Laboratory Primate Newsletter



Articles and Notes

Baboons and Water: A Discussion......1

Warning: Rope in Environmental Enrichment......3

Collecting Blood from Macaques: An Often Overlooked Variable in Biomedical Research, by V. Reinhardt......4

News, Information, and Announcements

Editors' Notes: Primates de las Américas...La Página......3

Budongo Forest Project Says "Thanks!"......5

Workshop Announcement: Teaching Research Ethics......5

Primates de las Américas...La Página......6

Letter: Retiring Research Primates......7

Awards Granted......8
. . . First ASLAP Student Award; Gorilla Researcher Wins Getty Wildlife Prize; Lindburg Receives AZA President's Award; Chris Stringer Receives Osman Hill Medal

Resources Wanted and Available......9
. . . Primate Field Studies Global Database; NetVet: Mosby's Veterinary Guide to the Internet; Wildlife Genetics International; Orangutan Cadaver Material Needed; Book Available; Nonhuman Primate Rotaviruses

Announcements from Publications......10
. . . New Editor for American Journal of Primatology; Veterinary Neurology and Neurosurgery On-line

Research and Educational Opportunities......13
. . . Post-Doc, Laboratory Animal Medicine; Research Opportunity at LABS of Virginia, Inc.; Regional Information Technology Training; Primate Training and Enrichment Workshops; Postdoctoral Training Program, Conservation

Volunteer Opportunities......15
. . . Research Assistant, Peru; Congo Chimp Project; Volunteer Manager for Chimpanzee Sanctuary; Primate Care Volunteer, Thailand

Grants Available......16
. . . AIDS-Associated Opportunistic Infections; NICHD Small Grants Program; Resources for Scientists Outside NCI Cancer Centers; Assay for Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease; The Aging Senses; NIMH Small Grants Program; Hepatitis C Infection and Alcoholic Liver Disease

Meeting Announcements......20

News Briefs......26
. . . Two Primate Centers Appoint New Directors; California Congressman Brown Dies; Coulston Foundation Settles AWA Charges; Proposed Baboon Abbatoir Quashed; Hong Kong Bans Monkey Feeding; Bangladesh Police Rescue Drug Monkeys; Congo Basin Protection; Volcanoes National Park to Reopen; New Fires in Indonesian Forests; New Gorilla Habitat in the Bronx; Scientist Says Plant May Be Ebola Cure; No More Monkey Business for Rock "Apes"; Jardín Gaia Closes in Costa Rica

Planned 2000 Revision of Directory of Graduate Programs in Primatology and Primate Research...... 24

Information Requested or Available......25
. . . "Final Report" Available from APHIS; Chimpanzee Researchers; E-mail Lists; Assessment of Animal Welfare; More Interesting Web Sites


Address Change......2

Positions Available......11
. . . Postdoctoral Positions - Dartmouth College; Director, Lab Animal Resources, Univ. of Pittsburgh; Assistant Scientist, Minnesota; Evolutionary Animal Physiology, Indiana

Recent Books and Articles......26

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Baboons and Water: A Discussion

On July 15, 1999, Sylvia Corte, G. Duarte and F. Silveira, of the Universidad de la República, Uruguay, sent the following message to Alloprimate: We are looking for information about zoo enclosures surrounded by water for baboons (Papio hamadryas). We want to know if water is a real barrier for the monkeys or if something else must be built between them and visitors. Would you recommend using water as a way of preventing the monkeys from escaping? If it is effective, how deep must it be and what are the advantages and disadvantages of this system? We also want to know if there could be any disease passed on by mosquitoes that could affect the health of monkeys (and people, of course).

The following responses were posted:
* From Katherine Eckert <[email protected]> at U.C. San Francisco: I'm not currently working in a zoo environment but spent many hours last fall watching a troop of chimpanzees that were near the hamadryas enclosure at the Oakland Zoo in California. Unfortunately, because baboon males are so responsive and aggressive, I witnessed many negative interactions between zoo visitors and the troop's adult males. People frequently taunted and teased them into a fury that invariably resulted in one of the females bearing the brunt of the male's frustration. I highly recommend having a moat or some other way to keep visitors as far as possible from the animals.

Mosquito control professionals spray diesel oil with a small amount of Dursban™ in it in wildlife areas to kill off the hordes of mosquito larvae living in still water. I don't necessarily recommend this, but it is an option. It evaporates within a few hours, so it could be used at night. However, this method may not be applicable to a small closed system such as a moat, and I probably would recommend against using chemicals to prevent mosquitoes unless there were no other alternatives. Using fish (there are specific species of guppies you can purchase that target most mosquito species) would be a better idea, but keep in mind that the fish have a difficult time seeing the larvae of Anopheles spp. (the genus that carries malaria), which lie flat on the surface of the water. Circulating the water works to some extent, but unless it is fairly fast moving the larvae will still survive. [Do not use diesel oil or poisons with fish. - E. M.]

* Linda Bamer <[email protected]> wrote: I worked at an "animal safari" place in which the animals were separated to some extent by moats. The chimps were on an island surrounded by water. One of them got hold of a tree limb and floated across to the lion section and was killed. I thought I'd mention this, just in case you haven't thought of it.

* Rachel W. Rogers <[email protected]> at Parrot Jungle and Gardens, wrote: Have the zoo officials told you if they were going to alter the exhibit in any way? Water is a barrier, but it has to be the correct depth! At two Florida animal parks colobus monkeys have escaped by wading through shallow water.

You may choose water or a dry moat. Check the difference in cost between them. If you choose water it should be at least six or seven feet deep at the farthest point with a wall about four feet high that curves back about three feet. If you choose a dry moat, increase the depth to 15 feet with a three-foot curved back on the wall. The reason for this is that they could attempt an escape with a dry moat and the height needs to be a deterrent.

With a water moat - If the shore is not sloped, there might be drowning, but the slope must end at least half way out to prevent escape. There are higher maintenance costs involved with water due to cleaning, unless you invest in a pump system. Water moats are always more pleasing to the eye in an exhibit.

With a dry moat - Depending on the design used, the animals may tend to stay in the moat and be less visible to the public. A dry moat gives the animals more usable exhibit space and can be planted with grass to soften the appearance of the exhibit. A stream could be added to the dry moat - it uses less water and needs less cleaning costs than a wet moat.

Be sure that whatever types of apparatus you include in the exhibit, such as trees or climbing structures, are not too close to the edge of a wall. You must also think about what you give them to play with such as branches, palm fronds, etc., because they can use them as tools for climbing. [Or floating! - Eds.]

* John M. Aguiar at Texas A. & M.: I can understand your position - you are not part of your zoo's staff, but far more familiar with the baboons - and wish you good luck.

I'm not a zoo expert nor involved with primate care in any way. The Norfolk Zoo in Virginia (eastern USA) just added two gelada baboons to their Africa section, using both a water-filled moat and electrified wires to keep the baboons confined. I gather that while the geladas don't much care for water, they can get across it, so the electric wires are a backup. You might be able to directly contact the people who work with the geladas through <>.

* Debby Cox at the Jane Goodall Institute <[email protected]> wrote: I would not recommend using water as the only barrier to keep the baboons in. They are good swimmers and will climb out, unless you have a high wall on the other side, or use an electric fence as a second barrier. Giving them water is a great idea; it is very enriching and they can have a lot of different activities with the water. But not as your primary barrier. I do not think they have a problem with diseases from mosquitoes, but I am not sure. If you use water, you should have a pump circulating the water, which would reduce the likelihood of mosquitoes, as they do not breed in moving water. [Adding goldfish or guppies will provide enrichment for the baboons as well as keeping the mosquito population down. - E. M.]

* Jimmy Magill <[email protected]> said: Baboons have been known to swim. Most zoos in Africa keep them behind bars or electric fencing. The best one to contact would be the National Zoo in Pretoria. Their e-mail is <[email protected]>. Hope they can help you.

* Gerard de Nijs <[email protected]>, Outplacement-Coordinator for Foundation Ape, said: Foundation Ape is a center that serves as a shelter for exotic animals, mainly primates. I have also worked in Africa with chimpanzees and my wife (what a coincidence!) comes from Uruguay. Among the primates that are housed at our center are hamadryas baboons. They are not housed on an island, though we are building four island enclosures to house other primates which we know will have to spend the rest of their lives at our center. There are two zoos in Holland that keep hamadryas baboons: one (Safari Park Beekse Bergen; contact Mr. Wim Verberkmoes, fax: (31)591690275) keeps them on a real island enclosure together with African elephants; the other (Emmen Zoo; contact Mrs. Dr. Tine Griede <[email protected]>) keeps them in a semi-island enclosure. I know that Brasilia Zoo keeps them on an island enclosure (contact Keila Juarez <[email protected]>). You could also contact Mr. Warner Jens of Apenheul here in Holland <[email protected]>, which is the best primate zoo in the world (although they don't keep hamadryas baboons); almost all their enclosures are islands.

Island enclosures can be ideal if you consider all the possible risks, and of course every species has its own social behavior and needs. When you place macaques (e.g., crab-eating macaques, pig-tails) on an island you must be aware that they love the water and will go for a swim. Some baboons like to take a swim (Keila Juarez told me that Brasilia Zoo's female olive baboon likes to swim to the island enclosure of the hamadryas baboons). I don't think that hamadryas baboons like water, but to prevent them from falling into the water an electric fence can be placed just before the water. Chimps, gorillas, gibbons, and orangutans have a natural fear of water, but if they have been in contact with people (as pets) in many cases they have lost their fear of water, which could put them in danger when placed on an island. To prevent them from getting too far into the water most zoos (mainly with chimps) place electric fencing above the water line. They sometimes place nets or ladders on the banks so that if animals do fall into the water they might be able to climb out. I think you have to take into consideration the natural behavior of the species that you want to place on an island enclosure and take all necessary measures to prevent them from drowning or escaping and coming into contact with the public. Island enclosures are great for those who watch them (no more bars, getting to see more natural behavior) as well as for the primates, but you have to consider every conceivable risk for the animals as well as for the public.

* Finally, Sylvia posted this follow-up on July 16: Thank you very much for your detailed and useful postings. We are sure that only a water pool could not be enough to keep the baboons inside, because with other colleagues we have been doing a long-term study of social behavior on this colony for seven years. We have seen them many times playing in a pool within the enclosure without fear or anxiety. But we wanted to be certain. Now with your advice we can try to change the decision of the zoo staff. The zoo authorities want the current enclosure for other animals. It is a large dome, 25 meters high and 2500 m2 in area, with a rocky structure at the center and a fairly large pool of water, one meter deep. The floor is of earth and grass and the 67 monkeys have been having a good time in there since 1980. Zoo authorities want to put the hamadryas in another zone of the zoo and they are not attending to our advice because we are not part of the zoo staff. We are doing our research with their permission but we work at the University and this research is part of our postgraduate studies. As you can see we are very concerned for the baboons and also for the future of our studies. They argue that many zoos of the world use the water barrier, only because they saw some photos! And they tell us that we are wrong when we say the baboons are not afraid of water! We hope your postings will be of great help for us.

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Address Change

Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, 7833 Walker Dr., Suite 410, Greenbelt, MD 20770-3229.

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Warning: Rope in Environmental Enrichment

On August 30, Katie Eckert posted a message to several e-mail discussion groups. Her posting is printed here. - The Editors

I have more than once recommended to people involved in environmental enrichment for macaques that sisal rope hanging outside of a cage made an excellent low-cost enrichment item for singly-housed macaques; they enjoy grooming, chewing, and pulling on it. However, a recent tragic incident has necessitated the removal of all sisal ropes from macaque cages at this facility.

Approximately three weeks ago, it was noticed that a young, singly housed longtail macaque (Macaca fascicularis) was exhibiting anorexia and lethargy, and that there was little urine and no feces in the cage. The animals had been in the colony only two months. The veterinary nurse noted that he was depressed, did not show any responsiveness or aggression (as he normally would have), and was lying supine in the back of the cage. The nurses attempted to get him to feed by offering every type of treat we had available (fruit, marshmallows, etc.), but he showed little interest. He was placed on antibiotics and monitored, and showed a little improvement in his attentiveness the following day, although the anorexia and constipation continued. He was anesthetized for a blood draw, and blood values appeared within normal limits. A blood draw on the third day showed signs of septic shock, and an exploratory laparotomy was performed on the fourth day.

During the laparatomy there was evidence of hyperemia and inflammation on the serosa of the small intestine. There were also indications of active peritonitis. The veterinarian decided that euthanasia was necessary, and during the necropsy a large immobile ball of matted sisal rope was found in the stomach of the animal. Numerous thin strands of rope were found in the small intestine. The multifocal, punctate lesions (ulcers) along the mucosa of the small intestine seemed to come from the rope fibers' penetration of the wall of the intestine. These lesions were leaking gastro-intestinal contents into the abdominal cavity.

It was abundantly clear that this animal died due to ingestion of the sisal rope. We have used rope successfully as an enrichment item for more than two years with many of the same macaques. However it is clear that there can be exceptional situations, individual animals who behave abnormally. I would encourage all who read this, who are using sisal rope for enrichment of Old World primates, to desist immediately lest any of your animals suffer the same fate as ours.

The details of this incident will be published by our clinical veterinarians in the near future. A detailed literature search and consultation with colleagues knowledgeable on the subject of macaque enrichment by my academic advisor has shown no precedence for an accident like this happening with sisal rope. - Katherine Eckert, Environmental Enrichment Technician, UCSF Laboratory Animal Resource Center, 513 Parnassus Ave., San Francisco, CA 94143-9564 [e-mail: [email protected]]

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Editors' Notes

Primates de las Américas - La Página

It was called to my attention recently - two years after we began to include a page in Spanish (occasionally with a Portuguese item) - that we have never explained in English what we had in mind by including this feature in an English-language publication. Our introductory announcement (this Newsletter, 1997, 36[4], 20) was itself in Spanish. To remedy this, however tardily, we are printing here a translation of that introduction.

Primates of the Americas - the Page

In the world there are more than 360 million people who communicate in Spanish. Another very important language, Portuguese, also has a large number of speakers in the Americas. The Editors of the Laboratory Primate Newsletter now offer all Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking primatologists the opportunity to publish in a respected scientific journal, which traditionally publishes in English, announcements, news, plans, and results of investigations in their native languages. Thus, "Primates of the Americas - the Page" intends to attract those primatologists who wish to return to their own countries, in their own languages, the knowledge that they have obtained by studies with New World primates.

The rules for preparation of summaries, notes, and announcements will be the same as for English language material, although for this section in Spanish and/or Portuguese, it is suggested that the contributions be brief - preferably not more than half a page. All correspondence related to "Primates of the Americas - the Page" should go to: Juan Carlos Serio Silva, Dept. of Plant Ecology, Doctoral Program in Ecology and Management of Natural Resources, Inst. of Ecology, A.C., AP 63, cp 91000, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico [52 (28) 42 18 00, ext 1201 - 1204; fax: 52 (28) 42 18 00, ext 1204; e-mail: [email protected]]; or T. Elva Mathiesen, c/o Judith Schrier, Psychology Dept, Box 1853, Brown Univ., Providence, RI 02912, USA [401-863-2511; fax: 401-863-1300; e-mail: [email protected]].

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Collecting Blood from Macaques: An Often Overlooked Variable in Biomedical Research

Viktor Reinhardt
Animal Welfare Institute, Washington, DC


Traditionally, blood collection and/or the preceding injection of a sedative are stressful events for macaques, disrupting physiological and biochemical homeostasis in numerous ways. The magnitude of the stress reactions is determined by the following circumstances:

  1. Is the animal sedated prior to blood collection (Elvidge et al., 1976)?

  2. How long is the preparation time for blood collection, i.e., time lapse from entry of personnel into animal room to actual venipuncture (Capitanio et al., 1996)?

  3. Is the animal trained to cooperate during blood collection, or is the animal restrained during the procedure (Reinhardt, 1992)?

  4. Is venipuncture performed while the animal remains in the familiar home cage, or is the animal removed to another location for blood collection (Reinhardt et al., 1990)?

It may be reasonable to assume that blood collection protocols are detailed in the Methods section of scientific articles to account for possible data variability and discrepancies among research findings from different laboratories.


A survey was conducted of all articles published in the Journal of American Primatology, volumes 1-48, and in the Journal of Medical Primatology, volumes 1-28. Investigations involving blood collection from caged (single- or pair-housed) macaques, and dealing with stress-sensitive parameters, were screened for descriptions of the blood collection protocols.


A total of 54 articles were found, investigating reproductive hormones (36), stress hormones (8), blood cell counts (4), serum chemistry (4), and gluco-regulation (2) in blood samples collected from caged macaques.


The findings of this survey suggest that many investigators do not recognize that the traditional manner of collecting blood can introduce uncontrolled stress variables into research findings, leading to increased data variability and therefore increasing the number of experimental animals needed to obtain statistically acceptable results. Other investigators, however, are aware of this problem and caution that "control values", "normal values", "reference values" and "baseline data" have to be interpreted with reservation when they originate from animals who were subjected to conventional blood collection procedures (e.g., Elvidge et al., 1976; Brockway et al., 1993; Schnell & Gerber, 1997).

