other researchers have similarly reported differences in the effectiveness of particular interventions (e.g., Lutz & Farrow, 1996 and Bayne, et al.,1991). Furthermore, many studies examine interventions for very short periods of time, and examine behavior only during provision of the devices (Brent, et al., 1991; Glick-Bauer, 1997; Lutz & Novak, 1995). The present study found, however, that there can be significantly different effects of such interventions on behavior during other times of the day. Finally, manipulation of food distribution and availability can profoundly affect not only foraging behaviors, but also a range of other behaviors, from stereotypies to agonism to infant development (e.g., Andrews & Rosenblum, 1991a,b; 1992; Boccia, et al., 1988; Boccia, et al., 1991; Boccia, et al., 1996). These studies highlight the need to rigorously evaluate welfare interventions across a sufficient sample of a given species before widespread implementation.


Andrews, M. W., & Rosenblum, L. A. (1991a). Attachment in monkey infants raised in variable- and low-demand environments. Child Development, 62, 686-693.

Andrews, M. W., & Rosenblum, L. A. (1991b). Dominance and social competence in differentially reared bonnet macaques. In A. Ehara, T. Kimura, O. Takenada, & M. Iwamonto (Eds.), Primatology Today (pp. 347-350). Amsterdam: Elsvier Scientific Publications.

Andrews, M. W., & Rosenblum, L. A. (1992). Response of bonnet macaque dyads to an acute foraging task under different motivational conditions. Developmental Psychobiology, 25, 557-566.

Bayne, K., Mainzer, H., Dexter, S., Campbell, G., Yamada, F., & Suomi, S. (1991). The reduction of abnormal behaviors in individually housed rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with a foraging/grooming board. American Journal of Primatology, 23, 23-35.

Bloomsmith, M. A., Alford, P. L., & Maple, T. L. (1988). Successful feeding enrichment for captive chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology, 16, 155-164.

Boccia, M. L. (1989a). Preliminary report on the use of a natural foraging task to reduce aggression and stereotypies in socially housed pigtail macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 28[1], 3-4.

Boccia, M. L. (1989b). Long-term effects of a natural foraging task on aggression and stereotypies in socially housed pigtail macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 28[2], 18-19.

Boccia, M. L., Jacinto, C. B., & Glander, K. E. (1996). Enrichment strategies with non-human primates: You don't always get what you want. Unpublished manuscript.

Boccia, J. L., Laudenslager, M., & Reite, M. (1988). Food distribution, dominance, and aggressive behavior in bonnet macaques. American Journal of Primatology, 16, 123-130.

Boccia, M. L., Reite, M. L., & Laudenslager, M. L. (1991a). Early social environment may alter the development of attachment and social support: Two case reports. Infant Behavior and Development, 14, 253-260.

Boinski, S. (1988). Sex differences in the foraging behavior of squirrel monkeys in a seasonal habitat. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 23, 177-186.

Brent, L., Lee, D., & Eichberg, J. (1991). Evaluation of a chimpanzee enrichment enclosure. Journal of Medical Primatology, 20, 29-34.

Caldecott, J. O. (1986). An ecological and behavioral study of the pig-tailed macaque. In F. S. Szalay (Ed), Contributions to Primatology, Vol. 21. Basel: Karger.

Chamove, A. S., & Anderson, J. R. (1979). Woodchip litter in macaque groups. Journal of the Institute of Animal Technicians, 30, 69-74.

Chamove, A. S., & Anderson, J. R. (1989). Examining environmental enrichment. In E. F. Segal (Ed.), Housing, Care and Psychological Wellbeing of Captive and Laboratory Primates (pp. 183-202). Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Publications.

Chamove, A. S., Anderson, J. R., Morgan-Jones, S. C., & Jones, S. P. (1982). Deep woodchip litter: Hygiene, feeding, and behavioral enhancement in eight primate species. International Journal of the Study of Animal Problems, 3, 308-318.

Glick-Bauer, M. (1997). Behavioral enrichment for captive cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) through novel presentation of diet. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 36[1], 1-3.

Lutz, C. K., & Farrow, R. A. (1996). Foraging device for singly housed longtailed macaques does not reduce stereotypies. Contemporary Topics, 35, 75-78.

Lutz, C. K., & Novak, M. A. (1995). Use of foraging racks and shavings as enrichment tools for groups of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Zoo Biology, 14, 463-474.

Reinhardt, V., Reinhardt, A., & Houser, D. (1986). Hair pulling and eating in captive rhesus monkey troops. Folia Primatologica, 47, 158-164.

Reinhardt, V., & Roberts, A. (1997). Effective feeding enrichment for non-human primates: A brief review. Animal Welfare, 6, 265-272.

Suomi, S. J., & Novak, M. A. (1991). The role of individual differences in promoting psychological well-being in rhesus monkeys. In M. A. Novak & A. J. Petto (Eds.), Through the Looking Glass: Issues of Psychological Well-Being in Captive Nonhuman Primates (pp. 50-56). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.


First author's address: Child Development/Behavioral Science Department, University of North Carolina, CB 8180, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8180 [e-mail: [email protected]]. This research was supported by USPHS grant MH44131 to the first author and was conducted at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center Primate Laboratory (Martin L. Reite, Director), while the first author was on the faculty of the Department of Psychiatry.


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Pairing Macaca fascicularis

Carol Asvestas
Wild Animal Orphanage

In January, 1998, the Wild Animal Orphanage received 22 adult male long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) from the Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates, which was closing its facility.

The animals arrived in the individual squeeze cages in which they had been living and with which they were familiar. The weather in San Antonio was chilly but not freezing; temperatures varied from the mid 30's to high 40's. Our first major task was making sure that they adjusted to the climate, as they would be living outdoors for the first time.

We have a large outdoor quarantine area that is completely covered by a roof. We placed the cages within this area in four separate rows so that the animals were close, side by side, and then covered all sides of the area with heavy tarps. We kept blow heaters on hand to use as needed and packed hay around the rows for additional warmth.

Five of the animals, the oldest in the group, were suffering from chronic diarrhea due to the stress of travelling. These were placed indoors away from the others and treated daily, but only one survived.

The monkeys stayed in the quarantine area for about one month, during which we switched the position of their cages around so that they all got to know each other at one time or another; only minor aggressive behavior was observed.

They were then moved, still in their single cages, into another large enclosed outdoor area closer to their final destination. This time they were placed in two rows, side by side and back to back. This area was next to our big cats. We wanted the macaques to get used to the sounds and smells of big cats as eventually they will share the same compound. To minimize stress, we covered one side of the area the macaques were in so they could not see the cats immediately.

After two weeks we took the covers down and they could see the cats. No stress was observed; rather, they seemed to enjoy the sights and sounds.

After another two weeks, large chimp cages were placed inside the large natural area in which they will live. These cages were placed next to each other in a U-shape and close enough that the macaques could interact between cages.

At this point we picked out the dominant and the subordinant animals and paired them into the chimp cages. We placed each subordinant in a cage first, and then immediately placed a dominant in.

After several minutes of breath holding and some eye covering (on the part of the staff), we knew we could relax. There were two minor fights which lasted a couple of seconds, resulting in only two minor injuries. The injured animals were given an oral antibiotic and healed well. Three days after the animals were put in pairs, a few more minor fights erupted but there were no injuries.

All the animals are doing, eating, and looking well. They will stay in these cages for about another six weeks and then our final stage of putting them all together in their large natural area will take place.

I believe this pairing was successful because the staff took the time to get to know each animal individually. We took the time to move them around and make sure that at one time or another every animal had contact with every other one. It took a great deal of shifting and shuffling and moving cages but it was well worth it. Suggestions and encouragement from various people on the PEF e-mail list helped tremendously.


This article was posted to the Primate Enrichment Forum (PEF) e-mailing list on April 18, 1998. Author's address: Wild Animal Orphanage, P.O. Box 690422, San Antonio, TX 78269 [e-mail: [email protected]].


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Measurement of Enrichment Device Use and Preference in Singly Caged Baboons

Robert D. Hienz, Troy J. Zarcone, Jaylan S. Turkkan, Danielle A. Pyle, and Robert J. Adams
The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the University of Kansas


Enrichment devices often are used to promote psychological well-being when research protocols require housing nonhuman primates in individual cages (e.g., see reviews by Fajzi et al., 1989). A major problem in determining the effect of these devices is the difficulty in providing an objective, accurate measure of their use. In the past, measurement of enrichment-device use has often consisted of informal descriptions (e.g., Bayne et al., 1993) or reports of evidence such as teeth marks (Line et al., 1989) and the decreased volume of wood sticks (Champoux et al., 1987). More temporally-sensitive measures have involved observational time-sampling of device use (Bayne et al., 1993). A disadvantage of these measures is that they may have limited accuracy in reflecting overall changes in device use, or changes in temporal patterns of use. Observational methods also require extensive observer training and technical support for both real-time (e.g., Coelho & Carey, 1990) and videotape recording (Sannerud & Griffiths, 1991).

The present experiment employed both observational data and miniaturized, electronic activity monitors attached to the enrichment devices to precisely measure their use by nonhuman primates. The minute-by-minute use was thus recorded for weeks at a time. Daily circadian patterns of device movements were examined to determine how device use was distributed throughout the day, and how it was influenced by other variables (e.g., light/dark cycle, human presence, daily care activities). Additionally, to determine whether or not the use of enrichment devices influences the general activity of baboons, monitors were attached to individual animals, by means of collars, to record their activity simultaneously. Data were obtained with individually-housed baboons in a controlled colony room where human contact was scheduled and documented throughout the study.


Subjects: Six adult male baboons (Papio anubis, Charles River Research Primates), 9 to 13 years of age and weighing 23 to 34 kg, were individually housed in regulation Group 4 primate cages equipped with polyethylene seating benches. Each baboon could view other baboons in the colony room except those immediately adjacent to him. Visual shielding of adjacent cages, by opaque plastic panels, was done to reduce aggression. The baboons were maintained on a controlled daily feeding and cleaning schedule. Each baboon had previously been employed in behavioral pharmacology experiments in which they performed perceptual tests for food reinforcement. All six baboons had previous experience with Kong devices; four also had previous experience with swings. The overhead lights in the colony room were cycled on/off at 6:00 a.m./6:00 p.m. and all animals had free access to water.

Apparatus: Each electronic activity monitor was a 5.5 x 3.3 x 1.5 cm unit enclosed in a plastic case [1]. This monitor has been used previously to record the movements of baboons (Hienz et al., 1992) and enrichment devices as they are used by baboons (Pyle et al., 1996). Briefly, the monitor's internal microprocessor records "activity counts" whenever the device undergoes accelerative movements exceeding 1 m/sec/sec]. In the present study "activity counts" were summed over 1-hr periods (i.e., summed over 4096 consecutive .88-sec bins). Counts can be translated into movement durations since most movements occur over a series of bins, and each count represents a movement over a brief time interval. Thus, a count of 2048 over a 1-hr interval would represent 30 min of total activity during the interval.

The enrichment devices tested in the present experiment were cherry hardwood logs (hand-made), King Kongreg. rubber devices [2] and Swivel-Swings® [3]. An activity monitor in a padded metal case was placed either inside or on an enrichment device. Logs were approximately 9 cm in diameter and 35 cm long. A monitor and case were fitted within each log by splitting the log, hollowing out an area inside it, and then rejoining it with two recessed bolts. Kong devices are hollow, cone shaped pieces of natural rubber, 15 cm long and 9.5-6.5 cm in diameter. A monitor was placed inside each Kong device and the opening was filled with half of a foam ball to prevent access to the monitor. Swings were triangle-shaped pieces of "break proof" plastic with rounded corners (17 cm on each side) that were suspended from the top-center of the cage by a 29-cm stainless steel chain. The swing was secured to the cage by looping the chain around a bar in the center of the top of the cage and clipping the end of the chain to the base of the plastic triangle. A monitor was connected to the swing's chain by running the chain through a metal loop on the monitor's protective metal case. The case was secured to the chain on the outside of the cage with duct tape to prevent the monitor from sliding into the cage. In addition to each enrichment device having a monitor, each baboon wore a monitor attached to a handmade soft leather neck collar 2.7 cm wide (Hienz et al., 1992). The baboons were videotaped daily (Monday though Friday) with a closed-circuit video camera and videotape recorder. Cameras were positioned so that two baboons could be videotaped simultaneously for 20 min. The first presentation of an enrichment device coincided with the start of a videotaping session. Humans were not allowed in the colony room during videotaping.]

Procedure: All enrichment devices were removed from the baboon cages for 105 days prior to the start of the study. An "ABA" design was employed such that for 14 days before and after a 14-day exposure to each enrichment device, each baboon was without any device. This sequence was then repeated until each baboon had 14 days of access to each of the three enrichment devices (i.e., ABACADA). The order of presentation of the enrichment devices was counterbalanced across baboons.

Data analysis: Monitors attached to enrichment devices were retrieved weekly to transfer the activity data to a computer. Each monitor was then reset, and the device was returned to the baboon's cage. To determine the degree to which activity monitors recorded movements that were not a result of interactions with the animal (e.g., cage vibrations) a monitor was attached to the outside of each baboon's cage for a 48-hr period. A daily log sheet was kept to record times when the devices were manipulated by technicians (e.g., cage washing, physical exams, data retrieval from monitor, etc.) as well as when humans entered the room. Periods of human activity that may have produced enrichment device movement (e.g., cage washing) were not included in the data analysis. Monitor data from each animal's collar were retrieved at approximately 40-day intervals. Total daily device activity data were examined for serial dependencies across days by calculating autocorrelations of lag 1 prior to further statistical analysis (Bartlett's r; Krishef, 1991). For 83% of the device-exposure periods, the daily device movement scores were found to be independent of each other. For these cases, trends across days were examined by calculating linear regressions for total daily device movement durations across each 14-day exposure period. Videotapes were scored by human observers for interactions with the devices. The five categories scored were: 1) hand grasp, 2) mouth contact, 3) foot grasp, 4) unintentional (e.g., stepping on or kicking) and 5) unobservable (e.g., the baboon sat between the device and the camera, obstructing the observer's view). Videotape samples were scored for the onset and end of each response in real time with the aid of a computer system [4].


The total movement time for the swings varied widely between baboons. Two animals averaged 60 min. of daily swing movement. One showed decreasing swing movements across the last 7 days of the exposure period (r = .883, p = .008); the other showed increased swing movements during the first 7 days, which stabilized at around 60 min. a day for the second 7 days. The remaining 4 baboons showed little or no swing movements. Of these, one baboon showed decreases in swing movements throughout the 14-day period (r = .825, p = .0003), while the other three showed no changes in swing movements across the 14-day period. Such wide variations in daily total movement durations across baboons were observed for the logs and Kong toys as well. Within baboons, no similar trends in device use across days were observed for the three devices. Within devices, however, five of six baboons showed decreases in device use across days for the Kong toy. For two of the five baboons, these decreases were statistically significant (p < .05).

Figure 1 shows movement durations for all 3 devices averaged across each 14-day period for each baboon (top graph) as well as averaged for the entire group (bottom graphs). A 48-hour monitor recording from the outside of each baboon's cage showed that animal-induced cage vibrations occurred occasionally during the day and were correlated with periods of high activity by the baboons (e.g., jumping from one side of the cage to the other). The dashed line shows the average amount of device movement generated by cage movement for all baboons, and provides an estimate of indirect device movement. Three baboons selectively moved the log more, two selectively moved the swing more, and one baboon moved the Kong device more, relative to the other devices. When these data were averaged by device type, there was no relation between device type and total movement duration (bottom left graph). When these data were averaged by device presentation order (first, second, or third device presented), baboons showed a trend towards increased movement durations for the devices presented either second or third, independent of device type (bottom right graph). This trend approached significance (p = .06) for the devices presented second. This order effect also can be seen in the data for individual baboons.

Figure 1: Top: Average enrichment device movement for 14-day exposures as a function of device type and order of device presentation. The dashed line indicates the average duration of daily cage shaking recorded. Bottom: Average movement durations (min/day) for king devices, logs, and swings over each 14-day period. Average movement durations are shown as a function of type of enrichment device (first graph) and order of device presentation (second graph).

