Understanding Challenges

Understanding the Challenges 

Attaining age-appropriate English literacy skills poses many challenges to English language learners (ELLs). ELLs must make progress in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. As English-proficient students make progress in developing literacy skills, ELLs must make even faster progress in order to catch up and close the achievement gap.

Advanced levels of literacy require many types of linguistic, cultural, and world knowledge. According to the National Reading Panel, research indicates that basic reading and writing require competence in the following five areas:

  1. Phonemic Awareness

  2. Phonics

  3. Vocabulary Development

  4. Fluency

  5. Comprehension

Each of these areas has specific implications for ELLs.