The variable "sedation" was most frequently acknowledged. This is surprising since the sedative used - unlike anxiety during the preparation time and fear during enforced restraint - is unlikely to significantly affect stress-sensitive research findings (Castro et al., 1981). Injecting the sedative, however, may trigger a stress reaction even before the experiment starts if the procedure involves enforced restraint. This scenario probably applied to the articles of this survey, because none of them indicated that research subjects were trained to cooperate during ketamine injection. If this is the case, ketamine injection fulfilled its purpose by sedating the subject but not by controlling the previously induced stress response. Macaques can be conditioned to accept ketamine injections without restraint and without showing signs of discomfort, fear, or distress (Reinhardt, 1992, Figure 3; cf., Levison et al., 1994). This option needs to be explored more systematically to further increase the validity of research data.

Research subjects were trained to cooperate during venipuncture in only 13% of cases. There are numerous reports - some published as early as the 1970s - that macaques can readily be trained to cooperate during blood collection (review: Reinhardt, 1997). Several of these publications provide step-by-step training protocols. Even fully adult male rhesus macaques, often stigmatized as particularly vicious and intractable, can learn within less than a cumulative total of 60 minutes to voluntarily present a leg for venipuncture in their home cage without being restrained. Needless to say, stress hormone levels do not increase significantly under those conditions. It is not clear why only such a small percentage of the surveyed articles used training to avoid possibly confounding their dependent variables with stress reactions associated with enforced blood collection.


Brockway, B. P., Hassler, C. R., & Hicks, N. (1993). Minimizing stress during physiolgical monitoring. In S. M. Niemi & J. E. Willson (Eds.), Refinement and Reduction in Animal Testing (pp. 56-69). Greenbelt, MD: Scientists Center for Animal Welfare.

Capitanio, J. P., Mendoza, S. P., & McChesney, M. (1996). Influence of blood sampling procedures on basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hormone levels and leukocyte values in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Journal of Medical Primatology, 25, 26-33.

Castro, M. I., Rose, J., Green, N., Petersen, D., & Taub, D. (1981). Ketamine-HCl as a suitable anesthetic for endocrine, metabolic, and cardiovascular studies in Macaca fascicularis. Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine, 151, 389-394.

Elvidge, H., Challis, J. R. G., Robinson, J. S., Roper, C., & Thorburn, G. D. (1976). Influence of handling and sedation on plasma cortisol in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Journal of Endocrinology, 70, 325-326.

Levison, P. K., Fester, C. B., Nieman, W. H., & Findley, J. D. (1964). A method for training unrestrained primates to receive drug injection. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 7, 253-254.

Reinhardt, V. (1992). Improved handling of experimental rhesus monkeys. In H. Davis & A. D. Balfour (Eds.), The Inevitable Bond: Examining Scientist-Animal Interactions (pp. 171-177). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Reinhardt, V. (1996). Refining the blood collection procedure for macaques. Lab Animal, 25(1), 32-35.

Reinhardt, V. (1997). Training nonhuman primates to cooperate during blood collection: A review. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 36[4], 1-4.

Reinhardt, V., Cowley, D., Scheffler, J., Vertein, R., & Wegner, F. (1990). Cortisol response of female rhesus monkeys to venipuncture in homecage versus venipuncture in restraint apparatus. Journal of Medical Primatology, 19, 601-606.

Schnell, C. R. & Gerber, P. (1997). Training and remote monitoring of cardiovascular parameters in non-human primates. Primate Report, 49, 61-70.

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Budongo Forest Project Says "Thanks!"

The National Geographic Society (NGS) has provided a series of substantial grants to the Budongo Forest Project [see this Newsletter, 1999, 38[3], 15] over the last 10 years. These grants have made possible the study of the Sonso community of chimpanzees. The grants have directly supported our studies of the effects of logging on chimpanzee diet and dispersion, ranging patterns, population size, contribution to seed dispersal, phytochemistry of the diet, and hair collection for DNA analysis. A current grant is supporting further work on genetics, food choices, ranging, and reproduction. Besides this direct support, the grants from NGS have indirectly assisted many of the research students who have worked at Budongo. We are most grateful to NGS for its support.

We also wish to record our thanks to the Margot Marsh Foundation of Conservation International for its support to the project's staff over the last three years. - V. Reynolds, Head, Budongo Forest Project (Institute of Biological Anthropology, 58 Banbury Rd, Oxford OX2 6QS, U.K. [e-mail: [email protected]].

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Workshop Announcement

Teaching Research Ethics

Indiana University's seventh annual Teaching Research Ethics Workshop will convene at the Indiana Memorial Union on the campus of Indiana University in Bloomington, May 17-20, 2000. Topics will include an overview of ethical theory; using animal subjects in research; using human subjects in clinical and nonclinical research; and responsible data management. Several sessions will feature techniques for teaching and assessing the responsible conduct of research, and a panel will describe model curricula in research ethics.

For more information, contact Kenneth D. Pimple, Poynter Center, Indiana University, 618 East Third St, Bloomington, IN 47405-3602 [812-855-0261; fax: 812-855-3316: e-mail: [email protected]]; or see <>.

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Primates de las Américas...La Página

Durante estos últimos meses hemos tenido la suerte de coincidir con diversas colegas con gran interés en el estudio y conservación de nuestros primates neotropicales, tal es el caso de la nota que incluimos en esta sección donde quedan de manifiesto los avances que han tenido los estudios primatológicos en la República de Uruguay. Por otra parte, este trimestre ha sido tiempo de reuniones y encuentros; así hemos tenido oportunidad de reunirnos y discutir nuestros estudios en eventos como el de la American Society of Primatologists, Sociedad Brasileña de Primatología y recientemente de la Asociación Mexicana de Primatología; de este último evento incluimos una sinopsis de lo más destacado durante ese punto de encuentro. Finalmente en la pasada edición de "La Pagina" olvidamos incluir las referencias bibliográficas del artículo de nuestra colega colombiana Carolina Ramírez, de tal manera que manifestando de antemano nuestras disculpas, ahora incluimos estas referencias, las cuales estarán ahora a su amable disposición. Agradecemos la participación de nuestros colegas y seguimos invitando a participar en esta columna. Estamos a sus ordenes. Juan Carlos Serio Silva y Elva Mathiesen (Editores). Depto de Ecología Vegetal, Instituto de Ecología, A.C. km. 2.5 antigua carretera a Coatepec, ap 63 cp 91000, Xalapa, Veracruz, México [e-mail [email protected]].

La Primatología en Uruguay. Alejandro Fallabrino, Grupo de Tortugas Marinas México, Guanajuato 40 - 8, Col. Roma - 06700, México D.F., México [00 52 5 5840485; e-mail: [email protected]]

Es bien sabido que en algunos países, aún cuando no poseen primates en vida silvestre se hacen importantes estudios sobre estos, tanto en cautiverio como en otros territorios. La República de Uruguay no es la excepción, ya que posee una gran diversidad de especies de primates de América, África, y Asia en varios zoológicos y reservas del país.

El Departamento de Etología de la Facultad de Ciencias (Universidad de la República) ha contribuído, a través de diversas tesis de maestría y doctorado, a la capacitación constante de primatólogos uruguayos, esto gracias a los estudios que se han realizado desde hace cinco años con una colonia de babuinos (Papio hamadryas) en cautiverio.

Es muy importante que Uruguay se integre al mundo primatológico, teniendo como objetivos lograr un mayor intercambio de información así como un mejor planteamiento de estudios que potencialmente se pueden llevar a cabo en zoológicos y por supuesto en las áreas de bosque de este importante país. Finalmente, la problemática del tráfico ilegal de primates no escapa a la realidad uruguaya ya que es un país que es utilizado como "puente" por traficantes de Argentina, Brasil, y Paraguay a fin de encontrar un mejor acceso a mercados europeos. A raíz de esto último, se creó, por parte de dos investigadores uruguayos, la red en internet "Antitráfico Neotropical" <>, la cual asocia a varias organizaciones no gubernatales y personas que están relacionadas con la investigación de tráfico de especies en Iberoamérica, lo cual permite informar de todo lo relacionado con este tema y unir esfuerzos para frenar las redes de tráfico nacionales e internacionales. Si desea unirse a esta red debe contactarse con Alejandro Fallabrino al e-mail: <[email protected]>.

VII Simposio Mexicano de Primatología.

Durante el 6-8 de Septiembre se llevó a cabo el VII Simposio Mexicano de Primatología en la ciudad de Catemaco, Veracruz, México, el cual fué organizado por la Asociación Mexicana de Primatología (AMP), Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa y la Universidad Veracruzana. Es importante mencionar que este evento ha sido uno de los de mayor asistencia desde el inicio de estos eventos. Diversos estudios de alto nivel académico fueron presentados en tópicos que incluyeron a monos del Nuevo Mundo, monos del Viejo Mundo y simios. Se presentaron cuatro conferencias magistrales, 34 presentaciones orales y 12 carteles científicos, los cuales fueron defendidos por los expositores ante el público asistente. Este evento que hace reunirse a los primatólogos mexicanos se realiza cada dos años, tiempo en el cual también se electa la nueva mesa directiva de la Asociación para el próximo período. En este caso para el período 1999-2001, se eligieron a los siguientes colegas como responsables de la AMP: Presidente: Domingo Canales Espinosa (Univ. Veracruzana); Secretario: Francisco García Orduña (Univ. Veracruzana); Tesorero: Adolfo López Galindo (Univ. Veracruzana); Vocales: Agnes Revol de Mendoza (Univ. Autónoma de Nuevo León - zona norte), Jairo Muñoz Delgado (Inst. Mexicano de Psiquiatría - zona centro), Alberto Anzures Dadda (Inst. de Historia Natural de Chiapas - zona occidente), y Juan Carlos Serio Silva (Inst. de Ecología, A.C. - zona sureste). Sin duda, esta nueva mesa directiva fomentará diversos planes para hacer trascender los estudios con primates tanto en libertad como en cautiverio, y dentro de estos especialmente intensificar la formación de recursos humanos en el campo de la primatología. ¡Enhorabuena por tan exitoso evento y por el nombramiento de la nueva mesa directiva!

Referencias del artículo "Quehaceres en la Primatología Colombiana", escrito por Biol. Carolina Ramírez en la anterior edición de "La Página":

Defler, T., Rodríguez, J. V., & Hernández-Camacho, J. (in press). Conservation priorities for Colombian primates.

Hernández-Camacho, J, & Defler, T. (1985). Some aspects of the conservation of nonhuman primates in Colombia. Primate Conservation, 6, 42-50.

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Letter: Retiring Research Primates

In their article "Postresearch Retirement of Monkeys and Other Nonhuman Primates" [LPN, 1999, 38(2), 1-4], Seelig and Truitt presented useful and thoughtful information. While we agree with most of their premises and conclusions, we do believe that there are other credible sanctuaries besides those accredited by The Association of Sanctuaries. We base this on our own experiences at the Wild Animal Orphanage, where we have successfully retired nine separate groups of nonhuman primates from seven major research facilities. We offer here additional suggestions for finding, and then working with, a sanctuary for retiring research animals.

Facilities wishing to retire primates should contact directors of other facilities for advice on where they have already placed animals. Documents pertaining to sanctuary credibility and references are usually on file, and directors and staff members normally have already made at least one site visit to the sanctuary. If a recommended sanctuary does not have room, it will have a referral list.

It is advisable that the directors and care staffs of the research facility and the prospective sanctuary visit each other's facilities, creating a long-term working relationship with continued communication between the parties. Caregivers are a very useful source of important information about animals' habits, needs, temperaments, etc.

Sanctuaries will usually ask for financial assistance toward construction of enclosures; these amounts will vary. Facilities that hire contractors to build enclosures will ask for more. Those that have on-staff construction workers and their own equipment will not ask for as much. This does not mean that they cannot meet standards, just that they are more resourceful.

If a situation arises in which animals need to be placed but no funds are available for construction costs, sanctuaries that offer assistance are not necessarily undesirable. Reputable sanctuaries know their own limits and usually will not accept animals that they cannot care for.

There are significant differences between a sanctuary that gives guided educational tours and a roadside zoo/pseudo-sanctuary. The latter usually allows the public to roam freely, allows hands-on contact with the animals, and is in business to make a profit wherever and whenever possible. Baby animals are available for photo sessions, handling, and, on many occasions, can be purchased for the right price.

Credible sanctuaries that offer guided tours have informative tour guides, whose primary goal is to educate the public against the ownership of exotic animals as pets. They do not allow any physical contact with the animals. Baby animals seen on site are either those that have been born to females that arrived pregnant, the results of unsuccessful vasectomies, or, in some instances, abandoned youngsters that have been acquired and are being fostered by an adult female.

Experienced and credible sanctuaries that house possibly retroviral- or herpes B-virus-positive nonhuman primates usually will not display such animals except at a distance of 10 feet or more. Those that are infected will be kept in restricted areas, accessible only to trained staff members, thus ensuring public safety. Additional training and refresher courses may be offered by a research facility seeking to place such animals, ensuring that both parties are operating responsibly. All necessary safety equipment will be on hand and the biosafety level 2 procedure will be in effect. Physicians responsible for first-aid treatment of staff will have been supplied with all data pertaining to herpes B, SIV, and other significant diseases, and will be prepared to handle any emergencies.

After animals have been successfully placed, it is important to make follow-up visits and to continue communication between the parties. This interaction may include short visits from animal caretakers, perhaps to monitor progress and assist with animal care programs. The research facility should always be available for consultation. This ensures a long-term working relationship, enabling both parties to learn how improvements can be made.

In order to prevent misinformed statements by the press that may create public hysteria, all press releases should be coordinated by the two parties.

For further information, please feel free to contact us. - Carol Asvestas, Michelle Reininger, and Mary Reininger, Wild Animal Orphanage, P.O. Box 690422, San Antonio, TX 78269 [e-mail: [email protected]].

* * *

Awards Granted

First ASLAP Student Award

Fon Chang, an undergraduate at UC-Davis, has been selected as the winner of the first annual Student Award from the Association of Laboratory Animal Practitioners (ASLAP). This award is given to a student who "exhibits extraordinary potential in laboratory animal medicine." The award consists of a plaque, $250, a signed copy of "The Biology and Medicine of Rabbits and Rodents," by Harkness and Wagner, and one year's membership in ASLAP.

Fon was selected from a field of eleven exceptional students from across the country that had been nominated by members of ASLAP. He has spent 22 out of a possible 41 weeks of his senior year in laboratory animal clinical rotations through facilities such as the California Regional Primate Research Center and Scripps Research Institute; and was also an NIH Student Research Fellow at the Center for Comparative Medicine. His research project at NIH used the mouse as a model to study gastric secretory physiology. Fon has accepted a residency position in Laboratory Animal Medicine at UC-Davis following graduation.

Gorilla Researcher Wins Getty Wildlife Prize

World Wildlife Fund (WWF) has awarded its 22nd annual J. Paul Getty Wildlife Conservation Prize to Kpanou Jean Bosco in recognition of his conservation work with western lowland gorillas and of his role in the establishment of the Dzango-Sangha Dense Forest Special Reserve and Dzanga-Ndoki National Park in his native Central African Republic.

Bosco is currently carrying out research on lowland gorilla ecology. In hopes of generating conservation revenues from ecotourism, he heads one of the few attempts to habituate lowland gorillas to the presence of humans. Unlike the mountain gorillas of Rwanda, Uganda, and Democratic Republic of Congo, western lowland gorillas make their homes in the Congo Basin rain forests. While there are many more lowland gorillas than mountain gorillas - approximately 100,000, compared to 630 - the lowland gorilla is increasingly threatened by forest loss and fragmentation.

Starting as a camp assistant for a field project funded by WWF and the New York Zoological Society, Bosco proved so capable and enthusiastic that he was trained in gorilla and elephant census techniques and became a research assistant on the project. From the beginning, Bosco handled an endless variety of tasks to establish a conservation program in the area. He walked thousands of miles to map points of wildlife concentration and human activity; collected, pressed, and processed thousands of botanical specimens; monitored wildlife; and was indispensable in raising conservation awareness in the area, turning many poachers into allies.

In awarding the Getty Prize, WWF Senior Vice President Jim Leape said, "As the principal gorilla researcher in Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, grass-roots conservationist, and dedicated citizen of the Central African Republic, Kpanou Jean Bosco is the kind of rare person who makes species conservation happen on the ground." - From WWF Focus, July/August 1999

Lindburg Receives AZA President's Award

The American Zoo and Aquarium Association's (AZA) President's Award was presented to Donald Lindburg, PhD, behavior division head at the Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species at the Zoological Society of San Diego, for "outstanding and dedicated service to the Association and to the Profession." The award recognizes Dr. Lindburg's years of conservation and research efforts and his dedication to the giant panda initiative. David Town, AZA president, noted that Dr. Lindburg is a "valuable and distinguished member of the zoological community. His contributions greatly exemplify the highest standard of service and professionalism."