Videotapes of the baboons' interactions with the devices were scored for the ways in which the baboons contacted them (with hands, mouth, feet or other body parts). Table 1 shows the percentage of contact with each device for these different types of contact, averaged across baboons. For the logs and Kongs, baboons typically turned and rolled these devices in their hands or rolled them on the benches or the floor. Other interactions consisted of picking at the devices with their hands, or holding the devices with their hands or feet while biting or sniffing the objects. One behavior particular to the Kongs was holding it down with either the hands or feet and picking at the rubber ball that filled its opening.

 Device   Hand(%)     Mouth(%)   Foot(%)   Other(%)  
Kong    65 +/- 10    28 +/- 11   7 +/- 8      0         
Log     88 +/- 12     8 +/- 7    4 +/- 7      0         
Swing   57 +/- 41     6 +/- 7    3 +/- 8     34        

Table 1. Types of contact with enrichment devices by baboons (% +/- standard deviation).

"Active" interactions with the swings included pulling, holding, or twisting a swing; pushing a swing away and catching it again with either hands or feet; holding the chain while jumping around the cage; and biting or sniffing a swing. The swings also incurred a high amount of contact with other body parts when animals paced inside the cage near a swing and contacted it.

Figure 2: 24-hour circadian distributions of log and monkey movements for all subjects. Smooth curves are drawn through the scatter plots to assist in viewing the daily patterns. The arrows at "A" indicate the approximate morning cleaning and feeding time (9 a.m. to 11 a.m.). The arrow at "B" indicates the afternoon feeding (2 p.m.).

Figure 2 shows circadian movements for both baboons and logs across 1-hr intervals averaged over the 14-day exposure period. Average hourly movement durations are plotted as individual points, with smoothing functions fitted to the points to highlight the daily pattern. The time designated by "A" indicates the morning animal care period (feeding, replenishing water, cleaning waste pans). The arrow at "B" indicates the afternoon feeding time. Baboon AC's data are not shown due to an activity monitor failure. Baboon activity and log movements were often uncorrelated in that log movements could be either low or high during high periods of animal activity. Similar trends in baboon and toy movements were observed for the Kongs and swings as well.

Comparable results were obtained when these experiments were conducted with three rhesus monkeys in an uncontrolled environment typical of many university colony settings.


Previous reports have suggested that items such as sticks, branches, and perches encourage more species-typical behaviors, and show little habituation over time (Barrett & Stanley, 1983; Bickel et al., 1987). The detailed recordings of the present study, however, indicate that the use of enrichment devices can vary considerably among individuals of the same species. Further, some individual animals may show decreased device use over time, an observation that points to the need to consider individual differences in device use when evaluating the effectiveness of these devices.

When average device movement times were compared, baboons generally interacted less with Kongs than with logs or swings. This trend, however, was not consistent for each individual animal. Of the six baboons, three clearly "preferred" the log (i.e., moved the log more than the other two devices), two preferred the swing, and one preferred the Kong. Thus the trends expressed in the averaged data can be quite misleading. Further, data obtained from individual baboons showed that none of the devices placed into the cages first were moved as frequently as the second and third devices placed into the cages. This device-order effect suggests that following the initial introduction of enrichment devices, some learning or "acquiring" of new ways of manipulating the devices may have taken place for many animals. Such an hypothesis runs counter to the fact that all baboons had previous experience with Kongs prior to the experiment, and they thus had prior opportunities to learn to manipulate this type of device. On the other hand, all baboons were without devices for over three months prior to the start of the experiment, and the Kong toy was not a highly-preferred device.

The 24-hr movement patterns of the enrichment devices were generally restricted to the fixed light/dark cycles imposed upon the animals. Although individual differences were apparent, these device movement patterns were correlated with the recorded movement patterns of the individual subjects. Further, device movement and animal activity patterns often peaked during feeding times and/or the presence of caregivers. In spite of the continued exposure of the animals to daily maintenance and feeding procedures, total habituation to these routines did not occur, suggesting that the daily feeding schedule and/or the presence of humans may greatly affect the use of enrichment devices by animals, and that estimates of animal-device interactions based on observations by animal care personnel at such times could inaccurately estimate total enrichment device use.

A previous experiment using activity monitors and videotape samples to characterize interactions between baboons and food-laced enrichment feeding devices (grooming board and P-Nut Butter Roll, Pyle et al., 1996) showed that the use of these devices occurred primarily after the devices were filled with food, and also just after the colony room light came on the next morning. During these times the amount of movement of the food devices varied among animals. Some baboons showed increased use of the devices over time, others showed decreased use over time, and a few interacted with the food devices very little. Such results parallel the present findings with non-food toys in that the interactions with the present devices were influenced by the daily schedule (e.g., lighting cycle, feeding and cage-cleaning times), and were also determined by "individual preferences" for these devices.

As noted above, device movements and animal activity tended to wax and wane together, with both patterns strongly influenced by the light/dark cycle and the feeding/cleaning schedule. Detailed examinations of these patterns indicated that device and animal movements could, however, change either in concert or in opposite directions, which suggests that interactions between an animal and an enrichment device may occur in differing ways. Observations of videotaped animal-device interactions also showed that baboons interacted with devices in highly active ways such as moving around with the devices and throwing them, as well as in more quiescent ways such as sitting quietly and rubbing or grooming a device.

The present results indicate that miniature activity monitors have advantages when applied to the study of environmental enrichment. First, the recording of device movement need not be restricted to any particular environment, as is the case with jiggle cages or infra-red motion detectors (Evans et al., 1989). Second, complete freedom of movement of the device is provided when the monitor is attached to or inserted within an enrichment device. Third, device movements can be continuously recorded for long time periods. Fourth, temporal patterns of both animal and device movements that are sensitive to external events (e.g., day-night cycles, technician presence, feeding times) can be recorded. Fifth, unlike most observational methods, monitors require minimal technician time (10 minutes to read, store, and reset a monitor), and at the same time can yield an abundance of behavioral data. Finally, the monitors provide data that are both quantitative and objective, a particularly important advantage in the study of general activity in primates as well as in the assessment of enrichment devices.

A limitation of the use of activity monitors for measuring movement in either enrichment devices or animals is that an activity monitor differentiates neither among movements that similarly trigger the transducer, nor among those that exceed the transducer threshold. For example, one cannot tell from the movement record of a log whether it is being manipulated, chewed, kicked, or moved in the course of other activities. On the other hand, activity monitors can produce an "around-the-clock" record for determining overall device activity and pinpointing periods of high activity for further supplemental analysis (e.g., via real-time observations or video recordings). Thus activity monitors can be an important adjunct in examining the use of enrichment devices in nonhuman primates when used in conjunction with observational procedures.


Barrett, J. E. & Stanley, J. A. (1983). Prior behavioral experience can reverse the effects of morphine. Psychopharmacology, 81, 107-110.

Bayne, K. A. L., Dexter, S. L., Hurst, J. K., Strange, G. M., & Hill, E. E. (1993). Kong toys for laboratory primates: Are they really an enrichment or just fomites? Laboratory Animal Sciences, 43(1), 78-85.

Bickel, W. K., Johnson, R. E., Stitzer, M. L., Bigelow, G. E., Liebson, I. A., & Jasinski, D. R. (1987). A clinical trial of buprenorphine: I. Comparison with methadone in the detoxification of heroin addicts II. Examination of its opioid blocking properties. National Institute of Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series, 76, 182-187.

Champoux, M., Hempel, M., & Reinhardt, V. (1987). Environmental enrichment with sticks for singly-caged adult rhesus monkeys. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 26[4], 5-7.

Coelho, A. M. & Carey, K. D. (1990). A social tethering system for nonhuman primates used in laboratory research. Laboratory Animal Science, 40, 388-394.

Evans, H. L., Taylor, J. D., Ernst, J., & Graefe, J. F. (1989). Methods to evaluate the well-being of laboratory primates: Comparisons of macaques and tamarins. Laboratory Animal Science, 39, 318-323.

Fajzi, K., Reinhardt, V. & Smith, M. D. (1989). A review of environmental enrichment strategies for singly caged nonhuman primates. Lab Animal, 18[3], 23-35.

Hienz, R. D., Turkkan, J. S., Spear, D. J., Sannerud, C. A., Kaminsky, B. J., & Allen, R. P. (1992). General activity in baboons measured with a computerized, lightweight piezoelectric motion sensor: Effects of drugs. Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior, 42, 497-507.

Krishef, C. H. (1991). Fundamental Approaches to Single Subject Design and Analysis. Malabar, FL: Krieger Publishing Company.

Line, S. W., Clarke, A. S., & Markowitz, H. (1989). Adult female rhesus macaques' responses to novel objects. Lab Animal, 18(5), 33-40.

Pyle, D. A., Bennett, A. L., Zarcone, T. J., Turkkan, J. S., Adams, R. J., & Hienz, R. D. (1996). Use of two food foraging devices by singly housed baboons. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 35[2], 10-15.

Sannerud, C. A. & Griffiths, R. R. (1991). Assessment of benzodiazepine physical dependence in baboons. Paper presented to the American Psychological Association, San Francisco.


First author's address: Behavioral Biology Research Center, Suite 3000, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Bayview Campus, 5510 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224-6823 [e-mail: [email protected]].

This research was supported by U. S. Public Health Service Grant RR06750. Reprint requests should be sent to Dr. Hienz. The authors thank Amy Bennett and Dana Carluccio for their help in the collection of these data.

[1]Personal Activity Monitor, or PAM, manufactured by Individual Monitoring Systems, Baltimore, MD.

[2 ]Part no. KKR, Primate Products, Redwood City, CA.

[3]#PSS-01S, Bio-Environmental Modifiers, Frankfort, KS.

[4]Tufts University Data Acquisition System, Princeton Economics Inc., Princeton, MA.


* * *

Der Rosenaffe

In a letter to the International Primate Protection League (IPPL) dated 10 September 1997, Speight Jenkins, General Director of the Seattle Opera, stated:

"It is quite true that Seattle Opera used a monkey in the first act of our production Der Rosenkavalier. This was not our intention but one specified in the text: the Animal Trainer is described as having dogs and monkeys for sale.

"Seattle Opera procured the trained monkey from an approved organization, one at which the monkey was born and where, insofar as we could determine, he had been treated well.

"I am sorry that our use of a monkey offends you. I can personally promise that we will not use a monkey again because he was too difficult for the singer to handle properly. He was only onstage for about four minutes and caused more trouble than he was worth. You will not be upset by a monkey on our stage in the future." -- Posted to Primate-Talk by Shirley McGreal of IPPL

* * *

Placing Hand-Reared Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) into Adult Social Groups: A Technique for Facilitating Group Integration

Karen Pazol, Susan McDonald, Kate Baker, and Barbara Smuts
Anthropology and Psychology Departments, The University of Michigan


In an effort to promote social competence in hand-reared chimpanzees, infants are typically placed in peer groups. However, exposure to peers does not appear to fully compensate for the absence of maternal rearing in chimpanzees (Spijkerman, 1987; Bloomsmith et al., 1991; Pazol & Bloomsmith, 1993; King & Mellen, 1994). Furthermore, it seems intuitive that some behaviors (sexual, maternal, adult communication) can best be learned in groups of mixed age and sex (Meder, 1990; King & Mellen, 1994). Nonetheless, integrating hand-reared infants into groups with adults has potential risks: due to their social inexperience, these youngsters may elicit aggression from adults (Meder, 1989), and they will also lack the natural protection of a mother.

One strategy for reducing the potential risks of integrating hand-reared infants into complex groups involves prior housing with socially experienced adult females. Adult female great apes have been known to adopt young infants and develop supportive relationships with them (van Wulfften Palthe & van Hooff, 1975; Puleo et al., 1983). Under the care of an adult female conspecific, hand-reared infants often show reduced levels of abnormal behavior and may even develop social skills indistinguishable from those of a mother-reared ape (de Waal, 1982; Puleo et al., 1983).

In this article we report on the success of fostering hand-reared chimpanzees to socially experienced adult females as a means of facilitating subsequent group integration. The infants were housed with the females for six months prior to their placement in a newly formed social group at the Detroit Zoo. The fostering appears to have contributed to the success of their integration.

Subjects and Methods

The Detroit Zoo chimpanzee exhibit consists of two outdoor areas and indoor facilities totaling approximately 1.5 ha. The indoor enclosure measures 3,800 m2 and consists of two large day rooms, 12 night cages, and eight holding areas, all of which can be interconnected.

The infants, born at the Lincoln Park Zoo in Chicago, were 2 (Suzy) and 2.5 (Akati) years of age at the start of the study. Suzy, rejected by her mother at birth, was hand-reared alone for two months and then housed with an infant gorilla. Akati was mother-reared in a large group for nine months, but she had to be removed for hand-rearing when her mother ceased to produce sufficient milk. Subsequently, Akati lived alone for two months and was then placed in a peer group with Suzy and the infant gorilla. In May, 1989, the infants were transferred as a pair to Detroit and were housed together until introduction procedures began four months later.

The foster mothers, Beauty and Bubbles, were wild-born and estimated to be 16 and 18 years of age, respectively. They had lived together as a pair in captivity for most of their lives. For two years prior to their arrival at the Detroit Zoo they lived in a social group of seven individuals at the Dallas Zoo. Both females were nulliparous, but were selected as the foster mothers because they had been observed to interact affiliatively with infants at the Dallas Zoo. The other members of Detroit's colony were two adult males, four adult females, and an adolescent female.

In all phases of group formation, Suzy and Akati were introduced to new individuals with a stepwise process. First they were given visual contact to new social partners. Next they were allowed to interact through a mesh barrier. Finally, based upon the presence of affiliative gestures and/or the absence of aggression, they were given free physical access to the new individuals.

In September of 1989 the infants were introduced to both of the potential foster mothers via the stepwise pro-cess described above. Subsequently the two adult females and the two infants were housed together continuously in a "Nursery Group" for six months. Two months into this period the adolescent female was added to the group. Foster mother-infant pairs (Suzy and Beauty, Akati and Bubbles) were identified on the basis of obvious social preferences observed in the Nursery Group. From December to February 1990 each infant was introduced to new individuals in the presence of her foster mother during the day and was then returned to the Nursery Group in the evening. In March the adults were placed in one "Social Group" and the infants were added two days later. (See McDonald, 1994, for a detailed description of the introduction procedures and zoo exhibit.)

Data collection consisted of randomly scheduled 15-min focal animal samples on the infants and all the adults with whom they were housed. During these observations, social interactions were recorded continuously; instantaneous samples were taken at 1-min intervals to note the focal's behavior and proximity to other individuals. In all, 29.3 hours of data were collected for the Nursery Group and 223 hours for the complete Social Group. Rates of aggression and contact locomotion (infant is carried or walks with one or both arms over the back of an adult) were calculated from the continuous data in the Social Group. Times spent in proximity, grooming, and play were tabulated from the instantaneous samples. A composite proximity measure (C-score) was calculated following Smuts (1985).


                Suzy                         Akati                        
                        Nursery Group                           
Adult  C-score^ groom* play* carry or** C-score groom* play* carry or**     
                              tandem                          tandem    
                               walk                            walk      
Beauty   87      3.7    1.1   2.2         49     1.1    .67   0.0       
Bubbles  23     47     85    14           46     4.5   1.3     .49       
                         Whole Group                            
Adult  C-score^ groom* play* carry or** C-score groom* play* carry or**     
                              tandem                          tandem    
                               walk                            walk      
Beauty   65      1.1    4.9    .85        25      .58   2.0    .06       
Bubbles  21       .00    .23   .07        20      .62    .79   .15       
Peggy    21       .00    .27   .06        12      .05    .95   .00       
Sarah    11       .04    .17   .24         5.6    .00    .00   .00       
Trixi    16       .00    .00   .02         1.1    .00    .32   .00       
Joe      10       .59    .40   .00         5.1    .05    .41   .00       
Chuck    10       .00   1.1    .00        19      .19   2.3    .00       
^ Composite proximity scores calculated by C = 4 (S0m + S0.5m) + 0.8 (S2m) * 100 #S
where S0m = number of scans at zero meters (in contact); S0.5m = number of scans at > (0 - 0.5 meters); S2m = number of scans at > (0.5 - 2 meters); #S = total number of scans during focal observations
* Percentage of scans ** Rate/hour

Table 1: Distribution of infant social behaviors among adults

Despite concerns for safety in the Social Group setting, there was little infant-directed aggression. The adults in sum evinced aggression toward the infants at the low rate of 0.04 times/hour. Moreover, this aggression consisted only of mild threats and lunges, and the infants incurred no injuries.

