Institute at Brown for Environment and SocietyIBES

Graduate Students: Earth, Environmental & Planetary Sciences

Method development of quantitative collection of nitrogen containing pollutants in the atmosphere, with no fractionation or known fractionation of isotopes will allow better understanding and more con dence in concentrations and reactivity of nitrogen containing pollutants. These pollutants can cause severe adverse effects on the aquatic ecosystems (fresh and salt water), as well as soils, air quality and more. Understanding the source, chemistry, transport, and deposition is necessary to understanding the cause and effect of pollution and how practices need to change to sustain a healthy environment.

Abigail's interests span a broad range of problems involving climate dynamics, geophysical fluid dynamics and turbulence. She primarily uses theory and models to study the non-linear interaction between small scale processes and larger scale dynamics.Her PhD is focused on ocean fronts- the interface between waters of different temperature, salinity or density- which play an important role in contributing to upper ocean mixing processes, control ocean-atmosphere interactions and help define the ocean’s response to climate change.

Abigail is working on improving current understanding of fronts in the presence of turbulence and mixing, primarily using theory and models, and plans to eventually implement these findings in global climate models.

Cheung is interested to understand how climate has varied and changed throughout the mid-late Holocene and the past two millennia. At Brown, he is using biomarkers in sediment cores to reconstruct decadal to centennial climate variability in the Pacific. He is also interested in using climate models to understand the dynamics and mechanisms of driving variations in the Pacific.

Sydney studies the reactive nitrogen cycle in changing cryosphere environments using stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen to study the intersection between atmospheric chemistry, deposition and biogeochemistry. Her current work is focused in the Colorado alpine where lake water chemistry is heavily influenced by atmospheric pollution, glacial melt and biological processes. However, air pollution mitigation implemented by the Clean Air Act suggest that atmospheric nitrogen deposition plays a much smaller role in driving ecosystem biogeochemical changes, so why are background levels of inorganic nitrogen species so high in these lakes and what mechanisms are driving these nutrient levels? This work has implications for ecosystem health and environmental change, but also human health as these high alpine snow-fed lakes are critical sources of drinking water for local communities.

Sarah uses satellite remote sensing to study Arctic lakes and rivers to better understand how the Arctic hydrologic system is responding to climate change. She is particularly interested in broad-scale patterns in Arctic terrestrial hydrology and the development of new remote sensing techniques for studying hydrologic change. Her current project involves analyzing seasonal lake dynamism using CubeSat satellite imagery across the North American high latitudes.

Xiaoyu (Rain) Fan utilizes the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and Coastal and Regional Ocean Community Model (CROCO) to model oceanic flows and Rhode Island waterways. Fan is currently researching the comparison of hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic factors impacting Narragansett Bay.  

Sloane studies organic geochemical proxies found in eastern African lake sediment cores to reconstruct past variability in precipitation and temperature in this region since the Last Glacial Maximum. She is currently working on generating precipitation records from high-elevation lakes in eastern Africa and comparing these to existing hydroclimate records from this region to better understand the hydroclimate history and atmospheric processes controlling rainfall in eastern Africa.  She also hopes to use her research to understand how precipitation and temperature will change in the future and the impact these changes will have on the ecology, cultural practices, and economy associated with natural environments in eastern Africa.

Emily is interested in the relationship between atmospheric deposition and nitrogen biogeochemistry in urban, coastal environments. The goal of her research is to identify atmospheric deposition impacts on Narragansett Bay by characterizing the isotopic composition of local nitrogen sources. Narragansett Bay extends a gradient of sources (including: the city of Providence, industrial plants, golf courses, wastewater treatment plants, and a major airport); as a result, the bay is impacted immensely by urban deposition, resulting in poor water quality. Emily seeks to: 1) quantify how much nitrogen is entering the bay through atmospheric deposition and in what form, and 2) use isotopic signatures to trace sources to understand the biogeochemical impacts on local ecosystems.

Jennifer is interested in how plants respond to and affect the climate.  For her master's thesis at Wesleyan University, she measured the composition and morphology of fossil leaves to estimate the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere millions of years ago.  At Brown, she plans to investigate feedbacks between vegetation, hydrology, and climate.

Ethan Kyzivat uses remote sensing observations to study surface hydrology. In particular, he is interested in hydrologic change in arctic areas, including from anthropogenic climate change. This past summer, he participated in a month-long field trip in northern Alberta, taking river measurements as part of a satellite calibration team. He plans to use this data to study hydraulic geometry and water classification from imagery.

Ekaterina is interested in using satellite imagery to understand hydrological change in the northern latitudes. Climate change is predicted to affect the northern latitudes disproportionately compared to the rest of the planet. It is therefore critical that we understand how hydrologic systems in the Arctic function and respond to a changing environment.

Sarah is a Ph.D. graduate student in the Department of Earth, Environmental, and Planetary Sciences, conducting paleoclimate and paleoceanography research. She works on paleoclimate reconstructions to understand past and future climate dynamics. Sarah is currently studying sediment cores from the Bay of Bengal using multiproxy techniques to understand Indian Summer Monsoon dynamics and mechanisms. It is important to understand the Indian Monsoon system response to climate changes since over half of the world’s population lives in the Indo-Asian monsoon region depending upon monsoonal rains for water and agriculture.

A variety of means exist by which earth scientists study environmental change on geologic timescales; in particular, organic molecules preserved in ocean and lake sediments can be used to reconstruct the histories of monsoons, El Niño, and other massive weather events on thousand- to million-year timescales. Constraining the past meteorological changes that occur in response to deglaciation, insolation, and rising levels of greenhouse gases helps climate modelers project trends into the near future as anthropogenic warming continues. In turn, better-informed models and predictions have the potential to characterize particularly high-risk regions and thus ameliorate the impacts of weather-driven, climate-ampli ed natural disasters.

Nora studies organic geochemical and molecular biomarkers in lake sediments to develop climatic and ecological reconstructions over time. Her current research focuses on multi-decadal and centennial climate changes in the North Atlantic over the past 2,000 years using lake sediment records from Iceland and the Azores to refine our understanding of the natural processes (i.e., the Atlantic Multi-Decadal Variability) governing climate fluctuations. In addition, Nora is interested in understanding how human settlement in Iceland and the Azores has contributed to major environmental changes.

Karen's main research interest is on alkenone-based paleoclimate proxy. By applying multi-disciplinary approaches from DNA sequencing to gas chromatography, Karen has gained valuable information about the alkenone producing haptophyte community. That information will greatly improve our ability to decipher temperature and salinity signals in sediment record in sites such as Chesapeake Bay.

Mengxi is interested in the land-atmosphere interaction from the perspective of energy and hydrology. Over the past two years at Brown, he studied the empirical relationship between atmospheric energetics and convective strength in the tropics using satellite data. He is currently working on computer simulation of moist convection in a tropical rainforest, which is an extension of his previous project.

Weixuan's research interest is to study the formation of Asian monsoons and the mechanisms that might affect their wind and precipitation. She is using modeing skills that estimate how the East Asian monsoon is different from the Indian monsoon, and what contributes to these differences.

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