Dr. Lindburg studied macaques for more than 30 years, and he has also worked with cheetahs, lemurs, condors, rhinos, drills, and golden monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana). He is a "founding parent" of the American Society of Primatologists. In 1990, Dr. Lindburg won the National Zoological Park/Friends of the National Zoo Centennial Award for Excellence in Zoo Research. - From the ASP Bulletin, 1999, 23[2]

Chris Stringer Receives Osman Hill Medal

Professor Chris Stringer, of the British Natural History Museum, was awarded the Primate Society of Great Britain's Osman Hill Medal in December, 1998. Stringer has been the architect of the paleontological approach to the African origins of modern humans. He has been instrumental in establishing a sound chronology for recent human evolution, and has created and stimulated a major program of dating of key fossils. - From Primate Eye, February 1999

* * *

Resources Wanted and Available

Primate Field Studies Global Database

The Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB) is compiling a millennium edition of their guide to primate field projects: Current Primate Field Studies (a supplement to their newsletter Primate Eye). For the first time, this guide will be compiled in collaboration with the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center (WRPRC), and will also be available electronically on the Field Studies section of the International Directory of Primatology Website: <>. This merger of PSGB and WRPRC field directories will establish a single comprehensive global database that will maximize accessibility and minimize redundancy for both users and contributors alike.

All those who are currently carrying out primate field studies, or who have completed a field study during 1998-1999, are invited to submit descriptions of their projects. Submissions can be made by hard copy or electronically (<>). If submissions are made by hard copy, the following information should be included: * Title of field study project; * Country and location; * Project start and end dates; * Research objectives; * Species studied (list Latin names); * Other primate species found at site; * Positions for field workers/volunteers; * Sponsoring institutions; * Name of project director, together with institution, address, city, state/province (not abbreviated), mailing code, phone number, fax number, e-mail address, and Website address; * The names of other research personnel on the project (including the contact person for these project details: if same as director, please list as same); * Keywords that best describe the field study; and * Miscellaneous comments (optional).

Submissions should be sent to: Guy Cowlishaw, Inst. of Zoology, Zool Soc. of London, Regent's Park, London NW1 4RY, UK [e-mail: [email protected]].

NetVet©: Mosby's Veterinary Guide to the Internet
Kenneth R. Boschert, DVM, with Henry James & TVA Rural Studies. St. Louis: Mosby, Inc., 1998. 285 pp. [Price: $25.95]

This book is intended to serve two purposes. The first is to enable veterinary professionals unaccustomed to the Internet to develop on-line proficiency, and the initial eight chapters accomplish this very handsomely. Segments which are comprehensive yet very accessible deal with * Getting started on the Internet; * The World Wide Web; * Searching; * E-mail; * Mailing lists; * Newsgroups; and * On-line services. Many "Tips" (each with a prominent identifying symbol) are interspersed in the text; these range from valuable time-saving techniques to information about protecting equipment from damage. Material presented everywhere is practical and informative.

The second aim of the book is to review valuable resources for those who are already on-line. Dr. Boschert, Associate Director of the Division of Comparative Medicine at Washington University in St. Louis, has since 1993 been the chief architect and webmaster of the NetVet Veterinary Resources and the Electronic Zoo Web sites. Not only does the second portion of this book have very extensive listings and descriptions of veterinary resources on the Web, but a diskette is included which contains more than 2000 resources which can be referenced on-line through Web-browsing software. Appendices also cover areas such as internet service providers, internet software, and internet search engines. In all, the book is extremely useful for anyone seeking contemporary information on veterinary topics. - G. H.

Wildlife Genetics International

Timberland Consultants Ltd. and the University of Alberta announce the opening of a commercial genetics laboratory specializing in the analysis of wildlife species. "We offer timely microsatellite analysis of animal tissue samples for a broad range of animal species. Costs depend on the number of loci and samples analyzed and the availability of microsatellites for a particular species. We will also offer the development and testing of microsatellites and multiplexing systems for species for which this technology does not currently exist. This development effort will be especially important to biologists analyzing large numbers of samples because of the potential to greatly reduce analysis costs. Further details about genetic analysis and the company can be found at: <>.

"Microsatellite fingerprinting or profiling can be used to: assign paternity, maternity, sibling relationship, species, identity, and sex to an individual; answer questions about movement of individuals within and among populations; and examine short- and long-term genetic variability. Most recently, biologists have used the DNA fingerprint as a tag to identify individuals and estimate population size using mark-recapture models (references furnished on request). This marriage of molecular techniques with traditional statistical methods and novel tissue capture techniques offers new possibilities for biologists to estimate population parameters.

"For inquiries contact: Garth Mowat, Fish & Wildlife Division, Timberland Consultants Ltd., Box 171, Nelson, BC, V1L 5P9, Canada [250-354-3880; fax: 250-352-3743; e-mail: [email protected]]; or Dr. Curtis Strobeck, Dept of Biology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, PA T6G 2E9, Canada [780-492-3515; e-mail: [email protected]].

Orangutan Cadaver Material Needed

Robin Crompton writes: "The Primate Evolution and Morphology Research Group at the University of Liverpool is carrying out a major research project on the origins and evolution of bipedal walking. Data we have gathered, both in the field and from observational studies of the mechanical forces exerted on the support during bipedal walking, suggests that the orangutan is a crucial living model for the evolution of bipedalism. A major innovative element of our research is the construction of computer models which can predict forces and costs of locomotion from a knowledge of motion and musculoskeletal geometry, and which, once verified for living species, can be used to predict likely costs in fossil species. We are currently building such a model for the orangutan, and to this end urgently need to acquire quantitative data on muscle geometry, such as lever arms about joints and physiological cross-sectional areas, data which do not exist in the literature. We should be most grateful for assistance in obtaining access to cadaveric material for dissection of the limbs, in the event of deaths from illness or injury. Ideally, individuals should be at least sub-adult (7 years) and have been reasonably active up until the time of death. Factors such as cause of death and method of preservation (preferably freezing) are important, but we would be extremely interested in hearing about any material which you might be willing to make available to us for dissection. In the case that a cadaver becomes available, we should be grateful if you would contact us as soon as possible, because speed is of the essence for optimal preservation. We would be only too happy to collect material ourselves, arrange for shipment, or to come to your site to perform the dissection, as you prefer, and are in a position to do so at very short notice. We should of course be happy to defray any expenses, meet any reasonable fees, and provide any assurances."

Contact Dr. Crompton at the University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England [e-mail: [email protected]].

Book Available

Books From Bree is offering the following: * Agassiz, Louis, & A. A. Gould, Principles of Zoology, touching the structure, development, distribution and natural arrangement of the races of animals, living and extinct, with numerous illustrations. Boston: Gould & Lincoln, 1847. Revised Edition. Part I. Comparative Physiology for the use of schools and colleges. "Very good condition. Publisher catalog at back of index." $25. Contact Shoshana Edwards [503-644-7218; fax: 503-641-2701; e-mail: [email protected]]; <>.

Nonhuman Primate Rotaviruses

Christopher Whittier wrote to CompMed: "I am conducting a study relating to diagnosing rotavirus(es) in great ape fecal samples and am looking for sources of positive (or potentially positive) fecal specimens. If anyone has access to a known positive NHP (any species) colony or fecal specimens or has access to suspect cases/colonies/samples, please contact me with information on how I might obtain such samples." Write or phone Christopher A. Whittier, DVM, Environmental Medicine Consortium and Dept of Clinical Sciences, College of Vet. Med., North Carolina State Univ., Box 8401, 4700 Hillsborough St, Raleigh, NC 27606 [919-513-6634; fax: 919-515-7510 or 513-6336; e-mail: [email protected]].

* * *

Announcements from Publications

New Editor for American Journal of Primatology

In April, the American Society of Primatologists' (ASP) Board of Directors recommended to Wiley-Liss, the publisher of the American Journal of Primatology, that Dr. Michael W. Andrews be appointed as the new editor of our journal. Wiley-Liss enthusiastically accepted the recommendation. Dr. Andrews replaces Dr. Mike Raleigh, who has served as AJP editor since 1992. Dr. Raleigh announced his intention to step down from his editorial post last year.

Dr. Andrews has clearly demonstrated his commitment to ASP, AJP, and primate research. He has served as a member and Chair of the ASP Publications Committee and as the Media Reviews Editor of AJP. He is an accomplished scientist with a strong record of peer-reviewed research in primate social development and in computerized assessment of primate cognition and motor performance.

The AJP Editor Search Committee, chaired by Dr. Jeff French and including Drs. Suzette Tardif and John Mitani, reflected the broad disciplinary views of anthropology, zoology, and psychology, and included an advisory group of current and/or former journal editors (Jeanne Altmann, Mike Raleigh, Chuck Snowdon).

The ASP Board of Directors believes that Dr. Andrews will be a worthy successor to Dr. Raleigh, whose long and excellent work as editor of AJP promoted its reputation as an outstanding interdisciplinary journal in primate biology and behavior. - Nancy Caine, ASP President

The new address for American Journal of Primatology manuscript submissions is: Michael W. Andrews., Editor, American Journal of Primatology, Department of Psychology, Southern Oregon University, 1250 Siskiyou Blvd., Ashland, OR 97520. Instructions to authors can be found at <>.

Veterinary Neurology and Neurosurgery On-line

An electronic journal for veterinary neurology and neurosurgery has been established. The journal, VNN, consists of the following sections: Critically reviewed scientific papers; Review articles; Continuing education papers; News, announcements, letters, etc.; and Other sections. Video sections are planned for future publication. The journal is available at <>.

"This is a non-profit endeavor, motivated solely by the desire to fill a perceived need. There are still glitches in it and undoubtedly it will be necessary to make many changes as experience is gained. Possibly it will fail but we feel it is more likely the journal will succeed and may even serve as a model for other specialties that wish to begin electronic publishing in the future.

"Scientific and review papers will be rigorously reviewed to ensure their quality. Toward that end, a Review Board has been recruited to maintain the quality of the material published. Review Board members are listed in the journal. Criteria for publication quality will be equal to or more rigorous than those for American Journal of Veterinary Research or the Journal of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (JACVIM). Please note that although the ACVIM has been informed of our actions in this venture, VNN has no official affiliation or association with it. Although Dr. Gregg Kortz is helping me in launching this project at this time, I am solely responsible for all aspects of this undertaking." - T. A. Holliday, DVM, PhD, Diplom. ACVIM, 1507 Alice St, Davis, CA 95616 [e-mail: [email protected]]

* * *

Positions Available

Postdoctoral Positions - Dartmouth College

Two postdoctoral positions are available immediately. Research interests include vision, audition, eye movements, multisensory processing, coordinate transformations, spatial memory, and learning. Techniques include recording, microstimulation, psychophysics, and computational modeling. Subjects are awake, behaving primates, including humans.

The overall theme of research in this laboratory is to investigate how the brain solves interesting computational problems. We work on problems in vision, audition, and eye movements. A current vein of research focuses on how the brain integrates visual and auditory information. This is the ultimate binding problem - neural visual and auditory signals are produced by different physical quantities in the world, and the brain's job is to determine if the two types of information are coming from a common source. We are investigating the neural mechanisms responsible for transforming auditory signals into the frame of reference used by the visual system. We are also interested in exploring the role of vision in calibrating sound localization.

Facilities are a fully equipped laboratory and office space in brand new Moore Hall at Dartmouth. Dartmouth is situated in scenic Hanover, New Hampshire, which offers affordable living, a top-flight medical school and hospital, as well as excellent access to skiing and hiking. Hanover is approximately two hours from Boston and three hours from Montreal. Salaries are highly competitive, and come from both federal and non-federal sources (Sloan, McKnight, Whitehall, John Merck Foundation, Office of Naval Research Young Investigator Program). Thus, both U.S. and non-U.S.-citizens are encouraged to apply.

The ideal candidate should have a strong desire to conduct primate research that fits with these general themes. Previous experience in these areas is a plus, but not necessary. Please send CV and names of references to Jennifer M. Groh, 6162 Moore Hall, Rm. 356, Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 [603-646-0241; fax: 603-646-1181; e-mail: [email protected]]. For more information, see <>.

Director, Lab Animal Resources, Univ. of Pittsburgh

The University of Pittsburgh is seeking a qualified, motivated and experienced candidate to serve as the Director of the Division of Laboratory Animal Resources (DLAR). The successful applicant will provide leadership as the Director of a very large, modern, diverse, research resource accredited by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International.

The Director will report to the Associate Vice Chancellor for Research, Health Sciences, who serves as the Institutional Official for the animal care and use program, and will work closely with the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC). The Director will oversee the animal care and use program and assure compliance with all federal, state, and local animal welfare statutes and regulations. Responsibilities include maintenance of accredidation standards, development and implementation of policies regarding the humane care and use of laboratory animals, space management, resource allocation, participation in the IACUC and the Health Sciences Animal Research Advisory Committee, and facilitation of research activities through the development of animal models and techniques.

The DLAR is situated in nine buildings with a total of 120,000 sq. ft of enclosed space and a daily census of approximately 15,000 animals. The facility includes four main sites, several peripheral sites including separate quarantine and holding facilities, two large nonhuman primate cores encompassing reproductive physiology and infectious diseases, and biosafety levels II, II+ and III containment facilities for rodents and primates. The DLAR has an operating budget of $2.5 million and supports approximately $40 million in animal-related research. There are currently approximately 950 IACUC-approved animal research studies underway at the University of Pittsburgh, which ranks 12th in the country in NIH funding. The University of Pittsburgh has several centers of excellence renowned for their research involving animals, including the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, the Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute, the Safar Center for Resuscitation, the Center for Age Research, and the Center for AIDS Research.

The DLAR has four full-time licensed veterinarians and a staff of 50 employees. The Director is directly responsible for the DLAR budget which is comprised of animal husbandry, veterinary services, surgical research services, and administrative components.

The successful candidate must possess excellent leadership ability, strong interpersonal and communication skills, and a track record of excellence as an administrator in laboratory animal science. Demonstrated ability to work effectively with faculty, DLAR staff, academic administrators and affiliated constituencies in a culturally diverse climate is essential. A comprehensive knowledge of federal regulations governing the care and use of animals in research and advanced state-of-the-art biomedical and biotechnical research methodologies is required.

Candidate must possess a graduate degree (MD, PhD, or DVM) from an accredited institution. We believe that the appropriate candidate should possess a DVM degree and either be ACLAM board-certified or eligible, although non-veterinarian professional candidates (MD/PhD) with the appropriate experience and required skills will be considered.

The University of Pittsburgh provides excellent tuition benefits for employees and dependents and an attractive medical benefits and retirement package. Salary is competitive and commensurate with qualifications and experience. The University of Pittsburgh is an Affirmative Action, Equal Opportunity Employer.

Applicants are invited to send a letter of interest, curriculum vitae, and the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of five references to Dr. Ronald B. Herberman, Chair, Search Committee, 3471 Fifth Ave, Suite 201, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 [e-mail: [email protected]]. Review of applications by the search committee will begin immediately and continue until a suitable candidate is identified and the position filled.

Assistant Scientist, Minnesota

The Diabetes Institute for Immunology and Transplantation at the University of Minnesota has an opening for an Assistant Scientist for the implementation of the Institute's islet transplant program. The following duties are involved: medical care for 10-20 macaques, training of macaques for daily blood glucose measurements, management of diabetic monkeys, and responsibility for maintenance and analysis of medical records. The ideal candidate will work independently with minimal supervision, will have a BS degree and/or LATG/LAT certification, good organizational and interpersonal skills, and three years' experience with nonhuman primates. The University provides medical and retirement benefits and opportunities for employee education, and is an EOE. Contact Nicole Kirchhof, DVM, 420 Delaware St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 [e-mail: [email protected]].

Evolutionary Animal Physiology, Indiana

The Department of Biology at Indiana University, Bloomington, is seeking to hire an evolutionary animal physiologist at any level from Assistant to Full Professor. The successful candidate will join a strong and growing group of biologists in our program in Evolution, Ecology and Behavior. Candidates should bring an evolutionary/comparative perspective to work in any area of animal physiology broadly defined, including but not limited to areas such as neurobiology (e.g., neuroethology/sensory processing, neuroendocrinology, cognitive ecology), immunology (e.g., host parasite interactions, development of immune competence), or behavioral development (e.g., development of sex differences in behavior). Junior candidates should send a curriculum vitae, a statement of research (past, present and future), and representative publications, and should arrange to have four letters of recommendation sent to: Dr. John Phillips, Chair, Evolutionary Animal Physiology Committee, Department of Biology, Indiana University, 1001 E. 3rd St, Bloomington, IN 47405-3700 [fax: 812-855-6705; e-mail: [email protected]]. Senior candidates should send a letter of interest and a curriculum vitae. Review of applications will begin October 1, 1999, and will continue until a suitable candidate is identified. For more information about our department, see <>. We are committed to increasing the representation of women, minorities and disabled individuals on our faculty and strongly encourage applications from such candidates. We also welcome inquiries from two-career couples. - From ABSnet V5 #19

* * *

Research and Educational Opportunities

Post-Doc, Laboratory Animal Medicine

The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) Department of Animal Resources invites applications for a post-doctoral veterinary training position in laboratory animal medicine. Review of applications will begin immediately and will continue until the position is filled, with the earliest planned start to be July 1, 2000. The three-year program is designed to support preparation toward ACLAM board certification, to provide a good foundation for ability to manage a program of laboratory animal care and research support, and to develop and/or increase research aptitude. Areas of training include laboratory animal clinical medicine, comparative pathology, methods and practice of biomedical research, and animal resource and facilities management. The position furnishes opportunities to work with a wide variety of animal species in an accredited, respected animal care and use program. It also includes opportunities to work with established research scientists in a sophisticated research environment to attain the necessary skills to plan and conduct research and to contribute to the scientific literature.