Integration into the Social Group was successful for both infants. Meder (1990) has used play with all group members as a measure of successful integration in gorillas; she considers play with the silverback male to indicate that integration is complete. Both Suzy and Akati engaged in play, and many other forms of affiliative behavior, with all group members, including the two adult males (Table 1). Hence, Suzy and Akati were integrated into Detroit's new colony with few complications.

An examination of the distribution of affiliative behaviors among the colony members (Table 1) reveals both the distinct nature of Beauty's relationship with Suzy and the several elements of a foster mother-infant relationship it possessed (see Thierry & Anderson, 1986 for a review of behaviors indicative of adoption in nonhuman primates). Starting in the Nursery Group, Suzy's score with Beauty was at least somewhat and often considerably higher than her score with Bubbles for each measure of affiliation (C-score, grooming, play, contact locomotion). This pattern was maintained in the Social Group setting.

Bubbles and Akati also showed high frequencies of affiliation, but the strength of their preference for each other was not as striking as that of Beauty and Suzy. In the Nursery Group, Akati engaged in contact locomotion with Bubbles exclusively; she also played and groomed slightly more often with Bubbles than with Beauty. However, Akati's C-scores were similar for the two females. In the Social Group, Akati also engaged in high levels of affiliation with both females, and she frequently played with Chuck, an adult male.


This study suggests that prior housing with socially experienced adult females can facilitate the integration of hand-reared infants into naturalistic social groups. It also corroborates evidence from prior reports (van Wulfften Palthe & van Hooff, 1975; Puleo et al., 1983) that affiliative social bonds between infants and adult females can be fostered in great apes, sometimes to a degree that might qualify as adoption. However, it is difficult to differentiate between the influence of the techniques implemented here and other factors that may have contributed to the success of the introductions.

Despite the variation in the degree to which each infant developed an affiliative relationship with her foster mother, both were successfully integrated into Detroit's new colony. It could be that the fostering facilitated group integration simply by providing the infants with the opportunity to develop social skills during the prolonged, six-month period they spent in the Nursery Group. In gorillas, Meder (1989, 1990) has reported that hand-reared infants lacking prior exposure to an adult female often elicit aggression from adults because of their social inexperience. During the six months that Suzy and Akati lived with Beauty and Bubbles it did appear that they developed more sophisticated social skills. For example, on several occasions Akati gave mature pant-grunt vocalizations to the adult males, and this may have contributed to their lack of aggression toward her.

That prolonged exposure to adult females can facilitate group integration is also suggested by the failure of a subsequent attempt to introduce two additional hand-reared infants into Detroit's colony. Having spent only two weeks with adult females prior to integration, these infants were harassed by adults and wounded by one of the resident males. It is possible that the short duration of exposure to adult females was insufficient to foster increased social skills in the infants or protective behaviors in the females. The interactions between these infants and adult females may also have lacked cues that could influence males to restrain aggression for the sake of their relationships with adult females. However, the poorer outcome of these introductions may also be attributed to their timing relative to the establishment of the entire group; the more successful introductions we describe involved integration into a newly formed social group, while the others involved attempts to add additional infants into a well-established social group.

Suzy's and Akati's very different rearing histories undoubtedly had a large impact on the integration process. Akati was mother-reared for nine months, while Suzy was separated from her mother at birth. This difference is critical in that prior studies have shown that even short periods of maternal-rearing have beneficial consequences for chimpanzee behavioral development (Spij-kerman, 1987; King & Mellen, 1994). Akati was successfully introduced into the social group despite lower levels of interaction and preference. Thus, the relationship between prior social experience and success of fostering close associations between female-infant pairs prior to introduction merits investigation.

Although there were only two infants in this study and we could not control for some important variables, we would like to highlight the importance of making findings from such procedures widely accessible. Once the results from several integration attempts are on hand, they can be compiled for an analysis of the critical variables that determine the success or failure of such procedures.


Bloomsmith, M. A., Alford, P. A., & Pazol, K. A. (1991). Juvenile chimpanzee behavioral development in four social settings. American Journal of Primatology, 24, 90.

de Waal, F. B. M. (1982). Chimpanzee Politics: Power and Sex Among Apes. New York: Harper and Row.

King, N. E. & Mellen, J. D. (1994). The effects of early experience on adult copulatory behavior in zoo-born chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Zoo Biology, 13, 51-59.

Meder, A. (1989). Effects of hand-rearing on the behavioral development of infant and juvenile gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla). Developmental Psychobiology, 22, 357-376.

Meder, A. (1990). Integration of hand-reared gorillas into breeding groups. Zoo Biology, 9, 157-164.

McDonald, S. (1994). The Detroit Zoo chimpanzees: Exhibit design, group composition and the process of group formation. International Zoo Yearbook, 33, 235-247, 1994.

Pazol, K. A. & Bloomsmith, M. A. (1993). The development of stereotyped body rocking in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) reared in a variety of nursery settings. Animal Welfare, 2, 113-129.

Puleo, S. G., Zucker, E. L., & Maple, T. L. (1983). Social rehabilitation and foster mothering in captive orangutans. Der Zoologische Garten, 53, 196-202.

Smuts, B. B. (1985). Sex and Friendship in Baboons. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Spijkerman, R. P. (1987). Behavior development of infant chimpanzees with the mother and in peer groups. In Annual Report, Division for Health Research TNO Primate Center (pp. 309-312).

Thierry, B. & Anderson, J. R. (1986). Adoption in anthropoid primates. International Journal of Primatology, 7, 191-216.

van Wulfften Palthe, T. & van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. (1975). A case of the adoption of an infant chimpanzee by a suckling foster chimpanzee. Primates, 16, 231-234.


Corresponding author: Barbara Smuts, Department of Psychology, The University of Michigan, 525 East University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1109 [e-mail: [email protected]].

This research was supported by the National Science Foundation (BNS-8857969 to B. Smuts and BNS-8911022 to S. McDonald), the L.S.B. Leakey Foundation, Sigma Xi, Nixon-Griffis Fund for Zoological Research, Association for Women in Science, Oberlin College, and three units of the University of Michigan: The Evolution and Human Behavior Program, Rackham Graduate School, and The Alumni Council. We thank the Detroit Zoo for allowing research on their colony and the chimpanzee caretaking staff for their assistance.


* * *

Pair-housing Male Macaca fascicularis: A Summary

David Seelig
Yale University and Coulston Foundation

Long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), like all macaques, are highly gregarious animals. Biomedical research facilities with large numbers of primates in limited space have traditionally housed these animals in single cages to facilitiate accessibility and decrease risk of injury. However, this housing eliminates social interaction, which the revisions to the Animal Welfare Act recognize as being a crucial aspect in maintaining their well-being (see Reinhardt et al., in press). Pair formation, when preceeded by familiarization, has recently been demonstrated to be a safe and practical alternative to single-housing which does not interfere with most colony management and research protocols (Reinhardt and Seelig, 1998; Reinhardt et al., 1995). While ample evidence demonstrates the practicality, safety, and enrichment value of pair-housing rhesus and stump-tailed macaques (Reinhardt, 1994), limited data exists for pair-housing long-tailed macaques, particularly males (but see Lynch, 1998 [males]; Line et al., 1990 [females]; Crockett et al., 1994 [both sexes]).

This is a summary of a discussion, initiated as a survey to gather evidence on the methods and their success in safely pair-housing male long-tailed macaques. It appeared this winter on the PEF (Primate Enrichment Forum) e-mail list, and highlights the most effective common features. In brief: Richard Lynch (Zeneca Pharmaceuticals) formed 17 pairs five years ago. One pair had to be immediately separated due to aggression, but the other 16 pairs have lived compatibly since they were paired (see Lynch, 1998). Lyna Watson (NIH) formed six pairs of 4.5-year-old males three months ago. One pair had to be separated due to aggression, but the other five pairs have remained compatible. Watson had 86% (24/28) compatibility in females. Marisa St. Claire's lab (BIOQUAL, Inc.) formed three aged male pairs, two of which have remained compatible over eighteen months. Carolyn Crockett (Washington RPRC) tested 15 pair combinations of ten wild-caught males. Of these, six (40%) of the pairs were compatible. Seven pairs had to be separated due to fighting, and three of these sustained injuries that prevented further pairing. Crockett had 100% (10/10) compatibility in similarly tested females (see Crockett et al., 1994).

Protocols Used; Possible Factors Influencing Success

Richard Lynch used a protocol similar to one used with success by Viktor Reinhardt with rhesus and stump-tailed macaques. This involved a noncontact familiarization period to allow the monkeys to become familiar with one another and form a dominance-subordinance relationship. Once this relationship was established, they were paired in a novel cage allowing full access; they were not separated at night.

Marisa St. Claire has used a method which involves a longer process, in stages, which she has also used with success in patas monkeys. The monkeys are first caged side to side with a see-through shuttle door in the back. "After a few days, we slide the squeeze-back mechanism in one cage forward about 1/2 way, and open both shuttle doors to allow one monkey access to the other cage. They can sit side by side on the shelf if they want to, with just the squeeze-back mechanism separating them, yet they can each get away from the other if they want. After several weeks of this we allow them controlled access to each other, with careful observation. If there are no problems (there rarely are), we then start pairing eight hours/day (while the staff is here) for several weeks. If all goes well, we attempt an overnight (on a Monday) with week-end separations, and then let them be together all the time."

Lyna Watson also used a staged process. The candidates were initially removed from their home cages and transferred to a new room: "The candidates are placed side by side in caging with a half-plexiglass/half-solid wall between them. This allows the animals to view one another with no tactile contact and provides me with the opportunity to observe them. Notation is made of their behaviors and if any dominant/subordinate relationship has begun. Based on these observations, on day two or three the plexiglass divider is removed and the animals are allowed to have full contact. If signs of aggression are seen, the animals are separated. Depending on the severity of that encounter, I may allow the animals additional tactile contact." Watson notes that sometimes the monkeys just need to be allowed physical contact to "cement the dominant/subordinate relationship." She remarks that this part of the pairing can be difficult, as it relies on the behaviorist/technician to "make a call" as to whether the animals will be compatible: "Examples of positive signs in pairings are: sharing perch, grooming, eating food/treats in company of other animal and `teaming up' in their threats to me or other animals within the room." Because of veterinary concerns, the new pair is usually not left with tactile contact for the first night: "By day two or three, if they seem to be getting along well and a stable social situation has been established, they are allowed full contact overnight. Thus far, this slow, staged process has worked well, even in isosexual pairings of both adult male and female long-tails."

Viktor Reinhardt (Animal Welfare Institute) suggested that it is not advisable to separate the pair the first night: "[I feel] that the formation of a stable relationship is impeded and that new companions have to go through a quasi re-pairing process several times. I would guess that the animals would develop an even higher degree of compatibility if you did not disrupt their relationship shortly after pair formation." Lynch also felt that initial separations might impair the formation of stable social relationships. Reinhardt suggested that if pairs are formed in the morning (after feeding), this gives the observer a full day to assess the compatibility of the partners and hence the safety of keeping them together overnight. Another suggestion made by both Reinhardt and Lynch is to wait until a clear dominance/subordinance relationship is observed before full-contact pairing: "Under such conditions, new companions have no real reason to fight (over dominance) when being introduced to each other."

The objective of Carolyn Crockett's study was to evaluate pair-housing as an enrichment strategy. Crockett followed a strict protocol for both males and females in which animals were paired separately with multiple partners for a two-week period: "...each of ten wild-born adult male long-tailed macaques was paired with three different (of the nine possible) males for a total of 15 male-male pairings. The pairs, when separated overnight, still had visual contact. The pairs had visual contact for a day prior to introduction and two-thirds of the pairs had two weeks of visual contact several weeks prior to introduction (visual familiarity and preference testing in an earlier stage of the study had no significant relationship with pair compatibility)." The monkeys in Crockett's study were separated overnight, but this was interpreted not to be a factor in the lower compatibility of males relative to females (who were also separated overnight).

Also not seen as a factor was the lack of "uni-directional fear-grinning" prior to pair-housing. Crockett suggested that in male long-tails, this might be an indicator of stress in the subordinate rather than a sign of compatibility. In personal correspondence, Crockett wrote: "The most compatible pairs (e.g., lots of grooming) seem not to exhibit obvious dom/sub relationships, though they may in fact have one." Reinhardt has commented (per-sonal communication) that unidirectional fear-grinning may not be a necessary requirement in some dominant/subordinate relationships, because each pair may demonstrate their relationship differently. It is a consensus among the majority of contributors that it is important to form male-male pairs away from visual and olfactory contact with females.

From the evidence presented, it seems most likely that male long-tailed macaques have a higher tendency toward incompatibility than females, but not necessarily a lesser need for companionship. Crockett has suggested that an alternative to pair-housing in some situations, which would fulfill the social needs of males, would be to pair them with females in "grooming-contact cages" which allow contact but not full contact or copulation (see Crockett et al., 1997). These are not yet commercially available, but she has had great success with them in published pilot trials. However, it is apparent that in certain situations male long-tails can live compatibly as full-contact pairs: Lynch, whose work represents the largest-scale pair-housing implementation to date for this species (34 animals), has had a five-year compatibility rate of 94%. This suggests that success might be enhanced by following a similar protocol. As Crockett suggested, it is also possible that the incompatible monkeys in the above examples might have less tolerance for partners of the same sex due to unknown individual or facility differences.

Watson suggests, however (personal communication), that if an individual does not get along with the first partner he (or she) is placed with, that animal should be placed with at least one one other candidate. She remarks, "I give them each three that point you can say that it probably won't work out...these animals do have preferences. I always look at their record and try to piece together if they have been housed with someone in the past, for how long, and if it worked out or not. We can perform preliminary background searches, eyeball the candidates, consider their location in home rooms, etc. But the bottom line is the animal makes the decision if he or she wants to stay together with a new partner!"

Assessment and Effects of Pair-housing on Welfare

The consensus of the contributors is that physical social contact is a need of long-tailed macaques, but there are differences in * what methods of pair-housing have been used; * the success of the pair-housing protocols, and, as Crockett discussed; * whether full contact pair-housing is even the best way of providing physical contact in cages.

Reinhardt, Lynch, and St. Claire remarked that an important sign of compatibility is the sharing of food. St. Claire wrote: "I have also noticed that although they establish a dom/sub hierarchy, the dominant one (in both these old long-tails and the patas) will often allow the sub to take peanuts from me, i.e., doesn't hog them all." While differences in rates of grooming and time in physical contact do exist between males and females (males generally lower), Crockett, Lynch, and St. Claire observed significant variation. St. Claire remarks, "The first time I went into that room I thought they were paired females who just happened to be really macho looking!" Lynch has observed (personal communication) that the males in his colony spend the large majority of their time while awake either allogrooming or in close proximity, and usually sleep in physical contact with each other.

It is sometimes difficult to assess whether a monkey is content with his or her environment. Adaptation and habituation can mask the potential for a higher (or lower) quality of life. Even negative responses can be misleading, because the same stimuli that occasionally cause distress might also be the source of an irreplacable benefit. Responses may not even be readily observable, as internal states are sometimes inconsistently expressed through behavior. Given these difficulties, at best it may only be possible to approximate, rather than determine, the effects of social enrichment on well-being, and care must be taken to ensure that both partners are profiting from the relationship.

It is worth noting that, although veterinary care was needed in some of the instances described, none of the contributors reported life-threatening injuries. This demonstrates that pair-housing male long-tails can be done not only with a high rate of success, but also safely. This gives merit to its implementation in the large majority of laboratory situations. Care should be taken, through protocol design and attentiveness to individual personalities, to give the monkeys the highest chance of success. In some instances, it may be indicated to use "grooming-contact cages" as suggested by Crockett to form nonbreeding male-female pairs, for those males that would otherwise be incompatible with other males or when either sex cannot be paired for medical or experimental reasons.

In any event, the results of this inquiry lend support to the practicality and importance of providing physical or social companionship for caged male long-tailed macaques. The ability of most macaques to spend 100% of their lives in close quarters for years and exhibit almost no aggresssion demonstrates not only great patience and tolerance on their part, but also extreme intimacy between the partners. The former is what allows pair-housing to be done, but it is the latter that justifies the effort and care required to implement it. Continuous social contact, by providing macaques the opportunity for physical touch and the formation of emotional attachments, is the only means of providing macaques the opportunity to express what appears to be a deep-seated need in their biological make-up. Hence, pair-housing (and its alternatives) is the foremost component of housing and enrichment in ensuring an adequate quality and richness of life for male long-tailed macaques and all other members of their genus.


