The Early Modern period most commonly refers to the period from roughly 1500 to 1800. Those centuries saw the beginning of a new world system, with the New World and Old World becoming interdependent. The period is often considered to have laid the foundations of modernity because of the rapid transformations in society and politics, economics, law, warfare, culture, religion, ideas, and science and technology; such profound transformations have also made it a kind of testing-ground for many explanations of historical change. Members of the department study such themes in and between the British Isles and in western and eastern, and northern and southern Europe, as well as North America, Latin America, Africa, the Middle East, and East Asia. Research materials are strongly represented at the Hay and Rockefeller Libraries while interdisciplinary programs such as that in “Renaissance and Early Modern Studies” foster collaboration with students and faculty in other departments and are complemented by the Department’s Medieval and Early Modern History Seminar (MEMHS); the presence on campus of the John Carter Brown Library makes the study of the early modern Americas and their connections to Europe, Asia, and Africa during the colonial period particularly vigorous.