Candidates for this position should have a DVM/VMD or equivalent degree. The starting salary is $28,600 plus benefits. For further information and a program brochure, contact Dr. Kent Osborn. Interested applicants should forward a curriculum vitae, statement of goals and interests, and three letters of recommendation to Dr. Kent Osborn, Dept of Animal Resources, MB-18, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037. The Scripps Research Institute is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer.

Research Opportunity at LABS of Virginia, Inc.

LABS of Virginia, Inc. is currently accepting proposals for funded research and contract projects utilizing nonhuman primates as subjects. Animals available for study include a large free-ranging population of rhesus macaques, and numerous captive groups of rhesus macaques, pig-tailed macaques, crab-eating macaques, and capuchin monkeys. Housing and quarantine facilities for research animals are also available. Currently funded projects include studies on the relationship between social competency and CSF serotonin in free-ranging macaques, interspecific comparison of behavioral and physiological factors underlying aggression in captive primates, and comparative primate cognition including tool-use, symbolic processing, and neurobehavioral laterality. Proposals covering other topic areas are welcome and encouraged. An on-site scientist-in-charge and research technicians are available for assistance in all phases of research, including designing experiments, collecting and analyzing data, and preparing materials for presentation and publication. LABS of Virginia, Inc. is an AALAC International-accredited institution. For further information, contact Dr. Greg Westergaard, Head, Div. of Research, LABS of Virginia, Inc., 95 Castle Hall Rd, P.O. Box 557, Yemassee, SC 29945 [e-mail: [email protected]]. - Posted to Primate-Science June 18, 1999

Regional Information Technology Training

Satellife (USA) and Satellife Healthnet Kenya are pleased to announce the opening of the Regional Information Technology Training Center (RITTC) in Nairobi, Kenya. The RITTC will provide training in the use of basic information technology, including e-mail, CD-ROM, and World Wide Web/Internet technology, to health professionals, with special emphasis on their particular information needs.

Thanks to a grant from the World Bank's infoDev initiative, Satellife (USA) and Satellife Healthnet Kenya are able to offer full scholarships, including tuition, room and board, and instructional materials to seventy health professionals from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda during the 1999-2000 academic year. A limited number of travel scholarships will also be available.

This initial round of courses is being conducted as a pilot project. As such, the number of participants and the geographic scope of the project will be limited for the 1999-2000 academic year. Future courses, admissions policies, tuition rates, and site rental opportunities will be announced at a later date.

Two courses will be offered in 1999-2000:
* Information Technology (IT) Basics Course: Participants will receive training in the use of e-mail, CD-ROM, and World Wide Web/Internet technology. Emphasis will be placed on the cost-effective use of IT and the particular information needs of the health community. Classes will be taught in English. This three-day course will be offered seven times during the 1999-2000 academic year:
* Information Technology (IT) Trainers' Course: This three-day course will be open to participants who have successfully completed the IT Basics Course and wish to provide introductory- evel training to co-workers at their home institutions. Participants will learn basic training techniques and strategies for promoting the use of IT in their workplaces. Classes will be taught in English. Two sessions will be offered in June, 2000. Application materials will be made available following the completion of the IT Basics Course.

Nationals of Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda working in any aspect of medicine or public health are welcome to apply, including those employed by hospitals and other health facilities, ministries of health, medical libraries, non-governmental organizations, medical schools, and research centers.

Applicants must be novice users of information technology who currently have or will soon have access to e-mail, CD-ROM, and/or the World Wide Web/Internet at home or work. Applicants must also have basic typing skills and provide a letter of support from their supervisor at place of employment.

To receive an application electronically, send a blank e-mail message to: <[email protected]>. For further information, to receive a Word version of the application via e-mail, or to receive a copy of the application via fax or regular mail, please contact Satellife Healthnet Kenya, Director, infoDev Project, Kenyatta National Hospital Training Centre, Rahimtullah Wing, 1st Floor, Hospital Rd, Off Ngong Rd, P.O. Box 29750, Nairobi, Kenya [+254-2-724543 or 714757; fax: +254-2-724590; e-mail: [email protected]]; or Satellife (USA), Director of Programs, 30 California St, Watertown, MA 02472 [617-926-9400; fax: 617-926-1212; e-mail: [email protected]]. - From the Tropical Disease Research-Scientists list, August 30, 1999

Primate Training and Enrichment Workshops

The Department of Veterinary Sciences (DVS) of the The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Active Environments, and Zoo Atlanta are once again offering Primate Training and Enrichment Workshops for caregivers, keepers, supervisors, veterinarians, and investigators working with nonhuman primates.

The goals of the four-day workshop are to provide practical solutions to participants' current primate management problems by: * enhancing participants' abilities to apply the concepts of natural primate behavior to the implementation of environmental enrichment * defining the terminology of operant conditioning * explaining a variety of environmental enrichment and training options currently in use * familiarizing participants with the application of training techniques to a variety of situations * familiarizing participants with informational resources concerning training and environmental enrichment * improving participants' abilities to design and evaluate enrichment and training strategies * enhancing participants' abilities to assess behavioral problems and generate training and/or enrichment solutions.

The Primate Training and Enrichment Workshop is designed to encourage interaction and cooperation among participants from the laboratory and zoological communities. Past workshops have been extremely successful in this regard, highlighting many similarities in problems encountered in laboratories and at zoological parks.

Workshops are held at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Veterinary Sciences' (DVS) facility in Bastrop, Texas. The DVS houses a chimpanzee colony of over 150 individuals living in a variety of social group sizes. In addition, a colony of over 600 specific pathogen-free rhesus monkeys are socially housed on site. Both colonies have ongoing enrichment and training programs.

The workshop will begin at 9:00 am on Wednesday, November 17, 1999, and will end with a banquet/party on the evening of Saturday, November 20, 1999. A registration fee of $550.00 per participant includes all workshop materials, all meals, motel accommodations for five nights (Tues. through Sat., double occupancy), and shuttle service between the Austin airport, the motel, and the DVS.

Registration will be limited to 30 participants. A second workshop is tentatively scheduled for February 16-19, 2000.

Workshop instructors include: Mollie Bloomsmith, (Zoo Atlanta and Yerkes RPRC), Gail Laule, (Active Environments), Steve Schapiro, (UTMDACC), and Adam Stone (Active Environments). For additional information contact: Steve Schapiro, Dept of Vet. Sciences, UTMDACC, Rt. 2, Box 151-B1, Bastrop, TX 78602 [512-321-3991; fax: 512-332-5208; e-mail: [email protected]].

Postdoctoral Training Program, Conservation

The Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) seeks a postdoctoral candidate to work with one or more members of its staff for one year beginning March, 2000. This position, offered under the auspices of the New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology (NYCEP), a graduate training program in all aspects of the behavioral and evolutionary biology of primates, is funded by an NSF Research Training Grant. The NYCEP faculty includes 31 researchers drawn from WCS, the American Museum of Natural History, City University of New York, Columbia University, and New York University. WCS, dedicated to preserving the earth's wildlife and wildlands, operates an international conservation program with over 250 field projects in 52 countries, as well as four conservation parks (including the Bronx Zoo) with a collection of over 30 primate species, in New York City. Applications are encouraged from those interested in issues of primate conservation, both in the field and captivity. The position will be located, for at least six months of the year, in New York to allow interaction with WCS staff (Robert Lee, Colleen McCann, Andrew Plumptre, and John Robinson) and with NYCEP faculty and students. Applications should include a full curriculum vitae, names of three references (with telephone numbers), and a one-page statement of proposed research for the year. NSF limits eligibility to U.S. citizens, nationals and permanent residents; minority candidates are especially encouraged to apply. Dissertation must be completed by the start date. Applications must be postmarked by December 31, 1999. Send applications to Dr. C. McCann, Chair Search Committee, Mammal Department, WCS, Bronx, NY 10460. For additional information about the program or related questions contact Dr. McCann <[email protected]>. WCS & NYCEP are Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employers.

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Volunteer Opportunities

Research Assistant, Peru

Francis Bossuyt, a PhD candidate at U.C.-Davis, is looking for a Research Assistant for a project on "Natal Dispersal and Reproductive Strategies in the Monogamous Titi Monkey, Callicebus moloch, in Manu National Park, Peru." The tasks are primarily to: * Conduct all-day follows on the monkeys to help me * keep track of monkeys while I collect data, * collect data on inter-animal distances, * mark trees used by monkeys to feed, sleep, and rest; * maintain the habituation of groups by contacting groups on your own using radio telemetry; * census habitats used and not used by Callicebus monkeys, which includes * collect leaf samples, * measure tree height, trunk and crown diameter, * identify plants; * help me capture, mark, and release monkeys.

The work is demanding and rigorous. We will wake up at 4:30 AM and often be out in the field for 12 hours a day. Callicebus monkeys like dense vegetation, bamboo, and swamps, and yes, we will be following them through these areas. There are multitudes of irritating insects (numerous mosquitos), we will occasionally run into venomous snakes, the climate is hot and humid (you will sweat), and we will occasionally work in the rain. If you are unable to handle these conditions you will not have fun and probably will be of little help to the project. I will give preference to people who have worked in tropical environments before or have had demanding outdoor-camping experiences. The field station is extremely remote and has few accommodations. We will be sleeping in tents. The only communication with the outside world will be via short-wave radio.

I am looking for assistants who have, or are currently working toward, an undergraduate degree in Biology, Ecology, Anthropology, or Psychology. My project focuses on interactions between individuals within and among groups that cause subadults to leave their natal groups. I am also interested in how recently dispersed subadults form groups and establish territories of their own. The project also focuses on behaviors associated with reproduction and parental care in Callicebus monkeys. I would like this experience to be an internship/apprenticeship for people who are planning to pursue a career in science. I like to work with people who are hard working and independent. You will be spending a considerable amount of time on your own in the field. I like assistants who can tackle unforeseen problems and unpredictable situations based on how they have observed me handle similar situations.

There will be no salary. Meals, once in the field, will be provided, but other expenses, including travel to and within Peru, plus a site fee of $9/day, are the responsibility of the Assistant. We expect a commitment of at least a three months between January 15 and December 15, 2000.

Please send a CV that includes: * the name of your undergraduate school, * a list of undergraduate courses you have taken in Biol/Ecol/Anth/Psych, * a brief description of previous fieldwork experiences or work-related experiences in Biol/Ecol/Anth/Psych, * a brief description of any outdoor camping experiences, * the names and e-mail addresses of three references (preferably professors or supervisors) who would be willing to provide information about your work habits and character over e-mail, and * information on how I can contact you in mid-December of 1999 (an e-mail address would suffice). Also, please let me know the amount of time you would like to commit to the project and the specific dates you wish to work. Send your application to Francis Bossuyt, Dept of Anthropology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616 [e-mail: [email protected]], by December 15, 1999.

I will be in the field until mid-December of 1999, after which I will review your CV's and contact your references. I will then contact you to let you know if I am interested in having you join the project.

Congo Chimp Project

Project H.E.L.P. (Habitat Ecologique & Liberté des Primates) in the Conkouati Reserve, Republique of Congo, is looking for volunteers to help in its chimpanzee sanctuary and release project.

Volunteers are needed to help with: * feeding and monitoring the behavior and health of the chimpanzees in the sanctuary (they presently live freely on large islands in the reserve); * developing and maintaining a garden of food crops for the chimpanzees; * educating and raising consciousness about the project with the local population; * monitoring the behavior, movement, feeding, etc., of the released chimpanzees; * collecting data on the native fauna and flora in the release site; * administration.

Volunteers are welcome to come to the project as part of their studies or simply as volunteers, but they must normally commit to staying for at least three months unless specifically arranged. Vacancies exist now and throughout the year.

Accommodation is free of charge. In both the sanctuary and the release site there are wooden cabins with basic amenities provided on a shared basis. However volunteers must make a contribution of approximately £200 per month, which will cover basic expenses at the project (including food, local travel, gas, cleaning products, etc.). If by special arrangement your stay is shorter than one month, you will be expected to contribute £400 per month, as your stay is not long enough to contribute fully to the project.

Volunteers are expected to pay for their own flight and medical insurance, and should bring their own pocket money (approximately £30 per month). Volunteers are expected to assist in keeping the camp clean and other communal tasks necessary to maintain the project.

Volunteers must note that at present there exists no means of communication (neither telephone nor radio) from the sanctuary or release site. The sites are approximately seven hours' drive from Pointe-Noire and a vehicle normally arrives once every two weeks to deliver supplies.

For further information please contact Sophie Descamps, Relais HELP Congo France, Les Sophoras, 3470 Montpellier, France [Tel/Fax: 04 67 47 08 04; Mobile: 06 14 51 05 30; e-mail: [email protected]]; or see <>. - Posted to primfocus by Shirley McGreal, 18 Dec 1998

Volunteer Manager for Chimpanzee Sanctuary

Project Primate is looking for a volunteer manager for a chimpanzee sanctuary in Guinea (West Africa) starting in April or May, 2000. The volunteer will be living on site at the center which is in a National Park, about a 10-hour drive from the capital city, Conakry. The volunteer will be responsible for supervising the keepers, following veterinary protocols, and supervising the well-being of the 24 chimpanzees living at the center. The volunteer will also represent Project Primate in all administrative and official matters, and will be working in close collaboration with the Guinean government for local fundraising. This position will give lots of freedom and responsibility to the volunteer, since he or she will be the only expatriate at the site. The Director will come and go, since she lives in Cameroon.

The volunteer must be fluent in French, have some experience with chimpanzees, and some experience in Africa. Lodging on site will be provided, but no other expenses will be covered. The volunteer is welcome to apply for a grant for self-support. In the future, if long-term funding is secured, the volunteer's basic living expenses will be paid. A negative TB test is required. A minimum stay of three months is required, but a longer-term commitment will be welcome.

Contact Estelle Raballand, Project Primate, P.O Box 5216, Chapel Hill, NC 27514-5002 [237-21-78-07 (Cameroon); fax: 237-20-92-24; e-mail: [email protected]].

Primate Care Volunteer, Thailand

The Highland Farm and Gibbon Sanctuary, in northwestern Thailand, is looking for a volunteer primate care-giver. The volunteer will be living on site at the Sanctuary, which is a 45-minute drive from Mae Sot (about six hours outside of Bangkok), and will assist the directors in all aspects of sanctuary management, which could include constructing cages, chopping food, cleaning cages, guiding visitors, making educational presentations at schools, fund-raising, accompanying directors to remote locations to pick up gibbons in crisis, and other varied tasks.

Virtually all of our arriving gibbons come as basket cases, afraid, abused, injured, or blind - some missing limbs. It takes about six months of love, attention, their own home, and good food for them to adjust. We have 21 now. None have ever lived in the wild, nor lived with other apes.

The ideal candidate would have a BA in wildlife biology, zoological studies, or (physical) anthropology, and some hands-on experience with primates in a captive situation. Previous travel in Asia would also be advantageous. Applications from other, less experienced volunteers are also welcome, providing they have a strong desire to learn and are dedicated to primate conservation. Volunteers may be from age 21 to 80, of either sex.

We usually ask all volunteers to pay US$600 per month, which covers accommodations, food, maid, laundry, two mountain field trips, and local transport. Fees are reduced for stays beyond four months. We are self-supporting, have no sponsors, and not linked formally to any organization. We regret the fee, but after seven years on our own, with a growing population, it's absolutely necessary. One hundred percent of the fee is used for the animals and food. There are no salaries, no overhead, and no administration costs. We'll consider volunteers for a period as short as two months but believe serious involvement calls for six-month-plus residency.

Highland Farm does not have a phone - communication needs are taken care of during twice weekly trips into Mae Sot. For more information, contact Pharanee and Bill Deters, P.O. Box 24, A. Mae Sot, Tak, Thailand [e-mail: [email protected]]; or see <>.

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Grants Available

AIDS-Associated Opportunistic Infections

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) has issued a Program Announcement (PA) to encourage research grant applications aimed at novel approaches to discovery and preclinical development of therapeutic agents against opportunistic infections (OIs) in people with AIDS. The intent of this PA is to seek investigator-initiated grant applications that involve creative and original preclinical research utilizing state-of-the-art technologies necessary to propel advances in new or improved therapies.

Areas of study include but are not restricted to the following: * discovery of efficacious new therapeutic agents (chemo- or immuno-based therapeutics) for treatment of AIDS-associated OIs; * identification of molecular targets for therapeutic agents utilizing state-of-the-art molecular genetic technology; * development of improved delivery systems for therapeutic agents (improved bioavailability, pharmacokinetics); and * development of improved in vitro (cell culture) and in vivo (animal model) systems for drug evaluations.

Address inquiries to Chris Lambros, Div. of AIDS, NIAID, 6003 Executive Blvd, Rm 2C40, MSC 7620, Bethesda, MD 20892-7620 [301-435-3769; fax: 301-402-3171; e-mail: [email protected]]. Application receipt dates are January 2, May 1, and September 1.