Crockett, C. M., Bellanca, R. U., Bowers, C. L., & Bowden, D.M. (1997). Grooming-contact bars provide social contact for individually caged laboratory macaques. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science, 36[6], 53-60.

Crockett, C. M., Bowers, C. L., Bowden, D. M., & Sackett, G. P. (1994). Sex differences in compatibility of pair-housed adult longtailed macaques. American Journal of Primatology, 32, 73-94.

Line, S. W., Morgan, K. N., Markowitz, H., Roberts, J., & Riddell, M. (1990). Behavioral responses of female long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to pair formation. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 29[4], 1-5.

Lynch, R (1998). Successful pair-housing of male macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 37[1], 4-5.

Reinhardt, V. (1994). Pair-housing rather than single-housing for laboratory rhesus macaques. Journal of Medical Primatology, 23, 426-431.

Reinhardt, V., Bryant, D., Kurth, B., Lynch, R., Bryum, B., St. Claire, M., & Seelig, D. (in press). Guest editorial: A plea for pair-housing of adult macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter.

Reinhardt, V., Liss. C., & Stevens, C. (1995). Social-housing of previously single-caged macaques: What are the options and the risks? Animal Welfare, 4, 307-328.

Reinhardt, V., & Seelig, D. (1998). Environmental Enrichment for Caged Rhesus Macaques: A Photographic Documentation. Washington, DC: Animal Welfare Institute. Available at

Editors' Note: Lynch's and Line et al.'s articles, as well as a number of Reinhardt's articles which appeared in the Laboratory Primate Newsletter, are available on the World Wide Web at


Author's address: Yale Station, P.O. Box 200186, New Haven, CT 06520 [e-mail: [email protected]].


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Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates

The Committee on Animal Nutrition's Subcommittee on Nonhuman Primate Nutrition of the National Research Council's (NRC) Board on Agriculture is seeking the views of experts and interested parties on several issues relating to the nutrient requirements of nonhuman primates. To assist the subcommittee in obtaining input to revise the 1978 edition of Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates, you are invited to respond to the questions below.

Although some questions below may not be appropriate for your expertise and experience, please answer those that you are comfortable addressing and forward this list of questions to colleagues and clientele who could also provide input. For each question, please explain the basis of your views (personal or professional experience, supporting data, regulatory or policy influences).

1. What is wrong with the 1978 NRC Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates report? What parts are wrong or not useful? Be specific.

2. Is there anything you wouldn't change about the 1978 NRC Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates report? What parts are useful?

3. What would you like the new NRC Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates report to contain?

4. How do you expect to use this information?

5. What changes do you think are needed in recommended nutrient requirements or food fractions (e.g., protein, fiber fractions, fat, micronutrients) in the new NRC Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates?

6. Do you use food or browse as a part of your environmental enrichment program? If so, what do you use and how do you use it?

7. Would you like to have recommended nutrient requirements for hand-rearing infant primates? Do you have any information to share on this topic?

8. Would you like to have tables of food composition in the new report? If so, what items should be included, and can you provide references for this information?

9. In estimating nutrient requirements or formulating diets for under-studied species, are you more comfortable extrapolating from animals that are taxonomically related or from those that have similar feeding strategies?

10. Would you like to see standard reference diet formulations included in the report? What are your criteria for adequately tested reference diets? Can you supply formulations for such diets along with supporting evidence of their adequacy?

We encourage you to provide input or submit documents that would be helpful to the subcommittee in its deliberations. Your comments will be used by the subcommittee in developing its report and your response to the above questions will be most useful if it is no longer than a few pages. Please mail or fax your comments and information to: Charlotte Kirk Baer, Program Director, Committee on Animal Nutrition, Board on Agriculture, Suite 394, NRC, 2101 Constitution Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20418 [202-334-3062; fax: 202-334-1978; e-mail: [email protected]].

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Address Changes

Karl A. Andrutis, Dept of Biomed. Sciences, Tufts Univ. School of Vet. Med., 200 Westboro Rd, Bldg 20, North Grafton, MA 01536.

Erica Bammel, 11119 Pagewynne Dr., Frisco, TX 75035.

Bobby G. Brown, NIH, OPRR, 6100 Executive Blvd., Suite 3B01, Rockville, MD 20892-7507.

Charles River Key Lois, 24244 Overseas Highway, Summerland Key, FL 33042-4803.

Nancy Gold, P.O. Box 245038, Sacramento, CA 95824.

Richard B. Huneke, Senior Research Veterinarian, DuPont Merck Pharmaceutical Company, P.O. Box 80400, Wilmington, DE 19880-0400.

David Lee-Parritz, Center for Animal Resources & Comparative Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 665 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115.

Preston Marx, 455 1st Ave, New York, NY 10016-9102.

Alvin Moreland, 2424 Andrews Circle, Aiken, SC 29803-7016.

Rebecca Schwiebert, 7812 Truxton Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90045.

Stephanie Torlone, 2 Royalston Ave, Winchester, MA 01890.

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News Briefs

Coulston Faces USDA Animal Welfare Charges

The U.S. Department of Agriculture recently charged the Coulston Foundation, a registered research facility in Alamogordo, N.M., with violations of the Animal Welfare Act. "Our Animal Care inspectors uncovered numerous noncompliance items spanning several months at the Coulston facility in New Mexico," said Michael V. Dunn, Assistant Secretary for Marketing and Regulatory Programs.

Noncompliance items included failure to: * Handle three sedated chimpanzees as carefully as possible in a manner that did not cause behavioral stress, physical harm, and unnecessary discomfort; * Provide adequate veterinary care to three chimpanzees in sedating them as a group; * Establish and maintain programs of adequate veterinary care, including procedures and equipment for emergency care; * Provide adequate pre-procedural care in accordance with current established veterinary medical and nursing procedures, in that Coulston personnel failed to ensure that the chimpanzees had fasted prior to sedation; * Provide adequate pre-procedural care in accordance with current established veterinary medical and nursing procedures in that Coulston personnel failed to treat a chimpanzee for shock and stabilize its condition prior to surgical treatment; * Provide adequate veterinary care to the chimpanzee "Echo," in that Coulston personnel undertook an extensive surgical procedure under inappropriate conditions; * Provide adequate post-proce-dural care in accordance with current established veterinary medical and nursing procedures in that Coulston personnel failed to adequately monitor the chimpanzee following surgery; * Maintain primary enclosures for nonhuman primates in good repair so as to protect the animals from injury and contain them; * Store supplies of food for nonhuman primates in a manner that protects them from spoilage, contamination and vermin infestation; * Provide for the regular and frequent collection, removal, and disposal of animal and food wastes, in a manner that minimizes contamination and disease risk; * Construct surface materials of housing facilities in a manner that allows for easy cleaning, sanitization and replacement; * Clean and sanitize primary enclosure for nonhuman primates as required; * Maintain structurally sound housing facilities and maintain them in good repair so as to protect the animals from injury; * Maintain sheltered housing facilities for nonhuman primates in a manner that ensures that the animals were protected from temperature extremes, and to provide for their health and well-being; and * Establish and maintain an effective program for the control of insects and mammals that are pests so as to promote the well-being of the animals and reduce contamination by pests.

The Coulston Foundation has 20 days from the date of being served to answer these charges. As with all AWA administrative actions, the Coulston Foundation will have the opportunity for a hearing if desired. -- From a March 26, 1998 APHIS press release

Rare Wildlife at Risk as Fires Ravage Borneo

Fires continued their advance across Indonesia's charred East Kalimantan province yesterday, destroying ancient forests and threatening rare wildlife. More than 1,000 separate blazes were raging throughout the Borneo island province, where severe drought conditions were hampering firefighting efforts and threatening the region's rich biodiversity, including its orangutan population. Nunuk Kasyanto, director of the Lories, a non-governmental organization dedicated to the preservation of flora and fauna in East Kalimantan, said the wildlife damage was not limited to Indonesian species. "Birds migrating from Siberia stop here on their way to Australia and are now losing their way because of the smoke," Mr. Kasyanto said. Dozens of horses near the Wanariset research station in Semboja, north of the oil city of Balikpapan, had died from starvation after drought killed off the vegetation in their habitat.

Mr. Kasyanto said the fires were bad but added that the absence of rain since December was perhaps even more life-threatening. "The canopies high up in the trees containing fruit and sources of food for orangutans are dying because of the drought, and they can't go down below because there are so many ground fires," he said.

The estimated population of 2,500 orangutans in the jungles of East Kalimantan was also being diminished by illegal hunting. The loss of vital food sources was leaving the primates weak and vulnerable to poachers, who mostly export orangutans as pets. -- From the South China Morning Post, March 27, 1998, as posted to Primate-Talk

Birth and Death Among Zoo Gorillas

March 20, 1998 -- "Kibabu and Frala of Bradleys Head Road, Mosman, are delighted to announce the arrival of their as yet unnamed son, born at Taronga Zoo, Sydney, Australia on March 7, 1998. Brother to Shinda and Anguka. Mother and son both well." -- Posted to Primate-Talk by Hope Walker

March 31, 1998 -- A three-week-old gorilla, the first born naturally in Australia, has been found dead in his mother's arms at Taronga Zoo. Zoo staff said yesterday the cause of death would not be known until a post mortem examination later this week. A spokeswoman for the zoo said yesterday that infant death among gorillas was very high in the first year of life -- estimated at up to 40% in the wild and 30% in captivity. -- Posted to Primate-Talk by Lynette Shanley

March 27, 1998 (AFP) -- Japanese pathologists have confirmed that their prize lowland gorilla, Sultan, met with a fatal heart attack within moments of contacting his new harem for the first time, a zoo official said Friday. "He died of heart failure," the official from Kyoto Municipal Zoo said Friday after an autopsy was conducted. Curators lifted cage bars separating the 28-year-old lowland gorilla from three potential female breeding partners on Monday, ending months of bachelorhood for Sultan. But after three minutes of frolicking he had a fatal heart attack. Sultan "chased the females for a few minutes, but suddenly collapsed forward," said a general curator. A veterinarian and a curator both attempted mouth-to-mouth resuscitation in vain. It was Sultan's first direct contact with prospective breeding partners since January when he arrived at the Kyoto zoo from Tokyo's Ueno Zoo. -- Posted to Primate-Talk by Robert Beale

April 3, 1998 -- "I'm sorry to report that silverback gorilla Barney died suddenly this past Tuesday at the Kansas City Zoo. It is my understanding the cause of death was aortic aneurism. Barney had spent his captive life at four different zoos --- Toronto, then Bronx, then Colorado Springs, then Kansas City. He had done his zoo job well, reproducing at three different zoos and continually impressing zoo visitors. He had been transferred to Kansas City to be integrated into a bachelor group. I knew Barney from the Cheyenne Mountain Zoo in Colorado Springs, where he and Juju produced four offspring, two of whom died of natural causes. His surviving offspring there are two beautiful daughters, Asha and Zuri. Barney was a very nice guy. It was a privilege to have known him. -- Posted to Primate-Talk by Sue Woods

May 12, 1998 -- Willie B's third child, named Willie B, Jr. or "Kidigo" (which means little or small in Swahili), was born on April 8th. Mom and baby are doing great. The surprise, however, was Choomba, who was holding Willie B's fourth offspring. No one knew when conception was, so Choomba's due date had been guessed to be early June. But the baby was born late last night, or early this morning -- most likely at night, since the baby was dry and cleaned off pretty well by the time the keepers came in this morning. Choomba's one of the best gorilla moms around and she and the baby looked healthy and great. -- Posted to Primate-Talk by Jane Dewar

WWF Opens Southern African Wildlife College

The World Wildlife Fund announced in the March/April issue of Focus that their Southern African Wildlife College, "the first of its kind in the region and only the third in Africa, has officially opened its doors. Located in the Northern Province of South Africa, adjacent to Kruger National Park, this institution aims to provide practical education and training to wildlife managers from all over Africa. Students from as far away as Kenya and Uganda are presently attending short courses at the college. Students started attending the first certificate course last month. Their training will cover all aspects of managing a protected area, from understanding the region's ecology to developing new management skills and working with local communities."

Emory University Disputes OSHA Findings

Following an investigation into the death of an employee last December, the U.S. Labor Department's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) cited Emory University/Yerkes Regional Primate Center in Atlanta, GA, for 10 safety violations and imposed a $105,000 civil penalty. Emory/Yerkes announced that it will "vigorously dispute" the charges brought after the 22-year-old worker contracted herpes B virus and died when liquid from an animal she was helping to move splashed into her eye. In a press statement, Emory/Yerkes maintains that it "conformed to all current standards of safety at the time of the incident," and is "dismayed" with OSHA's repeated statements that the case was "significant" due to the "... attention it received in the national press." "We believe that OSHA's actions should be governed by law and concerns for safety, not by the scope of the media," and that OSHA "... has ignored the facts, the scientific knowledge, or safety standards followed by other primate facilities." Further, the university pointed out that it actively participated in the development of the guidelines that established the recommended safety practices and personal protection equip-ment worn by employees at primate centers, pharmaceutical companies and zoos. In light of the tragic death of the employee, apparently the first occurrence of herpes B virus transmission through the eye at a primate center, other facilities have modified safety procedures with respect to eye protection. -- NABR UPDATE, May 4, 1998

Group Seeking Funds for Air Force Chimpanzees

The Center for Captive Chimpanzee Care has launched a web site <> announcing the group's intentions to bid for the 143 U.S. Air Force chimpanzees scheduled to be given to the Coulston Foundation, a New Mexico primate facility. The Florida-based group, directed by Jane Goodall and Roger Fouts, is "actively seeking funds and land" to create a sanctuary to retire the chimpanzees. -- NABR UPDATE, May 4, 1998

APHIS Inspection Report on USDA Web Site

Summaries of APHIS animal welfare inspection reports, by institution, are now available on the World Wide Web. The Animal Plant and Inspection Service (APHIS) Animal Care (AC) Program has been using this database internally for some time to monitor Animal Welfare Act compliance. Previously, like most federal government records, copies of animal welfare inspection reports, research facility annual reports, as well as other documents on file, were available to anyone from APHIS on written request under the terms of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).

Actual inspection reports (APHIS Form 7008) are not yet posted on the USDA FOIA page; this is planned in the next 18 to 24 months. Currently online for each site at every registered research facility is a list of findings by inspection date. The searchable database covers inspections for approximately the last three years and uses a system of categories devised by AC staff. For each inspection the system distinguishes between direct (affecting animal health) and indirect violations (not affecting animal health). Under these two headings, four "Categories" of violations are reported - (I) corrected in the past; (II) uncorrected, but still within time allowed for correction; (III) new this inspection; and (IV) uncorrected past agreed-upon compliance date.

As in any data system, there are bound to be a few glitches. It is suggested that institutions check their own inspection listings at <> and contact their APHIS AC Regional Offices about any discrepancies. Listings should be monitored periodically thereafter, especially following inspections. Also it would be a good idea to carefully review the APHIS Form 7008 with AC staff at the time of each inspection to be sure notations are clear and any corrected violations are reported as soon as possible. -- Reported on CompMed

Wisconsin Stumptails to Texas

Madison, May 6, 1998 -- The University of Wisconsin-Madison's colony of 54 stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides) housed at the Henry Vilas Zoo is headed to the Wild Animal Orphanage (WAO) in San Antonio, TX. A contract was finalized this week to transfer ownership of the monkeys. UW-Madison has been trying to secure a new long-term arrangement for its zoo monkeys since last fall, when the National Institutes of Health announced it would end funding for the facility on February 1. Virginia Hinshaw, dean of the UW-Madison Graduate School, said the University had limited options in placing the stumptails, since they are not part of biomedical research studies and federal support for behavioral studies has declined.

"This sanctuary meets our expectations for housing the stumptails," said Joseph Kemnitz, interim director of the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, who visited WAO in mid-April. Kemnitz also toured Primarily Primates, another San Antonio sanctuary that had expressed an interest in the monkeys.

