At least 12 courses in Italian Studies are required of doctoral students. All courses must be taken at the 1000-, or 2000-level. Students in their first year typically take 8 courses (including the Colloquium which carries a credit for the year). Students in their second year take 6 courses when teaching, including the Colloquium. One of these 6 courses can be a Reading & Research (independent study) course, in preparation for the Preliminary Examination. Up to 8 credit courses (depending on the subject and including a course fulfilling one of the two language requirements) can be transferred from a Laurea Specialistica or M.A. in Italian Studies.