NICHD Small Grants Program

The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) announces the continuation, with modifications, of its Small Grants Program, first published in February, 1996. The program will continue to provide limited financial support for new biomedical and behavioral research projects relevant to the NICHD mission in population science; reproductive science; pregnancy and birth; human growth and nutrition; normal and atypical development; pediatric, adolescent and maternal HIV/AIDS; genetics and teratology; developmental biology; and medical rehabilitation research.

The NICHD Small Grant (R03) Program is designed to provide support for projects requiring minimal funding for limited periods of time. Proposed research must be relevant to the mission of the Institute as represented by its program areas: * Center for Population Research: Contraceptive research; Demographic and behavioral science; Reproductive sciences. * Center for Research for Mothers and Children: Child development and behavior; Developmental biology, genetics and teratology; Endocrinology, nutrition and growth; Mental retardation and developmental disabilities; Pediatric, adolescent and maternal AIDS; Pregnancy and perinatology. * National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research: Behavioral sciences and rehabilitation engineering; Biological sciences; Clinical practices.

Examples of the types of projects suited to the R03 mechanism include: * Pilot or feasibility studies * Innovative research * Development of research methodology * Applied research * High risk/high payoff studies * Development of new research technology * Reanalysis of existing data. The NICHD is particularly interested in supporting small grants submitted by investigators who have never before been Principal Investigator on an NIH research grant.

For inquiries, complete contact information is at: <>.

Resources for Scientists Outside NCI Cancer Centers

Successful cancer research depends on the availability of and access to shared resources. These include, but are not limited to, complex technologies, specialized databases, instrumentation facilities, human tissue specimens, and animal models. These high-cost fundamental infrastructure needs can rarely be justified in NIH individual research project grant applications. Support for shared resources is usually provided to: 1) members of National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported Cancer Centers, where shared resources benefit a wide range of basic, clinical, prevention, and control research; 2) investigators in large multi-project program grants; and 3) groups that justify their need for sophisticated equipment to the National Center for Research Resources at the NIH. These opportunities are limited and unavailable to approximately half of the NCI-supported investigators, particularly those at institutions without NCI-funded Cancer Centers.

The objective of this PA is to provide institutions that do not have NCI-funded Cancer Centers or planning grants with additional shared resource support.

Applications are sought to establish resources to facilitate cancer research. Applications for resources under this PA must define a group of six or more NCI-funded investigators located at the applicant institution. The need for the resource by the defined group of funded investigators must be clearly justified, the six or more users identified, and their NCI funding documented in the application. The resource should be made available to other investigators at the applicant institution and may be made available to other users beyond the applicant institution or to the entire research community. The creation of a resource advisory group is strongly encouraged. Applicants should clearly document the procedures that they will put in place to determine who may have access to products or services from the proposed resource. To the extent possible, the expected utilization of the resource should be estimated and the basis for those estimates provided in the application.

Appropriate resources include, but are not limited to the following: * Tissue and data resources * Unique database resources supporting research activities * Agent development * Assay support for research activities * Animal models for diagnostic or therapeutic applications * Technology or instrumentation development.

Prospective applicants are asked to submit, by October 21, 1999, a letter of intent. Although this is not required, is not binding, and does not enter into the review of a subsequent application, the information that it contains allows NCI staff to estimate the potential review workload and avoid conflict of interest in the review.

Address the letter of intent, and any inquiries, to Roger L. Aamodt, Div.of Cancer Treatment & Diagnosis, NCI, 6130 Executive Blvd, Rm 700, Bethesda, MD 20892-7399 [301-496-7147; fax: 301-402-7819; e-mail: [email protected]]. Application receipt date is November 18, 1999.

Assay For Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), in collaboration with The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), NIH, announces the availability of a Broad Agency Announcement to support the development and validation of a reliable, practical and rapid assay for the sporadic, genetic, and iatrogenic forms of the infectious agent of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), in tissues or body fluids such as blood and cerebral spinal fluid. The availability of such an assay would be of clinical importance to permit monitoring for the presence of infectivity in humans thereby ensuring the integrity of the donor blood supply as well as facilitating the early clinical diagnosis of CJD. Early detection and monitoring of asymptomatic individuals carrying mutations on the prion protein gene would permit efforts to prevent the disease and also aid in the development of therapeutic regimens. The existence of an assay would also be of research importance because it could permit epidemiological study of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and possibly permit identification of other presently unrecognized variants, and could also permit study of the factors responsible for transmission of prion disease both within and between species.

The assay should permit detection of abnormal isoforms of the prion protein or of suitable surrogate markers and should be capable of detecting and distinguishing between sporadic and new variant CJD. In addition the assay should be validated as a measure of infectivity by the use of rodent and/or small primate animal models. The assay should be reliable, rapid, and adaptable to clinicopathological laboratories as well as research laboratories.

Offerors are expected to have personnel resources adequate to conduct the proposed research with expertise in * prion and/or surrogate marker research, * infectious and/or neurodegenerative disorders of the nervous system, * development and use of animal models of prion disease, * development and use of bioassays of blood and body fluids in the diagnosis of infectious diseases, and * evalu-ation of biohazards associated with prion and/or surrogate marker disease research and assay development. Prospective offerors are also expected to have access to facilities adequate to conduct the research such as: facilities for use of live vertebrate animals, and appropriate barrier containment facilities for working with infectious agents.

For more information, contact Kirkland L. Davis, Contracting Officer, Contracts Management Branch, NINDS, Neuroscience Center, Room 3287, 6001 Executive Boulevard, MSC 9531, Bethesda, MD 20892-9531 [301-496-1813; fax: 301-402-4225; e-mail: [email protected]]; <>. Proposals will be due on or about January 16, 2000.

The Aging Senses

The National Institute on Aging (NIA), in collaboration with the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDKD), the National Eye Institute (NEI), and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), invites grant applications in the area of age-related changes in multiple sensory systems. Although age-related changes in single sensory systems have been investigated in human and animal studies using both epidemiological and psychophysical approaches, only a few studies have addressed interactions or commonalities among sensory systems.

Specific examples of research topics appropriate for inclusion in applications responsive to this announcement include, but are not limited to, the following: * Laboratory-based studies in which more than one sensory modality is studied in a given group of subjects * Animal models of age-related multiple sensory loss * Studies of commonalities in basic mechanisms underlying physiological, biochemical, cellular or molecular age-related changes in multiple sensory systems * Investigations of mechanisms whereby age-related changes in one sensory system can be compensated by functional or structural changes in a different sensory system * Human and animal age-related studies using electrophysiological or neuroimaging techniques in multiple sensory regions of the brain or in brain areas that are responsive to multiple sensory inputs * Psychophysical studies to determine the underlying mechanisms whereby given stimulus parameters, e.g., temporal and spatial characteristics, show age-related similarities in multiple systems * Investigations of age-related changes in signal transduction, which could underlie common functions in multiple sensory systems.

Direct inquiries to: Judith A. Finkelstein, Neuroscience & Neuropsychology of Aging, NIA, 7201 Wisconsin Ave, Suite 3C307, MSC 9205, Bethesda, MD 20892-9205 [301-496-9350; fax: 301-496-1494; e-mail: [email protected]]; Barbara Linder, Div. of Diabetes, Endocrinology & Metabolic Diseases, NIDDKD, 45 Center Dr., MSC 660, Bethesda, MD 20892-660 [301-594-0021; fax: 301-480-3503; e-mail: [email protected]]; Michael D. Oberdorfer, Strabismus, Amblyopia, & Visual Processing Program, and Visual Impairment & Its Rehabilitation Program, NEI, 6120 Executive Blvd, Suite 350, MSC 7164, Bethesda, MD 20892-7164 [301) 496-5301; e-mail: [email protected]]; or William Heetderks, Div. of Stroke, Trauma, & Neurodegenerative Disorders, NINDS, Federal Bldg, Rm 8A13, Bethesda, MD 20892-9155 [301-496-1447; fax: 301-402-1501; e-mail: [email protected]].

NIMH Small Grants Program

The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Small Grants Program provides research support of up to $50,000 per year (direct costs) for up to two years for new research projects in areas of high relevance to the mission of the NIMH. Small Grants are short-term awards designed to answer specific and targeted research questions. Both new and more experienced investigators are encouraged to apply for grants under this announcement. Newer investigators may use the award to generate new or additional preliminary data for future research grants (e.g. R01). More experienced investigators must justify support under this mechanism as either representing new research directions for the investigator or to develop and test new methodology. The award is also intended to support investigators at institutions that do not have extensive research resources. Small Grants are not renewable.

Priority will be given to applications in any of the following four categories: * Newer, less experienced investigators * Investigators at institutions without well-developed research traditions and resources * More experienced investigators, for exploratory studies that represent a significant change in research direction for them * More experienced investigators, for developing and testing new methods or techniques.

Applications may be made for support of research in any scientific area relevant to mental health (see <> for program areas supported by NIMH). While applications may involve a wide variety of biomedical, behavioral, or clinical disciplines, relevance to the mission of the NIMH must be clear. Applications for studies outside these areas will be returned without review.

Applicants are strongly encouraged to contact NIMH staff for technical assistance and information concerning current program priorities before applying for an award.

For overall NIMH policy with regard to this initiative, contact: Henry Khachaturian, Office of Science Policy & Program Planning, NIMH, 6001 Executive Blvd, Rm 8208, MSC 9667, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-443-4335; fax: 301-443-3225; e-mail: [email protected]]. For specific Division/Office-level program interests, contact: Della Hann, Div. of Mental Disorders, Behavioral Research & AIDS, NIMH, 6001 Executive Blvd, Rm 6217, MSC 9621, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-443-9700; fax: 301-480-6000; e-mail: [email protected]]; or Walter L. Goldschmidts, Div. of Neuroscience & Basic Behavioral Science, NIMH, 6001 Executive Blvd, Rm 7196, MSC 9645, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-443-3563; fax: 301-443-1731; e-mail: [email protected]]. Application receipt dates are February, June, and October 1 of any year.

Hepatitis C Infection and Alcoholic Liver Disease

The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) invites basic and clinical research grant applications that focus on the synergistic interactions between alcohol consumption and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection to produce chronic liver disease.

Development of animal models and in vitro experimental systems to study the interactive effects of alcohol exposure and HCV pathogenesis are highly encouraged. Specifically, studies are sought that address: * Ethanol and viral replication * Alcohol consumption and the development of viral quasispecies or subtypes * Ethanol-induced oxidative stress and changes in liver cell metabolism and HCV progression * Ethanol-induced immunosuppression and HCV progression * Viral levels, alcohol intake and hepatocellular carcinoma * Viral levels, pathogenesis, alcohol intake and outcome measures * Cofactors such as iron inducing the progression of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and HCV * Stellate cell activation in ALD and HCV * Treatment of viral hepatitis and/or alcoholism and progression of liver disease * Co-infection with other viruses such as hepatitis G virus or human immunodeficiency virus.

Direct inquiries to Thomas F. Kresina, Div. of Basic Research, NIAAA, 6000 Executive Blvd, Suite 402, Bethesda, MD 20892-7003 [301-443-6537; fax: 301-594-0673; e-mail: [email protected]]. The application receipt date is December 22, 1999.

* * *

Meeting Announcements

Primates for Primates will hold a conference at the New South Wales, Australia, Parliament house on November 11, 1999. The aim of the conference is to look at current guidelines and discuss ways in which conditions can be improved for primates in laboratories, private hands and zoos. Speakers will include Shirley McGreal, Colin Groves, Arnold Chamove, and Graeme Crook. It is envisioned that the conclusions reached at this conference will generate a more informed and enlightened approach to the care of all nonhuman primates and lead to changes in existing government policies and regulations. The conference will be of interest to primatologists, students, laboratory workers, zookeepers, private owners of primates, government departments, animal rights and welfare supporters, and the general public. For information, or to enroll for the conference (cost: Australian $130), contact Lynette Shanley, Primates for Primates, P.O. Box 60, Portland NSW 2847 Australia [02 63554026; fax: 61 2 63554026; e-mail [email protected]].

The Second Electronic Media Conference will be held February 9-11, 2000, in Orlando, Florida, sponsored by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, the Laboratory Animal Management Association, the Laboratory Animal Welfare Training Exchange, NIH's Office for Protection from Research Risks, the Univ. of Florida in Gainesville, the Univ. of Central Florida in Orlando, the Florida Agricultural & Mechanical Univ., in Tallahassee, and the Univ. of Miami. The program and more information are available at <>. This conference focuses on the use of electronic media in the field of laboratory animal science. It is open to institutional administrators, members of IACUCs, laboratory animal veterinarians, investigators, researchers, regulatory personnel, and other personnel who are involved with institutional animal care and use programs.

The American Association of Physical Anthropologists will hold its 69th annual meeting on April 12-15, 2000, at the Adam's Mark Hotel on the Riverwalk in San Antonio, Texas. The abstract deadline is September 15, 1999. For program information, contact Mark Teaford, Dept of Cell Biology & Anatomy, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD 21205 [410-955-7034; fax: 410-955-4129; e-mail: [email protected]]. For information about local arrangements, contact Sarah Williams-Blangero, Dept of Genetics, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, P.O. Box 760549, San Antonio, TX 78245-0549 [210-258-9434; fax: 210-670-3317; e-mail: [email protected]].

Brookfield Zoo will host an international conference, The Apes: Challenges for the Twenty-first Century, May 10-13, 2000. This conference will focus on the apes of the world and will bring together researchers, zoo personnel, and field biologists to share and disseminate the most current information on husbandry, conservation, and emergent issues pertaining to captive and wild populations of apes. Keynote speakers include David Chivers, Carel van Schaik, Gay Reinartz, Claudia Olejniczak, and Toshisada Nishida. The plenary speaker will be Russell Mittermeier, president of Conservation International. For information on registration and submission of abstracts, contact the Brookfield Zoo Ape Conference Planning Committee, Brookfield, IL 60513 [708-485-0263 (ext. 604); fax: 708-485-3140; e-mail: [email protected]].

The American Society of Primatologists will hold its 2000 meeting at the Regal Harvest House, Boulder, Colorado. The dates are Wednesday, June 21, 2000 (business meetings, special workshops) through Saturday, June 24, 2000 (banquet that evening). For information about the Boulder area, see <[email protected]>.

Measuring Behavior 2000, the 3rd International Conference on Methods and Techniques in Behavioral Research, will be held in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, August 15-18, 2000. The conference host will be Prof. Dr. Alexander Cools of the University of Nijmegen. Like the previous meetings, Measuring Behavior 2000 will offer oral papers; poster presentations; technical demonstrations; training sessions; user meetings; scientific tours; an exhibition of scientific books, instruments and software; and a social program.

For more information, contact Measuring Behavior 2000, P.O. Box 268, 6700 AG Wageningen, The Netherlands [+31-317-497677; fax: +31-317-424496; e-mail: [email protected]]; or see <>. To propose a symposium or other conference activity, contact Wineke Schoo [e-mail: [email protected]]. The proceedings of the 1998 Conference are available at <>.

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News Briefs

Two Primate Centers Appoint New Directors

Dr. Ronald Desrosiers, Professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics at Harvard Medical School in Boston, and Dr. Joseph Kemnitz, Professor of Physiology at the University of Wisconsin Medical School in Madison, have been named directors of the NCRR-supported Regional Primate Research Centers (RPRCs) at their respective institutions.

For the past 15 years, Dr. Desrosiers has served as chairman of the Microbiology Division of the New England RPRC in Southborough, Massachusetts, and in 1988 he was named coordinator of the Center's AIDS unit. A recognized leader in the field of AIDS research, Dr. Desrosiers was among the scientists who initially identified and characterized the simian immunodeficiency virus, SIV, in the mid-1980s. He has since demonstrated that live attenuated SIV vaccines can protect rhesus monkeys against AIDS-like disease, and his further evaluations of genetically modified SIV provided the impetus for current human trials of live attenuated HIV vaccines.

Dr. Kemnitz, whose research focuses on nutrition and metabolic function in nonhuman primates, has served as interim director of the Wisconsin RPRC since 1996, overseeing the activities of seven research groups and seven research support groups. Dr. Kemnitz joined the Center's staff in 1977 as a research associate and by 1991 had been named senior scientist. For more than a decade he has served as a project leader in a study to explore the beneficial effects of caloric restriction on aging in rhesus monkeys. - From the NCRR Reporter, Summer, 1999

California Congressman Brown Dies

Congressman George E. Brown (D-CA), in his 18th term and the oldest member of the U.S. House of Representatives, died July 15 at the age of 79 in Washington, DC. His death, attributed to "complications arising from an infection after cardiac surgery," was announced from the floor of the House on Friday, July 16, which then adjourned as a mark of respect. "Our nation has lost a good man and an irreplaceable voice for science and justice," President Clinton said in a statement. Democratic leader Richard Gephardt (D-MO) called Brown "a constant friend to all of us on both sides of the aisle."