Since December, Primate Center officials had been actively pursuing another potential option of sending the stumptails to a sanctuary in Thailand, where stumptails are a native species. The Wild Animal Rescue Foundation in Thailand had expressed interest in creating an enclosure and public education center for the colony. But the San Antonio option proved to be more financially feasible and posed fewer uncertainties than the Thailand option, Kemnitz said.

The University of Wisconsin has agreed to contribute $40,000 for the construction of an enclosure, which will be similar to the facility in which they reside at present. It will be in a natural setting. Construction has already begun. UW has also agreed to vasectomise the males. Should there be a need for breeding in the future, the females can be artificially inseminated. The Primate Center also plans to donate Plexiglas, wire mesh, enrichment toys and other materials from the 35-year-old zoo facility to the sanctuary, according to Kemnitz.

Death of Former Thai Prime Minister

His Excellency General Chartichai Choonhaven, former Thai Prime Minister, passed away in early May at the age of 78. During his term of office he banned all commercial logging in Thailand and revoked all logging concessions. For this he received the UNEP Global 500 Award. Although illegal logging is still going on, he did what he could to save the forests and wild animals and gave a great boost to the environment and conservation movement in Thailand. Thailand was the first country in the world to completely ban logging; I believe Laos was the second. -- posted to Primate Talk on May 8 by P. Vejjajiva

Brundtland New Director-General Of WHO

The Fifty-first session of the World Health Assembly, meeting in Geneva (11-16 May 1998) under the chairmanship of Dr. Faisal Radhi Al-Mousawi (Bahrain), elected Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland of Norway to the post of Director-General of the World Health Organization for a five-year term starting July 21, 1998. Dr Brundtland was nominated to the position by the 101st Session of the WHO Executive Board in January 1998. Addressing the Assembly, Dr. Brundtland described the reorganization which she intends to start implementing "from the very first day." Among her first priorities she proposes to "Roll Back Malaria," by developing a new health sector-wide approach to combat the disease at global, regional and country levels".

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Primates de las Américas...La Página

Una de las principales intenciones de "La Página" es el motivar a nuevos estudiantes -- principalmente latino-americanos -- a involucrarse en el campo de la primatología, y una forma de lograrlo es el difundir como colegas de renombre han tenido su primer contacto con estos animales, siendo este el origen de sus destacadas contribuciones en esta área. En esta ocasión, presentamos una sección que periódicamente incluiremos en "La Página" denominada "Primates: Mi primer contacto" en donde precisamente, prestigiados amigos y estudiosos de estos primates nos comentan como recuerdan su primera aproximación al estudio de los primates. Seguimos esperando sus amables contribuciones y sugerencias para esta sección. Los Editores: Juan Carlos Serio Silva y Elva Mathiesen.. Departamento de Ecología Vegetal, Instituto de Ecología, A.C. Ap. postal 63 cp 91000, Xalapa, Veracruz, México [e-mail: [email protected]].

Primates: Mi Primer Contacto

Monos secos y pasos húmedos, por Dorothy M. Fragaszy, Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602-3013, USA.

Independientemente de cualquier observación casual de primates en el Zoológico ó en la televisión, yo ví mis primeros primates "en vivo" a los 20 años, cuando era estudiante de la universidad de Duke. Aunque en realidad eran prosimios (Lemures), en ese momento yo pensé que estos animales eran hermosos y divertidos de observar. Así inicié mi carrera en la primatología.

Durante la Universidad (en California - Davis), tuve el gusto de estudiar monos ardilla y monos tití, los cuales habían sido capturados como parte de las investigaciones del laboratorio del profesor Bill Mason. Esos monos se encontraban en encierros de 2 ha de 10 m de alto, y con un espacio lleno de árboles pequeños y con el pasto alto; sin embargo, yo sabía que algún día yo iría a ver a estos monos en sus propios ambientes en sus propios espacios. Sabía que tenía que hacer esto para saber como interpretar sus comportamientos en cautiverio. Además, yo amaba la libertad así como observar a los animales ocupados en sus propias actividades.

De esta manera, arreglé realizar un estudio post-doctoral con monos capuchinos (Cebus olivaceus) en Venezuela, en el rancho llamado "Masaguaral". Un am-igo mío, John Robinson, había estudiado los capuchinos ahí por varios años, y él se ofreció llevarme al rancho a ver a los monos; así en el verano de 1980 yo fuí a Vene-zuela a reunirme con los monos. Por supuesto, esto fue realmente una aventura! El rancho era muy diferente de cualquiera granja que yo hubiera visitado. Los bosques de ahí eran diferentes de los bosques que habían alrededor de mi propia casa: en estos que veía, las lianas y las enredaderas casi flotaban sobre los árboles. John me había advertido que me preparara con calzado adecuado pues quizá tendría que caminar en zonas inundadas, y cumplía por meses y meses.

En nuestra primera incursión, salimos aproxima-damente a las 4:30 a.m. cuando aún estaba obscuro y los monos probablemente dormían. Todos sentíamos que caminábamos en la obscuridad durante mucho tiempo (aunque sólo habían sido 30 minutos) y en esas condi-ciones el agua muchas veces estaba arriba de mis rodillas. Durante esta caminata me asombré del número de ocasi-ones que caí antes del amanecer. Simultáneamente, John describía el escenario con gran emoción, los cantos de las aves, el terreno y cualquier cosa, mientras yo...luchaba por seguirlo. Finalmente, cuando el cielo comenzaba poco a poco a iluminarse, una compañera, Debbi Moskovits (también en el rancho por primera vez), volteó hacia mí y dijo "Feliz cumpleaños, Doree!" Era verdad, ese día era mi cumpleaños. Yo reí mucho porque una "trampa de agua" en medio del bosque y antes del amanecer, no es lo que normalmente esperas para celebrar un cumpleaños!

Poco después, llegamos al sitio donde los monos dor-mían. Ellos comenzaban a estirarse y salían del sitio don-de habían dormido, a partir de ahí fuimos capaces de seguirlos por varias horas antes de regresar a casa. Ellos me miraban por arriba de mi cabeza y yo emocionada veía como ellos tomaban grandes caracoles y con un golpe lo abrían contra las ramas. Realmente, estuve muy feliz al notar que a ellos no les preocupaba nuestra pre-sencia. Fue así como yo me reuní por primera vez con "mis monos".

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Grants Available

AICR Grant Program

The American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) funds research relevant to increasing knowledge about the effects of dietary and nutritional factors on the etiology, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of cancer. AICR gives priority to projects that are novel, which will expand the understanding of diet and nutrition in the cancer process to include elucidating interactive and integrated mechanisms, and which are judged to have the greatest potential for practical application.

AICR's peer review system is similar to that of the National Institutes of Health and is approved by the National Cancer institute. AICR's Research Department currently funds four research programs:

* Investigator-Initiated Grants are the major grants of AICR and cover a variety of topics relating diet and nutrition to cancer prevention and treatment. Under this mechanism, AICR is seeking meritorious grant applications from established investigators applying novel approaches and using state-of-the-art methodologies to broaden our understanding of the relationship between diet, nutrition, and cancer prevention and treatment.

* AICR/NCTR Collaborative Research Grants are based on a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between AICR and the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR). Under this arrangement, NCTR will provide use of its state-of-the-art research laboratories, animals and equipment and AICR will provide funds for supplies and research staffing.

* Post-Doctoral Awards provide seed money for support of innovative and promising research in the area of diet, nutrition and cancer for beginning investigators who have a PhD or MD degree.

* Matching Grants are aimed to fund, in coordination with industry or individuals, research projects in the area of diet, nutrition, and cancer prevention and treatment. These projects will be within the interest of AICR and the private sponsor.

The application deadline is July 1, 1998. Research grants are awarded only to non-profit institutions. For more information, contact AICR, Attn: Research Dept, 1759 R St, NW, Washington DC 20009 [202-328-7744].

Heart Association Scientist Development Grant

The American Heart Association's Scientist Development Grant (SDG) supports highly promising beginning scientists in their progress toward independence by encouraging and adequately funding research projects that can serve to bridge the gap between completion of research training and readiness for successful competition as an independent investigator. Funding is available for research broadly related to cardiovascular function and disease; stroke; or related clinical, basic science, and public health problems. Proposals are encouraged from all basic disciplines as well as for epidemiological and clinical investigations that bear on cardiovascular and stroke problems.

Applicants must hold an MD, PhD, DO or equivalent doctoral degree and should be full-time faculty/staff members initiating independent research careers, usually at the rank of instructor or assistant professor (or their equivalents). Applications may be submitted for review in the final year of a postdoctoral research fellowship or in the initial years of the first full-time faculty/staff appointment. At the time of award activation, no more than four (4) years will have elapsed since an applicant's first full-time faculty/staff appointment at the assistant professor level or its equivalent. The project submitted can have no scientific overlap with other funded work.

Nonrenewable Scientist Development Grants are awarded for a period of four years. The application dead-line is June 15, 1998. Information and application forms are available via the Internet on AHA's World Wide Web Home Page <>. Applications in paper or disk format can be obtained from your institution's Grants Office after February 15th each year. For further information contact the Division of Research Administration, American Heart Association, National Center [214-706-1453; fax: 214-706-1341; e-mail: [email protected]].

Primate Conservation Incorporated

Primate Conservation, Incorporated (PCI) is a nonprofit foundation, which funds field research supporting conservation programs for wild populations of primates. Priority will be given to projects that study, in their natural habitat, the least known and most endangered species. The involvement of citizens from the country in which the primates are found will be a plus. The intent is to provide support for original research that can be used to formulate and to implement conservation plans for the species studied.

PCI will grant seed monies or provide matching grants for graduate students, qualified conservationists, and primatologists to study rare and endangered primates and their conservation in their natural habitat. Proposals are evaluated on competitive basis. All appropriate projects will be considered, but the regions of current interest are Asia and West Africa.

Deadlines for all grant application materials are February 10 and September 20. For an application or more information please contact Noel Rowe or Abigail Barber at Primate Conservation Inc., 163 Town Lane, East Hampton, NY 11937-5000 [516-267-6856; fax: 516-267-6856; e-mail: [email protected]]. -- Posted to Primate-Talk

Infectious Disease International Collaborations

International Collaborations in Infectious Diseases Research (ICIDR) is a research program sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Actions for Building Capacity (ABC) is a research training program sponsored by the Fogarty International Center (FIC), NIH. ABC awards will only be made to awardees of ICIDR Research grants.

The purpose of ICIDR is to stimulate high quality collaborative research that will lead to or result in prevention, amelioration, and/or treatment of tropical infectious diseases and thus improve the health and quality of life of individuals in endemic areas. To facilitate this purpose, NIAID and FIC have integrated training for foreign investigators into the ICIDR program. The purpose of ABC is to stimulate high quality training and to support current and future collaborative research on infectious diseases that are predominately endemic in or that affect people living in tropical countries.

ICIDR research must focus on protozoan and helminth infections, mycobacterial diseases, bacterial and viral enteric infections, Hepatitis C and E, and fulminant hepatitis of unknown etiology. Applications in arboviral infections and other tropical viral infections are specifically encouraged. Studies focused on the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or nutrition on tropical pathogens will be considered.

The intent of ICIDR is to bring together relevant biomedical knowledge and technology to develop new or improved methods for the prevention, detection, and treatment of infectious diseases, endemic in tropical countries, that adversely affect human health; to increase relevant research experience for both U.S. and foreign investigators; to enhance opportunities for scientific linkages, interaction and collaboration between U.S. and foreign investigators through regularly scheduled communications, workshops, and meetings; and to provide opportunities for foreign and U.S. cooperation on emerging research opportunities in tropical countries.

A letter of intent should be submitted by by August 7, 1998, and applications must be received by September 15, 1998. Direct inquiries to Elizabeth S. Higgs, Div. of Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, NIAID, 6003 Executive Blvd, Rm 3A34, Bethesda, MD 20892-7630 [301-496-2544; fax: 301-402-0659; e-mail: [email protected]]. Direct inquiries regarding ABC training scope and eligibility issues to: Joel G. Breman, Division of International Training and Research, Fogarty International Center, 31 Center Drive, Room B2C39, MSC 2220, Bethesda, MD 20892-2220 [301-496-1653; fax: 301-402-0779; e-mail: [email protected]].

Mentored Research Scientist Development Award

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) invites applications for Mentored Research Scientist Development Awards from basic scientists interested in pursuing research careers in the areas of diabetes, endocrinology, metabolic disorders, digestive diseases, nutrition, obesity, and kidney, urologic, and hematologic disorders. The intent of these awards is to provide support for the critical transition period between postdoctoral training and independent funding for those non-clinical investigators whose careers are vital for the future excellence of the NIDDK research endeavor. Candidates must justify the need for a three-year period of mentored research experience and provide a convincing case that the proposed period of support will substantially enhance his/her career as an independent investigator.

Applicants must have a research or a health-related professional doctorate, usually a PhD degree, and have completed at least two, but not more than five, years of postdoctoral research training prior to submission of the application. Postdoctoral work should have been in an area clearly relevant to the mission of the NIDDK. Applicants may not have been principal investigators on peer-reviewed research project grants, or their equivalent, from the NIH or other federal or non-federal sources.

The candidate must identify a mentor with extensive research experience, and must be willing to spend a minimum of 75 percent of full-time professional effort conducting research and research career development activities for the period of the award.

Direct inquiries to Paul Coates, Div. of Diabetes, Endocrinology, & Metabolic Diseases [301-594-8805; e-mail: [email protected]]; Judith Podskalny, Division of Digestive Diseases & Nutrition [301-594-8876; e-mail: [email protected]]; or Charles Rodgers, Division of Kidney, Urologic, & Hematologic Disorders [301-594-7717; e-mail: [email protected]] -- all at NIDDKD, 45 Center Dr., MSC 6600, Bethesda, MD 20892-6600.

Research Scholar Development Award

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) invites applications from outstanding intramural and extramural postdoctoral fellows for the Research Scholar Development Award (RSDA). The RSDA will provide support for postdoctoral fellows who are moving to assistant professor positions in an academic institution.

The purpose of the RSDA is to ease the transition to an academic position by enabling the awardee to focus on the establishment of his/her research laboratory prior to submitting applications for grant support.

This is a two-year pilot program. Inquiries may be directed to Milton J. Hernandez, Division of Extramural Activities, NIAID, 6003 Executive Blvd, Rm 3C21, Bethesda, MD 20892-7640 [301) 496-3775; FAX: (301) 402-0369; e-mail: [email protected]].

* * *

Workshop Announcements

Pathology of Laboratory Animals

The 45th Annual Pathology of Laboratory Animals (POLA) and 4th Annual Current Laboratory Animal Science Seminar (CLASS) courses will be held August 10-14, 1998, at the Uniformed Services University of Health Science, Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, MD. These courses are intended to help attendees interpret spontaneous diseases which might affect experimental results or alter the health of laboratory animals. The POLA course encompasses a wide range of diseases, to include infectious, neoplastic, and iatrogenic conditions in a variety of laboratory animal species. The CLASS course includes lectures on animal models, research methods, animal medicine and surgery, emerging diseases, occupational health issues, regulations, laws and guidelines, alternatives to laboratory animals, and facility management. For more information, contact the Armed Forces Inst. of Pathology, Dept. of Education, Washington, DC 20306-0001 [202-782-2637].

Zoo & Wildlife Pathology Workshop

The fifth Annual Zoo and Wildlife Pathology Workshop will be held in conjunction with the week-long joint conference of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians in Omaha, NE, October 18, 1998. Participants are asked to send 75 slides (70 stained, 5 unstained, all protected against breakage) plus description of peculiar marks, clinical history, and names of contributor(s) and contributing institution(s) by September 18. Also include your diagnosis, a brief discussion of the case, and references, which will expedite compilation of diagnoses after the meeting.

A registration fee of $25 includes a slide set, written case histories, diagnoses, and refreshments. Make checks payable to UAREP, Inc. For more information, contact the Registry of Comparative Pathology, Washington, DC 20306-001 [202-782-2440; fax: 202-782-9150].

* * *

Information Requested or Available

Software for Animal Behavior

Robert Huber (University of Graz, Austria) and Jack Bradbury (UCSD) have both developed Mac programs for the analysis of spatial data, particularly for use in animal behavior. Recently they combined their efforts in an attempt to provide a general set of tools for an analysis of movement patterns and spatial distributions.