A former Chair of the House Science Committee and a member of the House Agriculture Committee, Brown is probably best remembered by National Association for Biomedical Research (NABR) members for his involvement with animal welfare legislation, including his work on the 1985 Animal Welfare Act amendments, and his support of so-called "pet protection" bills. Although NABR did not always agree with his positions, Rep. Brown was accessible and interested in working with the scientific community as evidenced by his remarks at a 1985 NABR conference. "George was a forceful and tireless advocate for science. Whether it was protecting a science account from attack or pushing the newest area of research, George was a true friend to the science community," said current Chair of the House Science Committee, Representative James Sensenbrenner (R-WI), who worked closely with Brown. - From the NABR Update, July 19, 1999, 20[17]

Coulston Foundation Settles AWA Charges

Washington, Sept 1, 1999 - The U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Coulston Foundation, a registered research facility in Alamogordo, New Mexico, have agreed to a consent decision and order regarding violations of the Animal Welfare Act.

Michael V. Dunn, Under Secretary for Marketing and Regulatory Programs, said, "By the first of the year, Coulston will transfer 30 chimps. By January 1, 2001, they will place 120 more. And, at the start of 2002, Coulston will divest itself of an additional 150 for a total of 300 ... This agreement will help to ensure that all of the approximately 650 chimps currently housed at the Coulston Foundation are provided quality care well into the next century."

In addition to divesting itself of 300 chimps, the Coulston Foundation must arrange for a USDA-approved external review team to examine their entire animal program. The Coulston Foundation will then implement all reasonable recommendations of the review team.

Also, the Foundation will be required to employ an adequate number of qualified professional veterinary staff as determined by USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). The Foundation can no longer breed chimpanzees without identifying to APHIS long-term funding sources, and the facility cannot acquire any new chimps without specific written approval by APHIS. - From an APHIS press release, the complete text of which is at <>

Proposed Baboon Abbatoir Quashed

Johannesburg, South Africa - The Department of Agriculture on Saturday effectively put the brakes on plans for a baboon slaughterhouse outside Warmbaths, saying it would withhold the necessary permits to move and slaughter the animals. Department consultant Dr. Hym Ebedes said that the abattoir would most probably not be able to get off the ground as it was strongly recommended that the departments not issue the permits. The developer of the controversial abattoir had not obtained approval from, or presented any protocols to, either the Department of Agriculture or Nature Conservation. Ebedes believed the abattoir would also not be able to obtain the necessary import and export permits for the meat and other products that were intended to be sent to European and Asian countries.

"One of the problems that I foresee is that this abattoir may not be able to be operated on a sustainable basis and could lead to the baboons becoming an endangered species, although they are currently considered vermin," he added. "At present there are no inspectors who could certify whether the meat is fit for animal consumption and the baboon is not considered to be a slaughter animal covered in the Public Health Act," he added. He pointed out that little research has been done on the types of diseases that could be passed from baboons to humans, but a study conducted on 100 baboons in the Kruger National Park discovered a number of potentially dangerous illnesses, that had until then been unknown. - From NEWS24, May 24, 1999

Hong Kong Bans Monkey Feeding

Hong Kong (AP) - The government of Hong Kong said Wednesday it will bar people from feeding monkeys in Hong Kong's country parks. Last year the government received 144 complaints of harassment by wild monkeys. It has gotten 64 complaints so far this year.

Highways built in recent years have lured visitors to the remote parks in Hong Kong's northern New Territories, where about 1,000 monkeys live. People began feed-ing them, and the monkeys have gotten so used to a diet of nuts and fruits brought by the visitors that they're losing their natural survival skills, said a spokeswoman for the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries. The monkey population is booming and their behavior is getting worse. Some have become aggressive, attacking visitors and grabbing their shopping bags. - July 21, 1999

Bangladesh Police Rescue Drug Monkeys

Dhaka, Bangladesh (AP) - Police say they have rescued two monkeys who had been trained to sell contraband drugs by recognizing the colors of different currency. The monkeys were found in chains when police raided a house in a Dhaka residential district July 4, seizing 40 bottles of phensidyl, a narcotic syrup, and arresting three men, Officer Imamul Hossain Feroz said Monday.

When addicts entered the house, the monkeys met them, he said. If a visitor handed cash to the female, Munni, then Hamid, the male, would get the drugs from the roof, from under the bed or from another hiding place. Munni handled only 50- or 100-taka paper notes, and was trained to tell the difference by their color, Feroz said. A 100-taka note is black and white and a 50-taka note is red. The monkeys were also trained to understand some hand signals, he said.

The house was raided on a tip from neighbors, and the monkeys were taken to the National Zoo, he said. The occupants, charged with drug possession and dealing, face the death penalty if convicted. ``We have seen many uses of monkeys for entertainment, but never found anyone using them as drug peddlers,'' he said. - July 13, 1999

Congo Basin Protection

The heads of state and representatives of Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Congo-Brazzaville, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon signed the "Yaounde Declaration," pledging to create new cross-border protected areas in the forests of the Congo Basin, at a meeting hosted by the president of Cameroon and co-chaired by the World Wildlife Fund. Among the commitments made were the endorsement of an existing tri-national network of protected areas covering more than 2.5 million acres of forest between Cameroon, Central African Republic, and Congo-Brazzaville, and a new transborder initiative between Gabon, Cameroon, and Congo-Brazzaville designed to protect an additional 8.6 million acres of forest. The Declaration also outlines the need to work with local communities to conserve forests and promote forest certification guidelines. - From the WWF Focus, July/August 1999

Volcanoes National Park to Reopen

Kigali (Reuters) - Rwanda's Volcanoes National Park, home to half of the world's rare mountain gorillas, will reopen next month for the first time since civil war forced its closure two years ago, park officials said Thursday. About 300 of the majestic mountain gorillas live in bamboo forests on the upper slopes of steep forested volcanoes inside the park, which lies on Rwanda's northern borders with Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Tourism was suspended at the park in June, 1997, at the height of an armed insurgency waged by Hutu rebels who, in 1994, had led the genocidal slaughter of an estimated 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus in Rwanda. But security has improved since a Rwandan-backed rebellion began in eastern Congo last August, depriving the Rwandan insurgents of vital rear bases across the border.

"Civilian and military authorities have reassured us that the security situation is good, so we are planning to reopen the park to tourists on July 15," said Jean Bizimana of the Rwandan Office for Tourism and National Parks (ORTPN).

Another 300 mountain gorillas inhabit nearby Bwindi National Park inside Uganda, where eight foreign tourists were clubbed and hacked to death by Rwandan Hutu insurgents in March. Bwindi was closed immediately after the attack, in which a park ranger was also killed, but it reopened in April.

Bizimana said tour groups visiting the Volcanoes National Park would be accompanied by a new cadre of armed guards and guides, who are due to graduate Friday after 45 days of paramilitary and technical training. Eight tourists at a time will be allowed to visit two separate groups of gorillas in the park at a cost of $250 each. Bizimana said no gorillas in Rwanda, one of the most densely populated countries on earth, had been lost since the park's closure, and recorded birth rates had risen slightly. - From Primates in the News, June 25, 1999

New Fires in Indonesian Forests

Jakarta, Aug 28, 1999 (AFP) - Fires which have resumed in Indonesia's Sumatra and Kalimantan regions have ravaged at least 5,561 hectares (13,735 acres) of forest and scrub in the past month, a report said Saturday. The National Environmental Impact Management Agency said fires in Sumatra's Riau province alone had caused losses of 8.9 billion rupiah (1.2 million dollars) since July, the Antara news agency reported. The agency defined the cost estimate from the Riau fires in terms of lost income from the forestry sector and the need for funds to replace trees. It excluded in its estimate economic losses caused by poor visibility caused by the haze and increased costs for the resulting health care. It said that smoke from the fires had caused a rise in the incidence of respiratory illnesses and disruption of school education.

The widespread burning, blamed on smallholding farmers and plantation owners, has revived fears of haze blanketing neighboring countries in a repetition of a regional environmental disaster two years ago. Occasional rain has stopped the haze from reaching the levels it hit in 1997, when huge forest and ground fires during a prolonged drought destroyed more than 10 million hectares (24.7 million acres) of Indonesian forest. The resulting haze covered a wide swathe of skies over Indonesia and neighboring countries, causing massive economic losses along with serious health problems and visibility hazards to ships and planes. - Posted to Alloprimate August 30, by TAPOL, the Indonesia Human Rights Campaign

New Gorilla Habitat in the Bronx

New York's main zoo in the Bronx has broken new ground by recreating six-and-a-half acres of Congolese jungle, complete with sounds, smells, and 75 different animal species, including two entire tribes of gorillas. In its first week, it's drawn record numbers of visitors. And the zoo says its new installation should silence anyone who says zoos are cruel.

For example Penge is 18 months old, and a New Yorker born and bred. He has never been near an African rainforest. But now he's living in the closest replica ever built in a zoo. Penge and his family are the new residents of a $45-million home from home - a 6.5-acre piece of Africa transplanted to the Bronx. Sound sculptors have recreated the noise of the forest. Hundreds of African trees have been imported. There are 10 miles of vines, 11 waterfalls, 75 endangered species. And visitors can come eyeball to eyeball with a gorilla as never before.

Most of the visitors have probably never been near an African rainforest. The idea of this is to give them something as close to the real experience as possible. The conservationists hope to teach them not just about the animals but about the threat to their natural habitat space and the need to preserve them. In its first week, the "Congo" has had over 20,000 visitors. It's reversing the waning interest in zoos. But critics are still uncomfortable about the idea of keeping animals captive in any circumstances.

Gorilla conservationist Amy Vedder said: "My own preference is to see gorillas in a wild situation. They are social, they are intelligent, and my preference is for them to be in that wild, natural world of their own.

"But if these animals - and we are already seeing it - can get people to become excited and inspired and get people to become engaged in conservation, they will have become the best ambassadors for their species and the wild areas they come from." From a July 7, 1999, BBC article by Jane Hughes, posted to Alloprimate

Scientist Says Plant May Be Ebola Cure

St. Louis (Reuters) - Compounds found in a plant used by West African faith healers stopped the spread of the deadly Ebola virus in lab tests and may be effective against the flu, a scientist told a botany conference Tuesday. The Garcinia kola plant, whose seeds are often included in welcoming food baskets in Africa where it grows wild, contains compounds with two flavonoid molecules fused together that scientists believe halted the spread of Ebola in tests. Flavonoids, which can be found in tea and in wine, are known to neutralize harmful chemicals that damage cells and can lead to illnesses such as heart attacks, strokes and cancer.

"This is a very exciting discovery. The same forest that yields the dreaded Ebola virus could be a source of the cure," Maurice Iwu, founder of the London-based Bioresources Development and Conservation Program, told the International Botanical Congress. Iwu, who was born to a family of healers in Nigeria and trained in pharmacology, was led to the plant by traditional healers who said it had been eaten for thousands of years. Iwu said the compounds were nontoxic in animal tests.

The plant's flavonoid compounds that were believed to offer the healing powers could form the basis for drugs in a few years, he said. Tests on some compounds from the plant were also effective against some strains of the common flu virus.

One of the deadliest viruses known, Ebola kills by causing high fevers and severe bleeding. A 1995 outbreak in Zaire, now the Democratic Republic of the Congo, killed 81 percent of its 315 victims. It was first documented in 1976 in Zaire, and named for a river there, and there have been outbreaks in Sudan, Gabon and the Ivory Coast. - Posted to Alloprimate August 4, 1999

No More Monkey Business for Rock Apes

The famous population of "apes" (Macaca sylvanus) on the Rock of Gibraltar is growing out of control and may have to be put on the contraceptive pill. Numbers have soared from a steady 70 or 80 to as many as 250 on the tiny British overseas territory. A cull of more than 20 "barbary apes" and the export of another 20 to a German zoo has failed to stem the rising numbers. The animals have damaged property and even attacked people.

The apes have a place in Gibraltar's folklore - with legend saying the colony would cease to be British if they no longer lived there. The myth was taken seriously enough by Winston Churchill for him to order the importation of extra apes to Gibraltar during World War II. But now the colony's Chief Minister, Peter Caruana, says something has to be done.

Mr. Caruana said: "They are out of control. We have had them climbing through bedroom windows and even molesting children in the streets." He said research was being carried out by an expert at Zurich University on behalf of the Gibraltar Government to see if the population could be controlled with contraceptive drugs. "It cost us about £25,000 to send the 20 to Germany. It would have been cheaper if we had flown them by British Airways, strapped into first class seats." - a BBC article, posted to Alloprimate, June 14, 1999

Jardín Gaia Closes in Costa Rica

During the last three years Jardín Gaia received 470 wild animals, 66% of them brought by the community. Almost half of them have been released, including 19 adult squirrel monkeys, a substantial contribution to the survival of this highly endangered species. Two hundred and sixty-six international volunteers from 29 countries worked here, including 84 veterinary students from 20 academic institutions. Four theses in wildlife medicine were written based on data gathered here.

A flock of 21 confiscated former pet scarlet macaws (Ara macao) were recently released in a rural community. After four months we can say that even former pets can make it: our volunteers have been monitoring the birds every day, recording data from three locations every half hour.

Three orchids species new to science were discovered; endangered species of orchids have been propagated; an orchid field guide of Manuel Antonio National Park was published; 8,320 visitors, including about 1,334 children, were received and educated.

All of this is not enough, so we have to shut down Jardín Gaia, an eight-year collective effort.

Sincerely, Dario Castelfranco, Director, Jardín Gaia - Official Wildlife Rescue Center & Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 182, 6350 Quepos, Costa Rica [506-777-1004; fax: 506-777-0535; e-mail: [email protected]]; <>. - posted to Pef-List, September 8, 1999

* * *

Planned 2000 Revision of Directory of Graduate Programs in Primatology and Primate Research

An updated Directory will be published in the January, 2000, issue of the Laboratory Primate Newsletter. If you wish your program to be represented in this Directory or to revise your present entry, please send us the necessary information, following the format shown here as closely as possible. Return the information as soon as possible, but not later than December 1, 1999, to the Laboratory Primate Newsletter, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 [e-mail: [email protected]]. Please note that the Directory is not intended for postdoctoral programs, though any such sent to us will be listed separately.

For examples, see the 1998 Directory in the LPN, 1998, 36[1], 31-33, or see <>.

Recommended format:

1. State:

2. Institution:

3. Division, Section, or Department:

4. Program Name and/or Description:

5. Faculty and Their Specialties:

6. Address for Further Information:

* * *

Information Requested or Available

"Final Report" Available from APHIS

APHIS has released its long-anticipated "Final Report on Environmental Enhancement to Promote the Psychological Well-Being of Nonhuman Primates," available at <>.

E-mail Lists

The Laboratory Animal Management Association (LAMA) has established a mailing list. With this new capability, LAMA is indeed reaching out to the Laboratory Animal Science community to communicate what is going on within the association and how you can be an active part of our functions and activities. Many times a quick message can provide guidance and answer questions with good interactive feedback. I urge you to make use of this forum to talk with other laboratory animal science managers and supervisors. Bulletins of upcoming events and programs will also be posted.

To subscribe to the list, go to <>. To unsubscribe, or to select digest mode, go to <> and select the User Center link. This is a moderated, private, restricted list. For more information, contact Gary R. Novak, RLATG, Manager, Research Services, Johns Hopkins Oncology Center, Baltimore, MD 21205 [e-mail: [email protected]].

Assessment of Animal Welfare

Dr. Hans Kuiper, Dept of Lab. Animal Science, Utrecht University, The Netherlands, and Tim Allen, U.S. Dept of Agriculture, Animal Welfare Information Center, Beltsville, Maryland, have compiled a database of literature on the assessment of animal welfare, pain and distress, available at <>.

References cited cover all species of animals used in research, testing, teaching, and agricultural production, including fish, reptiles, and amphibians. Links are also available to full-text policies (government and academic) and scientific journals. The site will be updated regularly.

Nonhuman Primate Colonies at HBCUs?

Sheree Watson, of Jackson State University, has started a colony of small-eared bushbabies (Otolemur garnettii) at this Historically Black University (HBCU). She wonders if there are other nonhuman primate colonies at any HBCU. If you know of any (or if you know for sure that there are none), would you please contact her at Jackson State University, Dept. of Psychology, Jackson, MS 39217 [601-974-6090; fax: 601-968-2393; e-mail: [email protected]]. Any information is welcome.

Chimpanzee Researchers

For her graduate thesis, Kathleen Paylor has spent the last several months interviewing biomedical researchers who use chimpanzees. She is trying to get an estimate of how many biomedical researchers use chimpanzees in the U.S. She writes: "There are currently 52 in the CRISP database, but not all of these individuals are chimp researchers. No one at NIH can give me an estimate of how many there might be beyond the CRISP number. Do you have any idea or know of anyone who might?" If you do biomedical research with chimpanzees, and Kathleen has not contacted you, please send her a message, at 261 Sudbury Rd, Concord, MA 01742 [978-287-0612; e-mail: [email protected]]. No need for details; she is just trying to get a count.

More Interesting Web Sites

* Outstanding ABS Members' page: <>

* 18th IPS Congress, Adelaide, Australia, January, 2001: <>

* The Wild Animal Rescue Foundation of Thailand: <>

* Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics: <>

* Ohio State University Parasite page: <>

* Lemur-News, Newsletter of the Madagascar Section of the I.U.C.N./S.S.C. Primate Specialist Group: <>

* Proceedings of an International Colloquium on Ebola Virus Infection and other Haemorrhagic Fevers, Antwerp, Belgium, 6-8 December, 1977: <>

* Proceedings of the 1996 Ebola Colloquium: <>

* Programme Against African Trypanosomiasis: <>

* Tropical Disease Researchers' multimedia WEB site: <>

* Spanish Society of Laboratory Animal Science: <>

* * *

Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors)


* Comparative Primate Socioecology. Cambridge Studies in Biological Anthropology, Vol. 22. P. C. Lee (Ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. 412 pp. [Price: $74.95]
. . . Contents: Part 1: Comparative methods. The comparative method: Principles and illustrations from primate socioecology, by A. MacLarnon; Cladistics as a tool in comparative analysis, by K. Robson-Brown; Phylogenetically independent comparisons and primate phylogeny, by A. Purvis & A. J. Webster.
. . . Part 2: Comparative life history and biology. Sociecology and the evolution of primate reproductive rates, by C. Ross & K. E. Jones; Comparative ecology of postnatal growth and weaning among haplorhine primates, by P. C. Lee; Some current ideas about the evolution of the human life history, by N. B. Jones, K. Hawkes, & J. F. O'Connell; The evolutionary ecology of the primate brain, by R. Barton; Sex and social evolution in primates, by C. P. van Schaik, M. A.van Noordwijk, & C. L. Nunn; Mating systems, intrasexual competition and sexual dimorphism in primates, by J. M. Plavcan.
. . . Part 3: Comparative socioecology and social evolution. Lemur social structure and convergence in primate socioecology, by P. M. Kappeler; Why is female kin bonding so rare? Comparative sociality of neotropical primates, by K. B. Strier; Energetics, time budgets and group size, by D. K. Williamson & R. Dunbar; Ecology of sex differences in great ape foraging, by A. Bean; Hominid behavioural evolution: Missing links in comparative primate socioecology, by R. A. Foley; Evolutionary ecology and cross-cultural comparison: The case of matrilineal descent in sub-Saharan Africa, by R. Mace & C. Holden; Editor's conclusion: Socioecology and social evolution.

* Our Vanishing Relative - The Status of Wild Orang-Utans at the Close of the Twentieth Century. H. D. Rijksen & E. Meijaard. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer, 1999. 486 pp. [Price: $195.00]
. . . "This is the first comprehensive study of the orangutan's distribution and status based on a wealth of first-hand field data, and a frank, disturbing account of a mixture of good intentions, ignorance, and greed, spelling doom for our Asian relatives. Nevertheless, the authors emphasize that the orangutan can survive. A realistic plan to save the ape, and with it thousands of unique wild animals and plants, is described."

* The Nonhuman Primates. P. Dolhinow & A. Fuentes (Eds.). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company, 1999. [Price: $28.95]
. . . Contents: Primate evolution, by W. C. Hartwig; Molecular phylogenetic studies of nonhuman primates, by J. C. Morales, T. R. Disotell, & D. J. Melnick; The Colobine Old World monkeys as a model system for the study of adaptive evolution at the molecular level, by C.-B. Stewart; The gibbons, by T. Bartlett; Orangutan behavior and ecology, by C. Knott; Gorilla socioecology, by M. Goldsmith; The Pan species, by B. Fruth, G. Hohmann, & W. C. McGrew; The macaques, by F. B. Bercovitch & M. A. Hoffman; Decoding patas social organization, by J. Chism; Colobine diet and social organization, by R. C. Kirkpatrick; The Atelines, by K. B. Strier; Capuchin object manipulation, by M. Panger; An introduction to the ecology of daylight-active lemurs, by B. Z. Freed; How female dominance and reproductive seasonality affect the social lives of adult male ringtailed lemurs, by L. Gould; The Tarsiidae: Taxonomy, behavior, and conservation status, by S. Gursky; Asian primate conservation - My perspective, by A. A. Eudey; The effects of hunting on the longtailed macaques of Ngeaur Island, Palau, by B. R. Wheatley, R. Stephenson, & H. Kurashina; Translocation and rehabilitation as primate conservation tools: Are they worth the cost? by C. R. Yeager & S. C. Silver; Doing fieldwork among the doucs in Vietnam, by L. K. Lippold; The study of behavior, by I. S. Bernstein; Variable social organization: What can looking at primate groups tell us about the evolution of plasticity in primate societies? by A. Fuentes; Understanding behavior: A langur monkey case study, by P. Dolhinow; Great apes and early hominids: Reconstructing ancestral behavior, by G. B. Stanford; Kinship and the behavior of nonhuman primates, by I. S. Bernstein; Social dominance in nonhuman primates, by E. Ray; Hierarchy in primate social organization, by E. Ray; Primate gerontology, by M. S. M. Pavelka; Aspects of energy expenditure of callitrichid primates: Physiology and behavior, by M. L. Power; Play: A critical process in the developmental system, by P. Dolhinow; The physiology of male reproductive strategies, by F. B. Bercovitch; The comparative method in studies of cognitive evolution, by S. T. Parker; Chimpanzee sign language research, by R. S. Fouts & D. H. Fouts; A brief history of primate studies: National traditions, disciplinary origins, and stages in North American field research, by L. M. Fedigan & S. C. Strum; Cultural representations of nonhuman primates, by A. Carter & C. Carter.

* Advances in the Study of Behavior, Vol. 28. P. J. B. Slater, J. S. Rosenblat, C. T. Snowdon, & T. J. Roper (Eds.). Orlando, FL: Academic Press, 1999. [Price: $99.95 plus 8% shipping charge]
. . . Contents include: Techniques for analyzing vertebrate social structure using identified individuals: Review and recommendations, by H. Whitehead and S. Dufault.

Computer Software

* VetBase 3.1c. H. Kuiper & H.-J. Kuiper. [Price: $175 (English); f. 275 (Dutch), from Dutch Veterinary Information Systems, Graafschap 7, 3524 TL Utrecht, The Netherlands]
. . . A searchable veterinary formulary that covers all classes of veterinary drugs except antibiotics, and contains more than 13,000 records of veterinary doses covering more than 800 drugs.


* 1999-2000 Congressional Directory: 106th Congress. [NABR, 818 Connecticut Ave, NW, Suite 303, Washington, DC 20006]

Magazines and Newsletters

* Boletín de la Asociación Primatológica Española, Mayo, 1999, 6[2]. [Área de Etología y Bienestar Animal, Depto. de Veterinaria, Centro Univ. San Pablo CEU, E-46113 Montcada, Valencia, Spain]
. . . Contents include an article about strategies for conservation of primates in Yucatan, by J. C. Serio Silva & V. Rico-Gray.

* CCC Update, Spring/Summer 1999, 10[1]. [Community Conservation Consultants, Howlers Forever, Inc., RD 1, Box 96, Gays Mills, WI 54631]
. . . Includes articles about primate conservation projects in India and Belize. Also see <>.

* IPPL News, August, 1999, 26[2]. [IPPL, P.O. Box 766, Summerville, SC 29484]
. . . Includes reports on the Limbe Wildlife Center, by J. Dewar, and on the forests of Indonesia, by M. Y. Merrill.

* Neotropical Primates: A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, March, 1999, 7[1]. [Conservation International, Ave. Antônio Abrahão Caram 820/302, 31275-000, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil]
. . . Contents include: Observaciones preliminares sobre la dieta de Cacajao calvus ucayalii en el nor-oriente Peruano, by R. Aquino & F. Encarnación; Fission-fusion in the black-headed uacari (Cacajao melanocephalus) in eastern Colombia, by T. R. Defler; Uso de plantas como alimento por Alouatta palliata en un fragmento de selva en Los Tuxtlas, México, by S. J. Solano, T. de J. Ortíz Martínez, A. Estrada, & R. Coates-Estrada; General guidelines for standardizing line-transect surveys of tropical forest primates, by C. A. Peres; Tail-use in capuchin monkeys, by D. Youlatos; Aggression and dominance reversal in a captive all-male group of Cebus apella, by A. C. de A. Moura; A twin birth in Cebus xanthosternos (Wied, 1820) (Cebidae, Primates), by A. Pissinatti, A. F. Coimbra-Filho, A. B. Rylands, & E. C. N. Rubião.

* Neotropical Primates: A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, June, 1999, 7[2]. [Address same as above]
. . . Contents include: Species status of the Colombian spider monkey, Ateles belzebuth hybridus, by A. C. Collins; New observations on Cebus kaapori Queiroz, 1992, in eastern Brazilian Amazonia, by O. de Carvalho, Jr., A. C. B. Pinto, & M. Galetti; Population and conservation status of the black-and-gold howler monkeys, Alouatta caraya, along the Río Riachuelo, Argentina, by G. Agoramoorthy & R. Lohmann; Preliminary observations on the songo songo (dusky titi monkey, Callicebus moloch) of northeastern Ecuador, by D. Youlatos & W. P. Rivera; Predatory behaviour by a red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) on green iguanas (Iguana iguana), by B. de Thoisy & T. Parc; Adoption of a young juvenile in black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra), by E. C. Schneider, L. F. Hunter, & R. H. Horwich; Black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) reintroduction program: Population census and habitat assessment, by B. Clark & R. C. Brockett; Pointing behavior in mantled howling monkeys, Alouatta palliata, by C. B. Jones; Adaptation to natural food resources by semi-free common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): Preliminary results, by H. Rothe.

* Orang Gang News. Summer, 1998, #10; Fall, 1998, #11; Winter/Spring, 1999, #12. [368 Anita St, #64, Chula Vista, CA 91911-4128]
. . . Issues contain brief reports on the behavior of the orangutans at the San Diego Zoo by "fans" of the animals.

* Primate Conservation: The Journal of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, 1998, No. 18.
. . . Contents: Neotropical Region: Baseline range size distribution in primates, by C. B. Jones; Ecological responses of spider monkeys to temporal variation in fruit abundance: The importance of flooded forest as a keystone habitat, by J. A. Ahumada, P. R. Stevenson, & M. J. Quiñones; Primates of the tropical forest of the Pacific coast of Peru: The Tumbes Reserved Zone, by F. Encarnación & A. G. Cook; Some observations on the ecology of Cacajao calvus ucayalii in the Peruvian Amazon, by R. Aquino; Notes on the distribution and conservation status of spider and howler monkeys in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico, by A. del Campo Para Lara, & J. P. Jorgensen; Distribution and status of the primates of Guatemala, by G. Silva-López; Dietary choices in Cebus olivaceus: A comparison of data from Hato Piñero and Hato Masaguaral, by L. E. Miller.
. . . Africa: The Zanzibar red colobus monkey: Conservation status of an endangered island endemic, by T. T. Struhsaker & K. S. Siex; Conservation status of primates in Cameroon, by L. Usongo; Conservation status of primates in the proposed Lobéké Forest Reserve, South-East Cameroon, by L. Usongo; Notes on two dwarf galagos (Galagos udzungwensis and Galagoides orinus) in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania, by T. M. Butynski, C. L. Ehardt, & T. T. Struhsaker.
. . . Asia: A brief report on Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys, Rhinopithecus (R.) bieti, at Bamei in northern Yunnan Province, China, by T. Zhong, L. Xiao, R. C. Kirkpatrick, & Y. C. Long; Current status and conservation strategies of primates in China, by S.-Y. Zhang; Behaviour of two groups of Hanuman langur (Semnopithecus entellus) during a solar eclipse in 1995 at Medinipur, West Bengal, India, by A. Murmu, S. Chaudhuri, & J. R. B. Alfred; The conservation status of two Sulawesian tarsier species: Tarsius spectrum and Tarsius dianae, by S. Gursky.

* Primate Eye, February, 1999, No. 67. [Bill Sellers, Primate Society of Great Britain, Dept of Biomed. Sci (Anatomy Sect.), Univ. of Edinburgh Medical School, Teviot Pl., Edinburgh EH8 9AG, Scotland]
. . . Includes an article on "TV programmes and the shaping of public attitudes to non-human primates: A review of some recent TV programmes," and two articles on the bushmeat trade.

* Primate Eye, June, 1999, No. 68. [Address same as above]
. . . Includes abstracts from the PSGB's Spring Meeting, April, 1999.


* The History, Taxonomy and Ecology of the Bonobo (Pan Paniscus Schwarz, 1929) with a First Description of a Wild Population Living in a Forest/Savanna Mosaic Habitat. Jo A. Myers Thompson. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Institute of Biological Anthropology, University of Oxford, 1997.
. . . This thesis brings together widely scattered material pertaining to the history and taxonomy of the bonobo; elucidates bonobo ecology with particular emphasis on the feeding ecology of a hitherto unstudied, wild, unprovisioned and nonhabituated subpopulation living in a dry forest/savanna mosaic habitat at the southern periphery of the species' distribution; and puts these data into the context of previous research, providing intraspecies ecological comparisons and extending our knowledge about the adaptability of the species.

Special Journal Issues

* Animal models of pain. ILAR Journal, 1999, 40[3]. [2101 Constitution Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20418]
. . . Contents include: Ethics and pain research in animals, by J. Tannenbaum; Inflammatory models of pain and hyperalgesia, by K. Ren & R. Dubner; and Models of visceral nociception, by T. J. Ness.

* Malaria Workshop 1997 in Tokyo. Tokai Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, 1998, 23[2].
. . . Contents include: A nonhuman primate model for severe human malaria: Plasmodium coatneyi-infected Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata), by S. Kawai, M. Aikawa, M. Suzuki, & H. Matsuda.

* Program and abstracts of the twenty-second annual meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, August 12-August 16, 1999. American Journal of Primatology, 1999, 49[1].

* Seasonality in the great apes. International Journal of Primatology, 1998, 19[6].
. . . Contents: The importance of seasonality in primatology, by F. J. White; Seasonality in the ecology and life histories of mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei), by D. P. Watts; Dietary response of chimpanzees and cercopithecines to seasonal variation in fruit abundance. I. Antifeedants, by R. W. Wrangham, N. L. Conklin-Brittain, & K. D. Hunt; Dietary response of chimpanzees and cercopithecines to seasonal variation in fruit abundance. II. Macronutrients, by N. L. Conklin-Brittain, R. W. Wrangham, & K. D. Hunt; Factors affecting party size in chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains, by A. Matsumoto-Oda, K. Hosaka, M. A. Huffman, & K. Kawanaka; Seasonality and socioecology: The importance of variation in fruit abundance to bonobo sociality, by F. J. White; Population dynamics of wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba, by T. Furuichi, G. Idani, H. Ihobe, S. Kuroda, K. Kitamura, A. Mori, T. Enomoto, N. Okayasu, C. Hashimoto, & T. Kano; Habitat use and ranging of wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba, by C. Hashimoto, Y. Tashiro, D. Kimura, T. Enomoto, E. J. Ingmanson, G. Idani, & T. Furuichi; and Changes in orangutan caloric intake, energy balance, and ketones in response to fluctuating fruit availability, by C. D. Knott.

Animal Models

* Neutralizing antibody-independent containment of immunodeficiency virus challenges by DNA priming and recombinant pox virus booster immunizations. Robinson, H. L., Montefiori, D. C., Johnson, R. P., Manson, K. H., Kalish, M. L., Lifson, J. D., Rizvi, T. A., Lu, S., Hu, S.-L., Mazzara, G. P., Panicali, D. L., Herndon, J. G., Glickman, R., Candido, M. A., Lydy, L., Wyand, M. S., & McClure, H. M. (Yerkes RPRC, Atlanta, GA 30329). Nature Medicine, 1999, 5, 526-534.
. . . Eight different protocols were compared for their ability to raise protection against immunodeficiency virus challenges in rhesus macaques. The most promising containment of challenge infections was achieved by intradermal DNA priming followed by recombinant fowl pox virus booster immunizations. This containment did not require neutralizing antibody and was active for a series of challenges ending with a highly virulent virus with a primary isolate envelope heterologous to the immunizing strain.

* Recovery of chronic parkinsonian monkeys by autotransplants of carotid body cell aggregates into putamen. Luquin, M. R., Montoro, R. J., Guillén, J., Saldise, L., Insausti, R., Del Río, J., & López-Barneo, J. (J. L.-B., Depto. Fisiol. Méd. y Biofis., Fac. de Med., Univ. de Sevilla, E-41009 Sevilla, Spain). Neuron, 1999, 22, 743-750.
. . . A study of the effect of unilateral autografts of carotid body cell aggregates into the putamen of MPTP-treated monkeys with chronic parkinsonism. Two to four weeks after transplantation, the monkeys initiated a progressive recovery of mobility with reduction of tremor and bradykinesia and restoration of fine motor abilities on the contralateral side. Apomorphine injections induced rotations toward the side of the transplant. Functional recovery was accompanied by the survival of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive grafted glomus cells. A high density of TH-immunoreactive fibers was seen reinnervating broad regions of the ipsilateral putamen and caudate nucleus. The nongrafted, contralateral striatum remained deafferented. Intrastriatal autografting of carotid body tissue is a feasible technique with beneficial effects on parkinsonian monkeys; thus, this therapeutic approach could also be applied to treat human patients with Parkinson's disease.