HomeRange is at Version 2.0.1 for PCs as well as for 68K Macs. You can download a self-extracting archive with both programs and sample data files from <>

More Interesting Web Sites

* PETA's homepage:

* ASKNIH (new address):

* CDC's Parasitology Diagnostic Website:

* Private Ownership of Primates Information Database:

* Internet Resource for Biol. & Med. Researchers:

* Online Medical Dictionary, with over 46,000 definitions:

* CancerWEB:

* Center for the Advanced Study of Ape and Human Evolution:

* * *

Research and Educational Opportunities


The Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the American Association for the Advancement of Science have launched a new Web site offering "one-stop shopping" for young scientists seeking information on grants and other forms of support for research and training in the biomedical sciences. GrantsNet <> features an extensive database on fellowships, grants and various sources of research support, as well as links to funders' Web sites, online applications, and comments from recent application reviewers. The site currently focuses on graduate and postgraduate training and junior faculty positions, but expansion is planned to encompass undergraduate and precollege science training.

Sedation, Immobilization, and Anesthesia

A sixteen-hour course on sedation, immobilization, and anesthesia of nonhuman primates will be presented by Dr. Keith Beheler-Amass of Safe-Capture International, Inc., Drs. Jan Ramer and Carol Emerson of the Wisconsin RPRC, and Drs. Joanne Paul-Murphy and Dave Brunson of the University of Wisconsin College of Veterinary Medicine. Topics will include: (for captive and free-ranging conditions) * Humane capture: How to minimize stress * Conditioning and training: What's possible without drugs * Oral medications * Remote drug delivery methods: The latest in equipment and technology * Pharmacology for nonhuman primate immobilization * The use of analgesics in nonhuman primates * Species-specific immobilization dosage regimens and protocols * Anesthetic monitoring for captive and field procedures * Capture-related medical emergencies: Recognizing, treating, and preventing problems * Personnel safety protocols: Procedures for human exposure to immobilizing agents * The effects of immobilizing agents on hematology, blood chemistry, and hormonal studies * Zoonotic disease implications with chemical immobilization of nonhuman primates * Developing ethical Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee protocols.

In 1998 courses will be held in Winston-Salem, NC (July 11-12); Chicago, IL (September 12-13); College Park, MD (September 26-27); Boston, MA (October 3-4); Santa Ana, CA (November 4-5); and Walnut Creek, CA (November 7-8).

These courses are intended for primate veterinarians and technicians, primate researchers, primate care staff, and informed owners. This program is approved for Veterinary Continuing Education. All attendees will receive a 110-page training manual, including immobilization protocols for over 50 species of nonhuman primates. the registration fee is $400 ($350 in advance). For a detailed information packet or registration, contact: Dr. Keith Beheler-Amass, Safe-Capture International, P.O. Box 206, Mt. Horeb, WI 53572 [608-767-3071; fax: 608-437-5287; e-mail: [email protected]; <>].

Internship Program -- Kansas

The Animal Behavior and Research Department at Sedgwick County Zoo is beginning an internship program for students in the various fields of animal behavior. The program is designed to give students experience in both research and animal behavior. All students will be involved in enrichment, training, and a research project.

Students should be juniors, seniors or in graduate school. A GPA of at least 3.5 in the area of major is required, as are the following courses: statistics, research methods, and animal behavior (comparative psychology). A course on learning is highly recommended. At this time there is no stipend available, but part-time jobs will be made available for students, and we are hoping to have dormitory housing. The internship will run every semester (the summer position is already filled). To apply, please send CV, two references, and a short essay stating why you want this internship to the address below.

For more information contact: Emily Weiss, Curator of Behavior and Research, Sedgwick County Zoo, 5555 Zoo Blvd. Wichita Kansas, 67212 [316-942-2212, ext. 257; e-mail: [email protected]]. -- from ABSnet 4[12]

Summer Programs in Japan and Korea

NSF, in conjunction with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Agricultural Research Service (ARS), administers Summer Programs in Japan and Korea, which consists of three separate programs designed to provide participants with first-hand experience in Japanese or Korean research environments, an introduction to the science and science policy infrastructure of the respective countries, and language training. The primary goals of the programs are to introduce American students to Japanese or Korean science and engineering in the context of a research laboratory, and to initiate personal relationships that will better enable them to collaborate with Japanese or Korean counterparts in the future. All qualified graduate students in science and engineering, including the biomedical, agricultural, and social sciences, may apply. The deadline for application is December 1. For information, requirements, and application materials, contact Japan and Korea Program, Rm 935, Div. of International Programs, NSF, 4201 Wilson Blvd, Arlington, VA 22230 [703-306-1701; fax: 703-306-0474; e-mail: [email protected];


Research Fellowships in Japan

The National Science Foundation (NSF) nominates researchers for five fellowship programs administered by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) and the Science and Technology Agency of Japan (STA). The range of programs allows visits of nearly any length to Japanese universities, inter-university research institutes, and over 120 Japanese national laboratories, public corporations, and non-profit research organizations. The following fellowships are available:

* JSPS Postdoctoral Fellowships support 12 to 24 month research stays for researchers who have received their PhD degree within the last six years.

* JSPS Short-term Postdoctoral Fellowships support 3 to 11 month research stays for researchers who have received their PhD degree within the last ten years.

* JSPS Short-term Invitation Fellowships support research visits to Japan of 7 to 60 days for researchers with a PhD degree.

* STA Postdoctoral Fellowships support 6 to 24 month research stays for researchers who have received their PhD degree within the last six years.

* STA Short-term Fellowships support research visits to Japan of 1 to 3 months for researchers with a PhD degree.

See address above for information.

Graduate Fellowships -- Massachusetts

The graduate program in Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst is pleased to announce the availablity of seven PhD fellowships, sponsored by the Department of Education as part of their program, Graduate Assistance in Areas of National Need (GAANN). Organismic and Evolutionary Biology (OEB) is a cross-disciplinary program that trains students in many areas, including animal behavior. It includes over 70 faculty from the departments of biology, entomology, psychology, plant and soil sciences, forestry and wildlife, and others. More details about the program and information on specific faculty can be found on our Web site, <>.

Each Fellow receives a stipend of $15,000 per year for the first three years. Funding for the last two years of the PhD is guaranteed, and will be in the form of a combination of teaching assistantships (Fellows are required to teach for a minimum of 1 year), research assistantships, and fellowships. In addition, UMass will pay the health fees of the Fellows. Fellows may request an educational allowance of $2,500 for their first year, and $1,000 in each of the subsequent four years, to be used for books, computer hardware and software, and other research materials. Fellows may request up to $500 per year for travel to meetings or off-campus short courses.

Fellowship recipients must enter the OEB program in the fall of 1998, be of superior ability, have an excellent academic record (3.0 or better), have financial need, be PhD students (Master's students are not eligible for fellowships), be planning a career in teaching or research, be U.S. citizens, nationals, or permanent residents, or intend to become permanent residents, of the U.S. or the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. We particularly encourage applications from members of underrepresented groups.

For more information or to request an application, please contact Penny Jaques, OEB Program Manager [413-545-0928; e-mail: [email protected]].

Analysis of Biological Diversification, Arizona

A coalition of faculty members from several departments at the University of Arizona, including Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, Molecular & Cellular Biology, and the Divisions of Neurobiology and Biotechnology, is continuing a Research Training Group (RTG) in the Analysis of Biological Diversification, with funding from the National Science Foundation and the University of Arizona. A one- to two-year postdoctoral fellowship is available to pursue innovative research projects that integrate disparate approaches to biological diversification, including molecular biology, organismal biology, systematics, ecology, paleobiology, developmental biology, and population genetics. The goal is to encourage persons with training in any of these areas to cross the boundaries of traditional disciplines and, in particular, to use phylogeny or other historical frameworks to understand patterns of diversity of life and evolutionary processes.

The RTG postdoctoral fellow will participate in such RTG program training activities as discussion groups, workshops, individual tutorials for graduate and undergraduate trainees, and occasional lectures in RTG courses. Research Associate candidates must have a PhD in a field related to the research area.

Send CV, statement of research project that demonstrates relevance to the RTG Program (five page limit including figures and references), and three current letters of recommendation to Cheryl Craddock, RTG Program Coordinator, RTG in the Analysis of Biological Diversification, Dept of Ecology & Evolutionary Biol., P.O. Box 210088, 1041 E. Lowell, Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0088 [520-621-5483; e-mail: [email protected]; <>]. The application deadline is September 30, 1998.

Positions Available

Assistant Professor of Anthropology, Stony Brook

The Department of Anthropology at the State University of New York at Stony Brook invites applications for a tenure-track position at the level of Assistant Professor, beginning September, 1999. Applicants should have an active and ongoing research interest in the study of behavior or ecology with a strong basis in evolutionary theory and a focus on the biology of nonhuman primates. Special consideration will be given to applicants who approach sociobiological questions from a combined perspective of behavioral field studies and genetic or hormonal analyses. Send application letter, curriculum vitae, a brief description of ongoing and planned research, and name, addresses and telephone numbers of three references to Diane Doran, Search Committee, Department of Anthropology, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-4364 before September 30, 1998. Women and minorities are encouraged to apply. SUNY is an affirmative action/equal opportunity employer.

Veterinarian, U. C. San Francisco

The University of California San Francisco is seeking a veterinarian to provide clinical support and management within the Animal Health Program. The successful candidate will be responsible for administration of all aspects of care of species (including rodents, non-human primates, small ruminants, rabbits, dogs, and cats) including: clinical support; animal housing, care and husbandry; environmental enrichment; personnel management; ensuring compliance with applicable laws and regulations; and facilitating support of research programs. The ideal candidate will hold a professional degree in veterinary medicine, be ACLAM (or other specialty) board-eligible or -certified and have clinical medicine and managerial experience.

Please send resume and three references to Dr. Nina Hahn, Animal Care Facility, University of California San Francisco, Box 0654, San Francisco, CA 94143-0564.

Veterinary Technician, West Virginia

The Office of Laboratory Animal Resources (OLAR) of West Virginia University is seeking a veterinary technician. This position is responsible for providing care to a variety of laboratory animal species, including nonhuman primates; maintaining health surveillance and preventive medicine programs; providing research support; training investigative personnel; and other veterinary technology duties.

Requirements include: * Associate Degree in Veterinary Technology, Animal or Veterinary Sciences, or a related field * State Veterinary Technician Certification as a Registered or Licensed Veterinary Technician in any state * Minimum of one year of experience (post-state veterinary technician certification) as a veterinary/animal health or research technician involved in the care or use of animals in a private practice, academic, or commercial facility * Certification as an American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS) Laboratory Animal Technologist (LATG) is preferred but not required at the time of employment. If not already certified at the AALAS LATG level, the successful candidate is expected to achieve LATG status while at this institution.

Applicants should send a detailed resume to Human Resources, Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center, West Virginia University, P.O. Box 9028, Morgantown, WV 26506-9028. West Virginia University is an affirmative action/equal opportunity employer.

Animal Resources Manager -- Los Angeles

The University of California, Los Angeles announces an opening for an animal facility supervisor, classified as a Managment Services Officer II. The position will be available on July 1, 1998. Under the general direction of the Facility Veterinarian, the individual will manage and direct the technical/operational program of the Division of Laboratory Animal Medicine, a multi-discipline, AAALAC-accredited, animal research facility.

Major duties include program development, space utilization, facilities planning, material management, and personnel resources management. The successful candidate will assume full responsibility for the management of the technical program for the Division, within the guidelines of campus and department policies and procedures and governmental/accrediting agency regulations.

Candidates must possess demonstrated abilities in leadership, human resource motivation, and labor relations. Interpersonal and communication skills are essential. Independent decision making and original problem solving are required, as well as working knowledge of animal husbandry regulatory agency and accrediting agency laws, policies, and procedures sufficient to retain accreditation. Certification through AALAS at LATG level and knowledge of Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) is highly desirable.

Applications will be accepted until the position is filled. Please submit a letter of intent, resume, and references to Dr. Gregory B. Heisey, Director, UCLA Division of Laboratory Animal Medicine, Rm 1V-211 CHS, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1718 [fax: 310-825-6119; e-mail: [email protected]].

Manager, Husbandry & Facility Operations, NYC

The Research Animal Resource Center (RARC) at the Cornell University Medical College (CUMC) in New York City is seeking candidates for the position of Manager, Husbandry and Facility Operations. The Manager will coordinate all aspects of the husbandry and facilities section of RARC which includes management and coordination of the activities of ten supervisors and animal care technicians; development and implementation of policies pertaining to husbandry and physical plant; overseeing the maintenance of all RARC-managed facilities; preparation and administration of operational and capital budgets; coordination and implementation of a training program for husbandry staff; and oversight and evaluation of cost recovery systems. RARC-CUMC operates an AAALAC-accredited animal facility, housing approximately 7,000 animals at three sites on the Manhattan campus.

The candidate must have a minimum of a BA/BS in the biological sciences or a related field, at least five years of supervisory and/or management experience in an animal care and use program, AALAS certification at the LATG level, be capable of functioning independently with minimal supervision, and have proven ability in operations and personnel management.

CUMC offers competitive salary and an outstanding benefits package which includes pension, health, dental, and tuition plans. CUMC is an EEO/AA/M/F/D/V. For more information, contact Dr. Neil Lipman [212-639-8591; e-mail: [email protected]]. Interested individuals should send their resume to N. L. Brown, Cornell University Medical College, Personnel Department, Olin Hall, Room 211, 445 E. 69th Street, New York, NY 10021.

* * *

Meeting Announcements

The American Psychological Association's 106th Annual Conference will be held 14-18 August, 1998, in San Francisco, CA. Contact the APA Conference Office [1-202-336-6020; fax: 1-202-336-5956].

The International Society For Comparative Psychology will hold their 9th biennial meeting 1-5 September, 1998, in Cape Town, South Africa. The meeting is hosted by Professor L.C. Simbayi and the Department of Psychology, University of the Western Cape and will focus on all aspects of comparative psychology. It will also include a regional perspective of animals, animal behavior, or animal ecology as related to South Africa. Contact Professor Simbayi, Dept of Psychology, Univ. of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535, Cape Town, South Africa [0404-22011; fax: 0404-31643; e-mail: [email protected]].

The American Zoological Association's annual conference will be held 13-17 September, 1998, in Tulsa, OK. Contact AZA, Executive Office, 7970-D Old Georgetown Rd, Bethesda, MD 20814-2493 [301-907-7777; fax: 1-301-907-2980 <>].

The Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG) will hold their annual meeting 8-11 October, 1998, at the Pacifico Yokohama Conference Center, Yokohama, Japan, sponsored by the CBSG, the Zoological Gardens of the City of Yokohama, and the Japanese Association of Zoological Gardens and Aquariums. Contact the Secretariat of the 1998 CBSG Annual Meeting, c/o ASTEION Co., Ltd, Rm #401, Toranomon Sangyo Bldg, 1-2-29 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-0001 Japan [+81 3 3593 2565; fax: +813 593 1088; e-mail: [email protected]].

The Canadian Association for Physical Anthropologists will hold a conference 5-7 November, 1998, at the University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Contact Lisa Hansen [e-mail: [email protected]; <>].

The 1998 Conference of the Australasian Primate Society is to be held at Perth Zoo on December 4-6. The theme is "Creating a home away from home: Species-specific exhibits for captive primates." Abstracts are due by mid October. Papers on any primate-related topic are welcome. Contact Graeme Crook, APS, P.O. Box 500, One Tree Hill, South Australia 5114 [+61 8 82807670; fax: +61 8 82807078; e-mail: [email protected]]; or Rosemary Markham, Perth Zoo, Labouchere Rd, South Perth, Western Australia 6151.

The Endocrine Society's 81st Annual Meeting will be 12-15 June, 1999, in San Diego, CA. Contact Kim Akoto, The Endocrine Society, 4350 East West Hwy, Suite 500, Bethesda, MD 20814-4410 [1-301-941-0220; fax: 1-301-941-0259; <>].

* * *

Conservation Auction, ASP

As usual, a silent auction to benefit the Conservation Committee will be held at the ASP meeting this year. Proceeds finance the various Awards and Grants presented to students, scholars, and other workers in conservation. If you wish to send items for the auction ahead, rather than carrying them, or if you are not going to be attending the meeting but wish to contribute, just send packages to Steve Schapiro, Dept. of Psychology, Southwestern Univ., University at Maple, P.O. Box 770, Georgetown, TX 78627-0770.