* Has predation shaped the social systems of arboreal primates? Treves, A. (Dept of Psychology, Univ. of Wisconsin, 1202 W. Johnson St, Madison, WI 53706-1696). International Journal of Primatology, 1999, 20, 35-67.
. . . To elucidate the role of predation in shaping social systems, the responses of red-tailed and red colobus monkeys to auditory and visual contact with predators was compared with their responses to playbacks of the recorded calls of predators. The animals responded to the real encounters and simulations in similar ways. Predator encounters did not lead invariably to increased cohesion within groups or to increased time spent vigilant.

* Male migration in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) at Affenberg Salem. Kuester, J. & Paul, A. (Allgem. Zool. & Neurobiol., Ruhr-Univ. Bochum, D-44870 Bochum, Germany). International Journal of Primatology, 1999, 20, 85-106.
. . . An analysis of male migration during a 20-year period in a free-ranging (in a 40-acre enclosure) population. Most natal migrations occurred around puberty, but only one-third of all males left the natal group. A comparison of emigrants with their natal peers supports the inbreeding avoidance hypothesis as cause of emigration rather than the male competition avoidance hypothesis. Males without female relatives almost never emigrated, nor was there any indication that males were evicted.

* Cross-generic food sharing in tamarins. Feistner, A. T. C. & Price, E. C. (Research Dept, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, Les Augrès Manor, Trinity, Jersey JE3 5BP, Channel Islands, British Isles). International Journal of Primatology, 1999, 20, 231-236.
. . . This report documents a case in which a male golden-headed lion tamarin shared food with an infant cotton-top tamarin. The male provided more food to the infant than its mother did. This emphasizes the importance of adult-infant food-sharing in the reproductive strategies of the communally-rearing Callitrichidae and raises questions about mechanisms that underlie it.

* Capuchin (Cebus apella) tool use in a captive naturalistic environment. Lavallee, A. C. (Dept of Anthropology, 109 Davenport Hall, 607 S. Mathews Ave, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801). International Journal of Primatology, 1999, 20, 399-414.
. . . Capuchins' ability to conceive solutions to a probing task was tested in a naturalistic captive setting. Three of five participants demonstrated an ability to consistently make and use tools selected from a wide variety of natural materials within a forest exhibit. Over 98% (N = 140) of the tools that they modified enabled them to successfully acquire food rewards. It is likely that wild capuchins share this ability, and that tool use occurs under a highly specific set of natural conditions.


* Illnesses associated with occupational use of flea-control products - California, Texas, and Washington, 1989-1997. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1999, 48, 443-447.
. . . Dips, shampoos, and other insecticide-containing flea-control products can produce systemic illnesses or localized symptoms in the persons applying them. Although these products may pose a risk to consumers, they are particularly hazardous to pet groomers and handlers who use them regularly. Illnesses associated with flea-control products were reported to the California Department of Pesticide Regulation, the Texas Department of Health, and the Washington State Department of Health, each of which maintains a surveillance system for identifying, investigating, and preventing pesticide-related illnesses and injuries. This report describes cases of occupational illnesses associated with flea-control products, summarizes surveillance data, and provides recommendations for handling these products safely.


* Natural disasters and primate populations: The effects of a two-year drought on a naturally occurring population of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) in southwestern Madagascar. Gould, L., Sussman, R. W., & Sauther, M. L. (Dept of Anthropology, Univ. of Victoria, P.O. Box 3050, Victoria, B.C. V8W 3P5, Canada). International Journal of Primatology, 1999, 20, 69-84.
. . . An examination of demographic patterns from a 1987-1996 study in the Beza-Mahafaly Special Reserve, especially the effects of a severe drought in 1991-92. In the 1992 birth season, infant mortality reached 80% and 20.8% of all adult females in the reserve died. By 1996, the population had begun to recover after the decline that correlated with the drought conditions. Annual reproduction, high birth rates (.80-.86 annually), early sexual maturity, and dietary adaptability may be contributing factors to the recovery.


* Stealth adaptation of an African green monkey simian cytomegalovirus. Martin, W. J. (Center for Complex Infectious Diseases, 3328 Stevens Ave, Rosemead, CA 91770). Experimental and Molecular Pathology, 1999, 66, 3-7.
. . . DNA extracted from cultures of a cytopathic virus isolated from a patient with chronic fatigue syndrome was cloned into pBluescript plasmid. The nucleotide sequences of the plasmid inserts were analyzed using the BlastN and BlastX programs of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. In confirmation of earlier studies, many of the sequences show partial homology to various regions within the genome of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). The matching regions were unevenly distributed throughout the HCMV genome. No matches were seen with either the UL55 or UL83 genes, which provide the major antigenic targets for anti-HCMV cytotoxic T cell-mediated immunity. This finding is consistent with the notion that certain viruses can avoid immune elimination by deleting genes required for effective antigenic recognition by the cellular immune system. The term "stealth" has been applied to such viruses. Comparisons were also made between the sequences of the stealth virus and the limited sequence data available on cytomegaloviruses from rhesus and from African green monkeys. These comparisons unequivocally establish that the virus was derived from an African green monkey simian cytomegalovirus (SCMV).

* Bacteria related sequences in a simian cytomegalovirus-derived stealth virus culture. Martin, W. J. (Address same as above). Experimental and Molecular Pathology, 1999, 66, 8-14.
. . . Extensive sequencing of cloned DNA isolated from the culture of an African green monkey simian cytomegalovirus (SCMV)-derived stealth virus has identified multiple regions of highly significant homology to various bacterial genes. The apparent acquisition of bacterial sequences extends the potential role of stealth viruses as natural vectors in the transfer of genetic information. The findings highlight the dynamic interface between viral and bacterial genomes and the potential of this interaction in the emergence and spread of novel pathogens. The term viteria is proposed for microorganisms that contain both eukaryotic-viral and prokaryotic-bacterial genetic sequences.

* Melanoma growth stimulatory activity (MGSA/GRO-alpha) chemokine genes incorporated into an African green monkey simian cytomegalovirus (SCMV)-derived stealth virus. Martin, W. J. (Address same as above). Experimental and Molecular Pathology, 1999, 66, 15-18.
. . . DNA isolated from the culture of an African green monkey simian cytomegalovirus (SCMV)-derived stealth virus has been cloned. A region of the virus that contains genes coding proteins homologous to the UL141, UL144 and UL145 proteins of human cytomegalovirus has recombined with cellular sequences encoding several distinct copies of the melanoma growth stimulatory activity (MGSA/GRO-alpha) chemokine gene. This finding illustrates the capacity of stealth viruses to capture, amplify, and mutate genes with potential oncogenic activity. The lack of introns in the assimilated cellular genes implies a role for reverse transcription in the assembly of stealth viruses.

Evolution, Genetics, and Taxonomy

* Disparate data sets resolve squirrel monkey (Saimiri) taxonomy: Implications for behavioral ecology and biomedical usage. Boinski, S. & Cropp, S. J. (Dept of Anthropology, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611). International Journal of Primatology, 1999, 20, 237-256.
. . . Squirrel monkeys are the most commonly used neotropical monkeys in biomedical research; however, no consensus exists as to the phylogenetic relationships amongst geographic variants or whether these variants represent species or subspecies. Here we report a strongly supported squirrel monkey phylogeny, congruent across multiple data sets, including new field data and the first molecular (mtDNA) cladogram. These data support species-level classification for the three major groups in this study. Approximately the same amount of molecular divergence exists among Saimiri oerstedii, S. sciureus, and S. boliviensis. The S. sciureus/S. oerstedii ancestor diverged from S. boliviensis and shortly thereafter S. sciureus and S. oerstedii diverged. Until now, lack of a robust taxonomy has hindered exploitation of the massive potential of Saimiri for comparative studies. No other primate genus displays such widely divergent, genetically based social behaviors. Our taxonomy also provides robust support for previous warnings against the widespread use of hybrid squirrel monkeys as research models.

* Reconstruction of parentage in a band of captive hamadryas baboons. Smith, D. G., Kanthaswamy, S., Disbrow, M., & Wagner, J. L. (Dept of Anthropology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616). International Journal of Primatology, 1999, 20, 415-429.
. . . Using no-parent parentage exclusion analysis (PEA), the paternity of 25 offspring born in a captive band of Papio hamadryas hamadryas was identified. The band contained five adult males, each with a stable harem of about five females. Mating success of the males ranged between 2 and 7 offspring and bore no clear relationship to the males' ages, ranks, or the number of females in their harems, with higher-ranking males exhibiting greater success monopolizing access to females in their harems than lower-ranking males did. More surprisingly, the females assigned as the dams of 14 of the 25 offspring could be unequivocally excluded from parentage. The identity of the true dam could be determined for each of these 14 offspring, and was uncorrelated with the ranks of these offsprings' sires and whether the offspring were born to dams outside the sires' harem groups. The combined effect of this extraharem mating and kidnapping was that only 12 of the 25 offspring were raised within their sires' harem groups. A second group of hamadryas baboons of identical structure exhibited the same high incidences of infant kidnapping and mating outside the harem group. It is unclear whether these behaviors provide an adaptive advantage or represent aberrant behavior resulting from captivity or other circumstances.

* Tail-length evolution in Fascicularis-group macaques (Cercopithecidae: Macaca). Fooden, J. & Albrecht, G. H. (Div. of Mammals, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL 60605). International Journal of Primatology, 1999, 20, 431-440.
. . . In the four species of macaques that constitute the fascicularis group, relative tail length generally decreases with increasing latitude. Although this generalization applies to Macaca mulatta in the northern part of its range - north of about 26º N, it does not apply south of there, where the tail is anomalously short in M. mulatta. This suggests that the anomalously short-tailed population did not originate within its present latitudinal range, but instead dispersed there from farther north, apparently replacing a now-extinct longer-tailed population, from which founders of insular M. cyclopis previously had been derived. This southward dispersal of the short-tailed population, and correlated extinction of the longer-tailed population, may have been induced by a major glacial advance.

Field Studies

* Troop histories and range inertia of Lemur catta at Berenty, Madagascar: A 33-year perspective. Jolly, A. & Pride, E. (Dept of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ 08544). International Journal of Primatology, 1999, 20, 359-373.
. . . Lemur catta troops in a 1-km2 study area at Berenty Reserve have maintained fidelity to core areas since Budnitz and Dainis' study of 1972-1973, and for two troops possibly since 1963. Population in 1 km2 fluctuated from 155 to 105 to 282 individuals, excluding infants, and the number of troops increased from 12 to 21. Most troops retain the same core areas from year to year (170 observed troop-years). Ten troops derived from known fissions have settled in parts of their parent troop range or an adjacent neighbor's range. Five more troops may derive from similar matrilocal fissioning, inferred from behavior and ranging patterns. One has remained unchanged. Five have unknown parentage, in the ranges of four previously censused troops. One fissioned troop completely replaced another. One troop permanently extended its range. Three times females joined a different troop. Once a female remained nomadic for two years without a stable home range. No fissioned troop has been seen to settle discontinuously from its parent. Intertroop antagonism may reflect benefits of long-term control of core areas.


* Comparison of primatological literature in Latin American, European and African countries. Yamamoto, M. E. & Jarreta, I. T. D. (Caixa Postal 1511, Depto de Fisiologia, Univ. Fed. do Rio Grande do Norte 59072-970, Natal, RN Brazil). International Journal of Primatology, 1999, 20, 281-290.
. . .
A review of data from Current Primate References (1985-1994) showed that Great Britain and France had a far larger number of publications than Brazil, Peru, Mexico, Argentina, or Kenya, but the mean number of publications per author shows little difference among the countries. Kenya, with Great Britain and France, had higher percentages of indexed publications than the other four. Scientists in the Latin American countries concentrated their publications in behavior, ecology and conservation, colony management, and general primatology. These results suggest that scientific production in these latter countries can be increased by increasing the number of scientists, either through educational programs or by incentives for such careers.

Instruments & Techniques

* Leukocyte differential analysis in multiple laboratory species by a laser multi-angle polarized light scattering separation method. Suzuki, S. & Eguchi, N. (Central Inst. for Experimental Animals, 1430 Nogawa, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki-shi 216-001, Japan). Experimental Animals, 1999, 48, 107-114.
. . . A separation method involving laser multi-angle polarized light scattering is capable of analyzing leukocytes from various species (including humans, cynomolgus monkeys, and marmosets) based on cell size and cell complexity, i.e., the presence or absence of nuclei, granules, and cell enclosures.

* Evaluation of ready-to-use liquid reagents for clinical chemistry in laboratory animals. Tabata, H., Nagamatsu, N., Sakazume, M., & Matsuzawa, T. (Safety Research Labs, Yamanouchi Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 1-8 Azusawa 1-chome, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 174-8511, Japan). Experimental Animals, 1999, 48, 133-136.
. . . An evaluation of ready-to-use liquid reagents for clinical chemistry, to assess their suitability for use in the toxicology laboratory. Results of comparison of the liquid reagents and solid reagents in analyzing plasma samples of rats, dogs, and cynomolgus monkeys were generally good, except for a bias in results for GOT and GPT, regardless of the animal species tested.


* Taste preference thresholds for food-associated sugars in baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis). Laska, M., Schüll, E., & Scheuber, H.-P. (Dept of Med. Psychology, Univ. of Munich Med. School, Goethestr. 31, D-80336, Munich, Germany). International Journal of Primatology, 1999, 20, 25-34.
. . . In a two-bottle preference test of two-minute duration, four subadult baboons significantly preferred concentrations as low as 10 mM sucrose, 20 mJ fructose, lactose, and maltose, and 25 mM glucose over tap water. Presentation of suprathreshold sugar solutions led to marked concentration-dependent polydipsia. The results show that baboons are among the most sugar-sensitive nonhuman primates tested so far and, thus, support the assumption that Papio hamadryas anubis may use sweetness as a criterion for food selection.

* Diet of the brown mouse lemur (Microcebus rufus) in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. Atsalis, S. (826 S. Loomis, Chicago, IL 60607). International Journal of Primatology, 1999, 20, 193-229.
. . . Results of a 16-month study in the east coast rainforest. Diet was determined primarily by analysis of 334 fecal samples from live-trapped individuals. They consumed a mixed diet basically of fruit and insects year-round. Fruit may be a primary source of energy, not just complementary to insects, the consumption of which did not increase during the rainy season when insect abundance was highest.

* Patterns of frugivory in three West African colobine monkeys. Davies, A. G., Oates, J. F., & Dasilva, G. L. (rue Guillaume Stocq 22, 1050 Brussels, Belgium). International Journal of Primatology, 1999, 20, 327-357.
. . . A study of the comparative feeding ecology of Procolobus badius, P. verus, and Colobus polykomos on Tiwai Island, Sierra Leone. Data was collected by scan-sampling habituated groups. Diets of the two larger species, P. badius and C. polykomos, include roughly equal proportions of fruits (including seeds), young leaf parts, and mature leaf parts. P. verus consumed almost no mature leaf parts, few fruits and seeds, and many young leaf parts. Seeds were the dominant fruit item eaten by all, and the fruits they selected were generally dull in color and non-fleshy, in contrast to the brightly-colored, pulpy fruits eaten by guenons.


* Presence of platelet-activating factor and its receptor in baboon (Papio spp) spermatozoa. Roudebush, W. E., Ito, C., Purnell, E. T., & Cui, X. (Reproductive Primatology Lab., Dept of OB/GYN, Med. Univ. of South Carolina, 304 Walton Research Bldg (RS-304), 39 Sabin St, Charleston, SC 29425-2233). International Journal of Primatology, 1999, 20, 273-280.
. . . Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a novel potent signaling phospholipid which has unique pleiotropic biological properties in addition to platelet activation, and has been detected in several species, including humans and squirrel monkeys. In this study, endogenous lipids were extracted from mature hybrid baboon epididymal spermatozoa and assayed for the presence of PAF by radioimmunoassay. PAF was in all samples assayed. Baboon spermatozoa possess PAF-receptors most prevalently along the neck and midpiece regions. Additional studies should elucidate the role of PAF in spermatozoal function.

* Reproductive behavior of female Propithecus verreauxi at Beza Mahafaly, Madagascar. Brockman, D. K. (Dept of Biological Anthropology & Anatomy, Box 90383, Duke Univ., Durham, NC 27708). International Journal of Primatology, 1999, 20, 375-398.
. . . The degree to which sexual behavior is tightly synchronized to periovulatory events in sifaka was assessed via the behavioral, hormonal, and social correlates of reproduction in a free-ranging population. Estrus was behaviorally characterized by 0.5- to 96-hour periods of receptivity when females were motivated and willing to mate, the latter not always coincident with periovulatory events. Females exhibited age- and rank-related asynchronous receptivity, and in some cases, periovulatory synchrony within groups. Sifaka were not pair-bonded. Most females mated with multiple males, temporally ordering partners based on male residence and age. Mating was limited by male mate-guarding and sexual aggression by males, female mate competition, and aversions to mating with certain partners. It was facilitated by surreptitious copulations, positive mate choice, and the availability of nonresident mating partners.

* * *

All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. [401-863-2511; FAX: 401-863-1300]
e-mail address:

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The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health Service Grant RR-00419 from the Comparative Medicine Program, National Center for Research Resources, N.I.H.

Cover illustration of a slow loris (Nycticebus coucang bengalensis) by John Henry Drake (LABS of Virginia)

Copyright (c) 1999 by Brown University

Assistant Editor: Elva Mathiesen

Last updated: September 19, 1999