Naturally, primate-theme articles are welcomed, but art and other cultural objects from source countries have been great money raisers.

For several years, Chris Caleffi (also known to us as Maria Boccia's husband) has been prominent as a helper at the auction. This year Maria and Chris won't be there, but Chris has written the following, expressing his ambivalence about going somewhere else:

To the Auction in Austin
ASP, 1998

Although we are not here this year,
Our absence must be felt,
For we're going to a conference,
In the country that makes Delft.

We shook and shook our grants around,
To find the Texas money,
But the pages now were so bone dry,
Maria said, "No way, honey".

Then Chris was brooding day and night,
He'd miss the auction now,
He's lost his job as barker,
And a chance to take a bow.

He never thought he'd miss it,
Since nineteen-ninety three --
Conservation now is in the hands
Of monkeys in a tree.

Salt and pepper shakers,
And silvery macaques,
"The bids will soon be closed my friends,"

Now take that pen and quill in hand,
And make the bids still higher,
Kick that guy who wrote his name,
Who thinks he'll (she'll) be the buyer!

With tears now streaming down both his cheeks,
With sadness, toil and trouble,
"Conservation is on the line,
Unless your bids grow double!"

"Five minutes more, five minutes more!"
He'd scream with all his heart,
"The auction now is closed, my friends,
Those checks please do impart."

So this was the story of an auction lover,
And monkey fancier, too,
He misses being at ASP,
But if he went to Austin this year,
Maria told him he'd never get to Europe.

-- Christopher Caleffi
May, 1998

* * *

Resources Available: Large Animal Behavior Analysis

View Point, a French company working in the field of animal behavior analysis, has recently announced a new product named Vigie Primates, suggested for analysis of general activity of primates, dogs, minipigs, etc., based on the use of cameras and image processing. The system is being used in applications such as: * toxicology (for activity and behavior monitoring during day and night) * cardiology (usually coupled with telemetry system for an accurate measurement of animals' activity) * the study of Parkinson's disease (for an accurate measurement of animals' motor function).

For information, see their Web page or contact Didier Neuzeret, President, View Point, 4 rue Etienne Richerand, F-69003 Lyon, France [+33 4 78 53 78 38; fax: + 33 4 78 53 36 20; e-mail: [email protected];

* * *

Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors)


*Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for Their Ethical Care, Management, and Use. ILAR Committee on Long-term Care of Chimpanzees, National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1997. 108 pp. [Price: $21.75 (U.S.), $26.25 (international), from National Academy Press, P.O. Box 285, Washington, DC 20055]
. . . Recommendations include a five-year breeding moratorium; that euthanasia should not be endorsed as a general means of population control; that a core population of about 1000 chimpanzees should be assured lifetime support by the federal government, and that ownership of these animals should be transferred to the government; that the concept of sanctuaries for the long-term care and well-being of "surplus" chimpanzees should be an integral component of any plan; that a single multiagency organizational unit should be established and given direct responsibility for government-owned animals that are considered necessary to meet current and long-term national needs; and that an appropriate advisory council of nongovernment experts should be created for the purpose of establishing policies and monitoring them.

McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology, 8th Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997, 20 vols. [Price: $1995].
. . . Includes entries by Eric Delson, on fossil human, monkey, and primates.


*Mosby's NetVet Veterinary Guide to the Internet. K. Boschert & H. James (Eds.). [Price: $24.95]
. . . Contains a diskette with a set of more than 2000 Internet veterinary resources, in both PC and Mac formats. On-line ordering is available on the Web at <>

Magazines and Newsletters

*AAALAC International Connection, April 1998. [AAALAC International, 11300 Rockville Pike, Suite 1211, Rockville, MD 20852-3035]
. . . Includes "Assessing the health of your occupational health and safety program," by C. Newcomer.

* Boletín de la Asociación Primatológica Española, Febrero 1998, 5[1]. [Área de Psicobiología, Dpcho. 31, Univ. Autónoma de Madrid, 28049-Madrid,Spain]

*Centerline, Spring 1998. [Wisconsin RPRC, 1220 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715-1299]
. . . Contains an article on environmental enrichment.

* Gorilla Gazette, December, 1997, 11[1]. [Columbus Zoological Park Assn, 9990 Riverside Dr., Box 400, Powell, OH 43065-0400]
. . . Contains abstracts and posters presented at the 3rd Gorilla Workshop, held at Pittsburgh Zoo, April, 1997; and an article, "Successful transportation of ten western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) from Apenheul Primate Park, the Netherlands, to Taronga Zoo, Australia," by L. Kartzoff.

*IPPL News, April 1998, 25[1]. [IPPL, P.O. Box 766, Summerville, SC 29484]
. . . IPPL's 25th anniversary issue includes still more reports on monkeys, including infants and pregnant females, shipped by air in apparent violation of U.S. and international laws and regulations.

*Neotropical Primates: A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, March, 1998, 6[1]. [Conservation International, Ave. Antônio Abrahão Caram 820/302, 31275-000, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil]
. . . Contents include: Multiple simultaneous breeding females in a pygmy marmoset group (Cebuella pygmaea), by M. Schröpel; The effect of rainfall seasonality on the geographic distribution of neotropical primates, by R. Pastor-Nieto & D. K. Williamson; The squirrel monkey breeding colony of the Pasteur Institute, Cayenne, French Guiana, by B. de Thoisy & H. Contamin; First detailed field data on Chiropotes satanas utahicki Hershkovitz, 1985, by U. L. Bobadilla & S. F. Ferrari; Primates of the Serra do Brigadeiro State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil, by B. A. P. Cosenza & F. R. de Melo; and Reactions of wild emperor tamarins to the presence of a snake, by C. A. Nunes, J. C. Bicca-Marques, K. Schacht, & A. C. de Alencar Araripe.

*Primate Report, October, 1997, 49. [German Primate Center (DPZ), Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany]
. . . Proceedings of the Second EUPREN/EMRG Winter Workshop, "The implications of housing and husbandry for scientific quality and well-being of non-human primates."


*Orangutan Species Survival Plan Husbandry Manual. C. Sodaro (Ed.). 1997. [Price: $25 in U.S., $35 foreign (payable to Zoo Atlanta) from Lori Perkins, Orangutan SSP Coordinator, Zoo Atlanta, 800 Cherokee Ave SE, Atlanta, GA, 30315-1440]
. . . All proceeds beyond cost are entirely dedicated to the orangutan SSP account, which will support projects included in the SSP's Three-Year Action Plan (in development).


*Methods in Developmental Toxicology and Biology. S. Klug & R. Thiel (Eds.). Malden, MA: Blackwell Science, 1997. [Price: $165]
. . . The contributions to this volume were presented at the international symposium on "Methods in Developmental Toxicology and Biology" held in Berlin (Germany) from May 31st to June 2nd, 1995. It includes "Germ cell development in cultured marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) seminiferous tubules: A model for reproductive toxicology," by G. M. Rune, P. De Souza, U. Bollmann, S. Pflieger-Bruss & D. Neubert; and "A procedure to avoid inbreeding in a small closed marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) population," by S. Gerstmayr, C. Gericke & A. Felies.


*NCRR: A Catalyst for Discovery: A Plan for the National Center for Research Resources: 1998-2003. Bethesda, MD: NIH, 1998. 24 pp. [Office of Science Policy, MCRR/NIH, 6705 Rockledge Dr., Rm 5046, Bethesda, MD 20892-7965].

Special Journal Issues

*Animal models of aging research. ILAR Journal, 1997, 38[3].
. . . Includes "Small nonhuman primates as potential models of human aging," by S. N. Austad.

* Priorities for biodiversity conservation in Madagascar. Primate Report, June, 1997, 48-1. [German Primate Center (DPZ), Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany]
. . . This report is a short version of the final report of l'Atelier Scientifique sur la Définition des Priorités de Conservation de la Diversité Biologique à Madagascar, 10-14 April 1995, Antananarivo, edited by B. Rakotosamimanana & J. Ganzhorn.

* First Göttinger Freilandtage. Primate Socio-ecology: Causes and consequences of variation in the number of males per group. Primate Report, December, 1997, 48-2. [Address same as above]
. . . Program and abstracts of the conference held 9-12 December, 1997.

Anatomy & Physiology

*A preliminary survey of syndactyly in the mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei). Routh, A. & Sleeman, J. (Stapeley Grange Wildlife Hospital, London Rd, Stapeley, Nantwich, Cheshire CW5 7JW.). Proceedings of the Spring Meeting of the British Veterinary Zoological Society, 14-15 June 1997 (pp. 22-25).
. . . In late 1996 a survey of syndactyly in the 119 individuals of five habituated groups of gorillas in the Rwandan Parc des Volcans was undertaken. The method and results of the survey are described and discussed in relation to the condition and its possible etiologies.

Animal Models

*Comparative analysis of human and macaque monkey CD4: Differences in formaldehyde lability and conformation. Akari, H., Terao, K., Nam, K.-H., Adachi, A., & Yoshikawa, Y. (Dept of Virology, School of Med., Univ. of Tokushima, 3 Kuramoto, Tokushima 770, Japan). Experimental Animals, 1998, 47, 23-27.
. . . Macaca fascicularis and M. mulatta CD4 was characterized by flow cytometry. Relatively lower fluorescence intensity was observed depending on the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) used for staining; Leu-3a exhibited four-fold lower intensity than Nu-Th/i; and formaldehyde fixation dramatically reduced flourescence intensity of macaque CD4+ cells stained with Leu-3a, but not of human cells. Nu-Th/i is therefore preferable for the analysis of macaque CD4. Pretreatment of either mAb inhibited the other mAb binding to human CD4. Nu-Th/i inhibited Leu-3a binding but Leu-3a poorly blocked Nu-Th/i binding to the macaque CD4. These results indicate that Leu-3a and Nu-Th/i epitopes are conserved in macaque CD4 but Leu-3a epitope is conformationally cryptic and/or fragile, resulting in the lower affinity. Amino acid sequence alignment of CD4 domain 1 shows that the substitutions outside the linear Leu-3a epitope may determine these characteristics of macaque CD4.


*Flexibility in the species-typical songs of gibbons. Haraway, M. M. & Maples, E. G. (College of Education, Psych. Dept, NE Louisiana Univ., Monroe, LA 71209). Primates, 1998, 39, 1-12.
. . . A review of literature reporting flexibility of gibbon vocal behavior in relation to reinforcement contingencies, the singing of neighboring gibbons, development of pair coordination in the duet-singing of siamang gibbons, sequential progression in the elaboration of organizing sequences in siamang gibbons, and "repairs" of organizing and great-call sequences. A theoretical framework to account for the development of flexibility in species-typical behaviors is drawn.

*A case report of a male rank reversal in a group of wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Perry, S. (Dept of Anthropology, UCLA, 405 Hilgard Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1553). Primates, 1998, 39, 51-70.
. . . During a study of social relationships in wild white-faced capuchins, the alpha male was deposed by a subordinate male. The social strategies employed by the group during this rank reversal are compared with those of chimpanzees.

*A preliminary study of selective visual attention in female mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei). Watts, D. P. (Dept of Anthropology, Yale Univ., P.O. Box 208277, New Haven, CT 06520-8277). Primates, 1998, 39, 71-78.
. . . Preliminary data show that selective attention mirrors variation in social relationships. Females are more likely to stop feeding and focus their attention on males who walk into view than on females, especially when males give displays. Females are more likely to focus on other females with whom they have antagonistic relationships than those (mostly close relatives) with whom they have affiliative, cooperative ones.

*Visual scanning by common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): Functional aspects and the special role of adult males. Koenig, A. (German Primate Center, Dept of Ethology/Ecology, Kellnerweg 4, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany). Primates, 1998, 39, 85-90.
. . . Rates of visual scanning and vocalizations were studied in a group of captive marmosets after the presentation of five different stimuli (artificial flower, playback of long calls, female/male conspecific, stuffed wild cat) in order to assess the function of visual scanning. Only the stuffed cat induced a significant response. The results indicate that visual scanning in marmosets is an appropriate measure of vigilance which seems to serve the function of predator detection and avoidance.

*Percussive foraging: Stimuli for prey location by aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis). Erickson, C. J., Nowicki, S., Dollar, L., & Goehring, N. (Psychology Dept, Duke Univ., Durham, NC 27708). International Journal of Primatology, 1998, 19, 111-122.
. . . Aye-ayes use the thin middle finger to tap on wood in search of subsurface cavities containing insect larvae. The authors designed studies to identify the cavity features that provide acoustical cues. When cavities were backfilled with gelatin or acoustical foam, excavation was still successful, suggesting that echoes in air-filled cavities is not necessary for detection. A one-dimensional break in the subsurface wood was an effective stimulus for excavation, suggesting that neither prey nor cavity nor even small air pockets are necessary to elicit excavation. The question of how the aye-aye manages to forage efficiently remains.

*Proximal spacing between individuals in a group of woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) in Tinigua National Park, Colombia. Stevenson, P. R. (Dept of Anthropology, SUNY, Stony Brook, NY 11794). International Journal of Primatology, 1998, 19, 299-311.
. . . Proximate spacing reflects social affinities and is related to mother-infant relationship and social grooming. There are also differences in spacing behavior according to different activity types.

*Fruit finding by mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena): Are monitoring of fig trees and use of sympatric frugivore calls possible strategies? Olupot, W., Waser, P. M., & Chapman, C. A. (P. M. W., Dept of Biol. Sci., Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN 47907). International Journal of Primatology, 1998, 19, 339-353.
. . . There is no evidence that mangabeys monitor fig trees for the presence of fruit, but they may use the calls of hornbills to locate fruit. Statistical evidence that mangabeys use conspecific "whoopgobbles" and chimpanzee pant hoots in fruit finding is lacking, although anecdotal observations suggest this possibility.

* Group size and aggression: "recruitment incentives" in a cooperative breeding primate. Schaffner, C. M. & French, J. A. (Dept of Psychology, St. John's Univ., Collegeville, MN 56321). Animal Behaviour, 1997, 54, 171-180.
. . . This study investigated the association between group size and aggression towards strangers in Wied's black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix kuhli). Breeders from small groups are tolerant of strangers, which may facilitate the recruitment of additional group members, while breeders from large groups, particularly females, are intolerant of strangers, which may inhibit immigration.

*Grooming down the hierarchy: Allogrooming in captive brown capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella. Parr, L. A., Matheson, M. D., Bernstein, I. S., & de Waal, F. B. M. (Div. of Psychobiology, Yerkes RPRC, 954 N. Gatewood Rd, Atlanta, GA 30329). Animal Behaviour, 1997, 54, 361-367.
. . . *Observations of captive female brown capuchin monkeys in five groups revealed that grooming is primarily the occupation of dominant females. Alpha females were the only class to perform significantly more grooming than they received. These results are inconsistent with reports on vervets, baboons, and macaques, and suggest that grooming in capuchin monkeys may have different functions from those reported for cercopithecine primates. A dyadic analysis revealed, however, that grooming occurred more often between closely ranked females, similar to what is seen in several Old World monkey species.

*The adaptive value of "friendships" to female baboons: Experimental and observational evidence. Palombit, R. A., Seyfarth, R. M., & Cheney, D. L. (Dept of Psychology, Univ. of Pennsylvania, 3815 Walnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104). Animal Behaviour, 1997, 54, 599-614.
. . . Lactating female baboons (Papio cynocephalus) often maintain close associations with particular males. Almost all mothers of young infants formed strong bonds with one or two males with whom they had copulated during the cycle in which they conceived their infants. Females were primarily responsible for maintaining friendships during lactation, but they terminated these relationships if their infants died. In playbacks of females' screams, male friends responded more strongly than control males. They also responded more strongly to the screams of female friends than to the screams of control females. Following an infant's death, hosever, male friends responded less strongly than control males to the same females' screams. Finally, male friends responded more strongly than control males to playback sequences in which female screams were combined with the threat vocalizations of a potentially infanticidal alpha male, but not when female screams were combined with the threat calls of a noninfanticidal male or the alpha female.

*Rhesus monkey behaviour under diverse population densities: Coping with long-term crowding. Judge, P. G. & de Waal, F. B. M. (Yerkes RPRC, Emory Univ., 2409 Taylor Rd, Lawrenceville, GA 30243). Animal Behaviour, 1997, 54, 643-662.
. . . Seven captive rhesus monkey groups (Macaca mulatta) were observed over a wide range of population densities, where high-density groups were over 2000 times more crowded than low-density free-ranging groups. As density increased, males increased grooming and huddling, but did not increase rates of aggression. Females increased all categories of behavior examined (heavy aggression, mild aggression, formal bared-teeth displays, grooming, and huddling), but the increases were not distributed uniformly to all classes of partners. Increased density had different effects on particular relationships. The different patterns of response may reflect different strategies depending on the strength and stability of relationships and the potential consequences if certain relationships are disrupted.

*Push or pull: An experimental study on imitation in marmosets. Bugnyar, T. & Huber, L. (L. H., Dept of Theoretical Biology, Inst. of Zoology, Univ. of Vienna, Biocenter, Althanstr. 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria). Animal Behaviour, 1997, 54, 817-831.
. . . Inexperienced individual Callithrix jacchus were allowed to observe a skillful model that demonstrated one of two possible techniques (pushing or pulling) to get food from inside a wooden box. Results indicate that marmosets are capable of learning simple motor skills through conspecific observation.

*Capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella, fail to understand a cooperative task. Chalmeau, R., Visalberghi, E., & Gallo, A. (Lab. de Neurobiologie et Comportement, Univ. Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex, France). Animal Behaviour, 1997, 54, 1215-1225.
. . . Capuchin monkeys were trained to pull one handle, and to pull two handles simultaneously, for a food reward. They were tested in a task whose solution required simultaneous pulling of two handles simultaneously for the reward. Seven subjects successfully pulled one handle while a companion pulled the other. Further analyses, however, revealed that capuchins did not increase their pulling actions when a partner was close to or at the other handle, suggesting that they acted together at the task and got the reward without understanding the role of the partner and without taking its behavior into consideration. Social tolerance, as well as their tendency to explore and their manual dexterity, were the major factors accounting for their success at the task.

*Red colobus and Diana monkeys provide mutual protection against predators. Bshary, R. & Noë, R. (MPIV Seewisen, Abt. Wickler. Postf. 1564, 82305 Starnberg, Germany). Animal Behaviour, 1997, 54, 1461-1474.
. . . In Taï National Park, Ivory Coast, red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) used lower strata more often, were more exposed to the forest floor, and looked down less often while foraging, when in the presence of Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana), suggesting they are under less predation pressure from ground predators. Diana monkeys used greater heights when in the presence of collobus, and were more exposed to the front, to the rear, and from above than when alone. Since neither monkey species improves its foraging success when associated, this study shows that predation can both maintain and be the ultimate cause of interspecific associations.


*A simple enrichment device for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): "Mr. Sockie." Morris, J., Howell, S., & Fritz, J. (P.F.A., P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027). The Newsletter, 1997, 9[3,4], 1.
. . . "Mr. Sockie" is a food treat knotted inside a sock or small square of fabric. By using different colors and textures of fabric and a variety of treats, a high interest level has been sustained.

*Vertical poles with cow bells: An enrichment device for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Howell, S., Fritz, J., Murphy, J., & Schwandt, M. (Address same as above). The Newsletter, 1997, 9[3,4], 3-5.
. . . Results over two years indicate that the bells increase use of climbing poles and may have resulted in increased locomotor activity.

*Clinical conditions encountered in the Howletts gorilla colony: A twelve year review. Furley, C. W. (Howletts Wild Animal Park, Bekesbourne Lane, Canterbury, Kent CT4 5EL, U.K.). Proceedings of the Spring Meeting of the British Veterinary Zoological Society, 14-15 June 1997 (pp. 13-21).
. . . Generally the health of the colony is excellent; infectious diseases accounted for 5% of all disease cases. Parasites have been notably absent.


*Global primatology in a new millennium: An editorial. Tuttle, R. (Dept of Anthropology, Univ. of Chicago, 1126 E. 59th St., Chicago, IL 60637). International Journal of Primatology, 1998, 19, 1-12.
. . . "As we approach a new millennium, our challenge is to work together for a truly global primatology in which leadership is concentrated among scientists in the countries that are graced with natural populations of nonhuman primates." A lecture presented at VI Simposio Nacional de Primatología in Mexico City, Mexico, August 1, 1997.

*Survey of Grauer's gorillas (Gorilla gorilla graueri) and eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthi) in the Kahuzi-Biega National Park lowland sector and adjacent forest in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Hall, J. S., White, L. J. T., Inogwabini, B.-I., Omari, I., Morland, H. S., Williamson, E. A., Saltonstall, K., Walsh, P., Sikubwabo, C., Bonny, D., Kiswele, K. P., Vedder, A., & Freeman, K. (Marsh Hall, School of Forestry & Environ. Studies, Yale Univ., 360 Prospect St, New Haven, CT 06511). International Journal of Primatology, 1998, 19, 207-235.
. . . A survey over 480 km of transects. Comparing results with data obtained by Emlen and Schaller in 1959 suggests that gorilla populations have remained stable in protected areas but declined in adjacent forest. "Forest reconnaissance is a reliable and cost-effective method to assess gorilla densities in remote forested areas."


*Identification of a human population infected with simian foamy viruses. Heneine, W., Switzer, W. M., Sandstrom, P., Brown, J., Vedapuri, S., Schable, C. A., Khan, A. S., Lerche, N. W., Schweizer, M., Neumann-Haefelin, D., Chapman, L. E., & Folks, T. M. (HIV & Retrovirology Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333). Nature Medicine, 1998, 4, 403-407.
. . . Studying the transmission of simian retroviruses to humans can help define the importance of these infections to public health. The authors identified a substantial prevalence (4/231, 1.8%) of infection with simian foamy viruses (SFV) among humans occupationally exposed to nonhuman primates. Evidence of SFV infection included seropositivity, proviral DNA detection, and isolation of foamy virus. The infecting SFV originated from an African green monkey (one person) and baboons (three people). These infections have not as yet resulted in either disease or sexual transmission, and may represent benign endpoint infections.

Evolution, Genetics, and Taxonomy

*Technical note: Chromosomal and mtDNA analysis of Oliver. Ely, J. J., Leland, M., Martino, M., Swett, W., & Moore, C. M. (Trinity Univ., Dept of Biology, San Antonio, TX 78212-7200). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 1998, 105, 395-403.
. . . Oliver is an African ape whose species identity has been debated in the popular media and by various scientists since the early 1970s. Many reports indicated that Oliver was morphologically unusual for a chimpanzee, particularly in his habitual bipedal posture. In addition, his diploid chromosome number was reported to be inconsistent with either human or chimpanzee, but instead intermediate between those species. We performed standard chromosomal studies which demonstrated that Oliver had the diploid number expected for a chimpanzee (2N = 48) and that the banding patterns of his chromosomes were typical for a chimpanzee and different from both humans and bonobos. We also sequenced a 312 bp region of his mitochondrial DNA D-looop region. Results indicated a high sequence homology to the Central African variety of chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes troglodytes. The highest percent homology was observed with a previously characterized specimen from Gabon, strongly suggesting that Oliver originated from this region.

*Genetic variation in remnant populations of the woolly spider monkey (Brachyteles arachnoides). Pope, T. R. (Dept of Biological Anthropology & Anatomy, Duke Univ., Box 90583, Durham, NC 27708-0383). International Journal of Primatology, 1998, 19, 95-109.
. . . The known B. arachnoides population consists of < 700 individuals separated into approximately 15 geographically isolated forest fragments. Data on the distribution of genetic variation within and between two such remnant populations emphasize the need for the integration of conservation management efforts throughout the species range.

*Individual identification and paternity determination in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) using human short tandem repeat (STR) markers. Ely, J. J., Gonzalez, D. L., Reeves-Daniel, A., & Stone, W. H. (Address same as above). International Journal of Primatology, 1998, 19, 255-271.
. . . The authors investigated STRs in DNA isolated from 41 African-born, captive-housed chimpanzees. Used in combination to define a multiple-locus genotype, the five most informative focal STRs can potentially uniquely identify every chimpanzee alive in the world. These markers represent the basis of a powerful battery of genetic tests, including individual identification, e.g., in poaching, paternity testing, or reconstruction of pedigrees among captive and wild chimpanzee breeding populations.

*Distribution and biochronology of European and southwest Asian Miocene catarrhines. Andrews, P., Harrison, T., Delson, E., Bernor, R. L., & Martin, L. (E. D., Dept of Vertebrate Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024). In R. L. Bernor, V. Fahlbusch, & H.-W. Mittmann (Eds.), The Evolution of Western Eurasian Neogene Mammal Faunas (pp. 169-207). New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1996.
. . . A review of later Neogene primate distribution. A summary table gives a complete listing of the primate-bearing localities in Europe and Southwestern Asia, and the species identifications for each, arranged by country and geographic region.

*Genetic correlates of social behaviour in wild chimpanzees: Evidence from mitochondrial DNA. Goldberg, T. L. & Wrangham, R. W. (Dept of Vet. Pathobiology, College of Vet. Med., Univ. of Illinois, 2001 S. Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61801). Animal Behaviour, 1997, 54, 559-570.
. . . The hypothesis tested was that matrilineal relatedness predicts social affiliative preference in wild chimpanzees. None of four strongly affiliative males in Kanyawara community in Uganda's Kibale Forest could have been maternal brothers, since no pair shared the same mitochondrial DNA sequence. Fourteen chimpanzee communities outside Kibale were also studied by using communal nesting as a rough index of affiliative preference. Results suggest that kin selection is weaker than previously thought as a force promoting intra-community affiliation in chimpanzees.

*Systematics of tarsiers and lorises. Groves, C. (Dept of Archaeology & Anthropology, ANU, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia). Primates, 1998, 39, 13-27.
. . . This paper reports studies in progress on lorises (Loris and Nycticebus) and tarsiers (Tarsius), and proposes preliminary changes to their taxonomy.

Field Studies

*Effects of fruit patch availability on feeding subgroup size and spacing patterns in four primate species at Tinigua National Park, Colombia. Stevenson, P. R., Quiñones, M. J., & Ahumada, J. A. (Dept of Anthropology, SUNY, Stony Brook, NY 11794). International Journal of Primatology, 1998, 19, 313-324.
. . . An examination of the effects of fruit patch size, density, and distribution on feeding subgroup size and feeding bout duration in Lagothrix lagotricha, Ateles belzebuth, Cebus apella, and Alouatta seniculus showed positive correlations in all species between patch size and subgroup size, but the determination coefficients are very low.

*Population variation in patch and party size in muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides). Rodrigues de Moraes, P. L., de Carvalho, O., Jr., & Strier, K. B. (K. B. S., Dept of Anthropology, Univ. of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Dr., Madison, WI 53706). International Journal of Primatology, 1998, 19, 325-337.
. . . Comparative data from two populations of muriquis. Food patches at one site (PECB) are significantly larger than those at the other (EBC) but, contrary to expectations, feeding parties were larger at EBC than at PECB. The higher population density of muriquis and sympatric primates at EBC may make large associations more advantageous to the muriquis living there than to those at lower population densities in PECB.


*Signs of change within the animal rights movement: Results from a follow-up survey of activists. Plous, S. (Dept of Psychology, Wesleyan Univ., 207 High St, Middletown, CT 06459-0408]. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1998, 112, 48-54.
. . . Results from a 1996 survey of 372 activists attending a national march in Washington, DC are compared to a similar survey of 402 activists in 1990. Whereas a majority of activists in 1990 saw animal research as the most important issue facing the movement, activists in 1996 tended to identify animal agriculture as the most important issue. The 1996 survey also found a modest decline in support for laboratory break-ins, and it found majority support for a 10-point proposal to reduce tensions between activists and researchers. Although these results are subject to certain limitations, they suggest that there may be more room for dialogue between activists and researchers than previously assumed.


*Relative taste preferences for food-associated sugars in the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi). Laska, M., Sanchez, E. C., & Rodriguez Luna, E. (Inst. für Med. Psychologie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. München, Goethestrasse 31, D-80336, München, Germany). Primates, 1998, 39, 91-96.
. . . Using five-min. two-solution choice tests, four adult spider monkeys were given the choice between all binary combinations of sucrose, fructose, glucose, lactose, and maltose presented in equimolar concentrations of 20, 50, 100, and 200 mM respectively. Preferences for individual sugars were stable across the concentrations tested and indicate an order of relative effectiveness (sucrose > fructose > glucose lactose maltose) which is similar to results obtained with the same method in the squirrel monkey and to findings on relative sweetness in man. Results support the assumption that this order may represent a general pattern of preference in frugivorous, and perhaps all, primates.


*Growth and reproductive parameters of bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata). Rao, A. J., Ramesh, V., Ramachandra, S. G., Krishnamurthy, H. N., Ravindranath, N., & Moudgal, N. R. (Primate Research Lab., Centre for Reproductive Biology & Molecular Endocrinology, Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India). Primates, 1998, 39, 97-107.
. . . Summary of 30 years of biological and physiological data on bonnet monkeys in captivity. Data on sexual maturity, menstrual cyclicity, general behavior, endocrine profile, reproductive physiology, gestation, parturition, postpartum amenorrhea in the female, and sexual maturity, hormone profile, and seasonal variation in sperm count of the male monkeys are presented.

*Paternity in sooty mangabeys. Gust, D. A., McCaster, T., Gordon, T. P., Gergits, W. F., Casna, N. J., & McClure, H. M. (Yerkes RPRC, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322). International Journal of Primatology, 1998, 19, 83-94.
. . . Paternity was determined by DNA profile analysis for 78 Cercocebus torquatus atys, born into either a large or a small group. Of the two males in the small group (n = 18), the alpha male sired all of the offspring during a 3-year period. In the large group (n = 98), the same male did not always sire the offspring of a given female from year to year. However, dominance rank generally predicts reproductive success.


In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by the Primate Information Center, UW RPRC Westlake Facility 1101 Westlake Avenue North, Seattle, WA 98109-3527. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest. We would also like to acknowledge Primate-Talk as a source for information about new books.


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Announcements from Publications

ACLAD Newsletter

The American Committee on Laboratory Animal Diseases (ACLAD), an AALAS-affiliated organization which was established to advance and communicate knowledge about diseases of laboratory animals for the benefit of laboratory animal science and comparative medicine, is seeking material for its Newsletter. The ACLAD Newsletter is currently published twice a year, containing summaries (1-2 pages each) of research relating to laboratory animal diseases, information on disease incidence or serosurveys, issues in standardization and improvement of diagnostic methodologies, new animal models for disease, and similar research relevant to laboratory animal diseases. Such topics in laboratory animal diseases as natural prevalence, pathogenesis/immunology, developments in diagnosis and new or improved diagnostic methods or reagents (serology, PCR and other molecular methods), special problems of transgenic animals, and animal models, especially for infectious diseases, are all welcome. The emphasis is on current material, including high quality research at stages prior to formal publication.

Please submit your materials to Benjamin J. Weigler, Assoc. Director for Veterinary and Research Resources, Assoc. Professor, Dept. Comp. Med., Washington RPRC, Box 357330, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 [206-616-1706; fax: 206-616-1710; e-mail: [email protected]]. More information about ACLAD, including back-issues of the Newsletter, can be found at:


Zoocriaderos, edited by Hector F. Aguilar, is an indexed international publication, intended to establish a close scientific relationship between universities, zoos, aquaria, botanical gardens, and organized private collections, as well as professionals and students of related areas in the whole world. Three issues constitute an annual volume. All articles are arbitrated; once accepted for publication, they are sent by electronic mail to an international title list, including authors, summaries and key words. As each volume is closed, it is printed and sent by air mail to our subscribers. Meanwhile, titles, summaries, and bibliographies are placed, in Spanish or English, on the Web at <>.

Issues are closed on the first day of March, July, and November. For more information, or to submit manuscripts, contact CIRES, P.O. Box 397, Mérida 5101, Venezuela [voice & fax: (+58 74) 71 29 39; e-mail: [email protected]].

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All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. [401-863-2511; FAX: 401-863-1300]
e-mail address:

Current and back issues of the Newsletter are available on the World Wide Web at


The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health Service Grant RR-00419 from the Comparative Medicine Program, National Center for Research Resources, N.I.H.

Cover illustration of a lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) by Anne M. Richardson

Copyright (c) 1998 by Brown University

Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen

Last updated: May 21, 1998