Affiliated Faculty

Faculty and Professional Staff Working on Latin America and the Caribbean 

CLACS collaborates and maintains relationships with over 100 faculty members and professional staff in over 30 departments at Brown University. Below are links to the research and projects of Brown University faculty affiliated with the Center.

Explore an interactive map of international research at Brown, organized by country, at the Office of Global Engagement website

Also, be sure to check out our publication Focus on Faculty. A pdf version of each issue is accessible at the end of this page.

Departments

Africana Studies - American Studies - Anthropology - Archeology and the Ancient World - Biology - ChemistryCognitive, Linguistic, and Psychological Sciences - Comparative Literature - Computer Science - Ecology and Evolutionary Biology - Economics - Education - Environmental Studies - French Studies - Geological Sciences - Hispanic Studies - History - History of Art and Architecture - International Advancement Office - International Relations - Italian StudiesJohn Carter Brown Library - John Hay Library - Marine Biology Lab - Music - Office of Global Engagement - Physics - Political Science - Portuguese and Brazilian Studies - Public Health - Religious Studies - Sociology - Theater Arts and Performance Studies - Warren Alpert Medical School - Watson Institute of International and Public Affairs

Africana Studies

Geri Augusto Visiting Associate Professor of Africana Studies. Visiting Fellow at the Institute for Environment and Society. Specializations: Indigenous knowledge systems in southern Africa and the Caribbean, knowledges of the enslaved in the Caribbean and Brazil.

 Anthony Bogues Lyn Crost Professor of Social Sciences and Critical TheoryDirector of the Center for the Study of Slavery and Justice. Specializations: Caribbean Studies. 

 

Anani Dzidzienyo Associate Professor of Africana Studies and Portuguese and Brazilian Studies. Specializations: Afro-Brazilians and the Brazilian polity, racial dimensions of Brazil’s relations with Africa.  

 

Brian Meeks Professor of Africana Studies. Chair of Africana Studies. Specializations: Social and political movements in the Caribbean.



Keisha-Khan Perry Associate Professor of Africana Studies. Specializations: Black women’s activism in Brazil, African diaspora studies, race relations in Latin America. 

 

Besenia Rodriguez Associate Dean of the College for Research and Upperclass Studies. Specializations: Black Latin American cultural and political history. 

 

American Studies

Leticia Alvarado Assistant Professor of American Studies. Specializations: Political contours of Latino abject aesthetic strategies.

 

Kevin Escudero Postdoctoral Fellow in American Studies. Specializations: Comparative ethnic studies, critical refugee studies, immigration and citizenship, law and society, social movements. 

 

Ralph Rodríguez Associate Professor of American Studies, Ethnic Studies, and English. Director of Graduate Studies. Specializations: Latina/o lit. and culture, graphic novels and comic books, queer theory, race and ethnicity.

 

Elena Shih Assistant Professor of American Studies. Specializations: Labor in the global south, global ethnography.




Anthropology

 Paja Faudree Assistant Professor of Anthropology. Specializations: Indigenous social movements, language and politics, ethnicity and nationalism, Mexico, Ecuador. 

 

Matthew Gutmann Professor of Anthropology. Director of BIARI. Specializations: Gender/sexuality, health, politics, ethnicity, militarism, Mexico, Latina/os in the US. 

Dwight Heath, Emeritus Professor Emeritus of Antropology. Specializations: Anthropology of alcohol abuse. 

Stephen Houston Dupee Family Professor of Social Science. Professor of Anthropology and Archaeology. Director of Early Cultures. Specializations: Mesoamerican culture, history, cultural anthropology, Mesoamerican and Mayan art. 
 

Jessaca Leinaweaver Vartan Gregorian Associate Professor of Anthropology. Specializations: Transnational migration, adoption, child agency in Peru. 

 

Andrew Scherer Assistant Professor of Anthropology and Archaeology. Specializations: Archeology of Mesoamerica. 


 

Kay Warren Charles C. Tillinghast Jr. '32 Professor in International Studies. Professor of Anthropology. Director of the Pembroke Center. Specializations: Social movements and ethnic nationalism in Latin America, Latin American foreign aid donors. 

Archeology and the Ancient World

John Cherry Professor of Archeology and the Ancient World and Classics. Specializations:  Changes in material culture on Crete in the 3rd and 2nd millennium, diachronic field survey project on Montserrat in the Caribbean Lesser Antilles. 

 

Rolf Winkes Professor Emeritus of Classical Archeology, History of Art and Architecture, and Old World Archeology. Specializations: Excavation in Portugal. Collaboration with Universidade de São Paulo, Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia. 

 

Biology 

Christopher de Graffenried Assistant Professor of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology. Specializations:  Kinetoplastid parasites including Leishmania, a devastating pathogen endemic to Brazil. 


Amanda Jamieson Assistant Professor of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology. Specializations:  Host resilience mechanisms to infectious and non-infectious diseases of the lung, tropical diseases. 

 

Gary Wessel Professor of Biology. Specializations: Molecular biology, cell biology, biochemistry, fertilization, germline determination, primordial germ cells, reproductive biology, use of marine organisms indigenous to the Caribbean and Latin American waters for evolutionary and comparative studies, human infertility issues and solutions unique to Latin America. 

Chemistry 

Wolfgang Peti  Professor of Chemistry. Professor of Medical Science. Specializations: MAP kinases, NMR spectroscopy, PP1, biofilm calcineurin, cancer, immunology, academic ties to Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. 

 

Cognitive, Linguistic, and Psychological Sciences

Scott AnderBois Assistant Professor of Cognitive, Linguistic and Psychological Sciences. Specializations: Semantics, pragmatics, Mayan languages.

Joachim Krueger Professor of Cognitive, Linguistic and Psychological Sciences. Specializations: social projection, social cognition, psychology in business and economics. 


Comparative Literature

 Forrest Gander Adele Kellenberg Seaver '49 Professor of Creative Writing. Professor of Literary Arts. Professor of Comparative Literature. Specializations: Mexican and US literature, translation of Latin American poetry. 

 

 Esther Whitfield Associate Professor of Comparative Literature. Associate Professor of Hispanic Studies. Specializations: Contemporary Latin American literature, Cuban culture and literature, Caribbean and transatlantic studies. 

 

Computer Science

Gabriel Taubin Associate Professor of Computer Science. Associate Professor of Engineering. Specializations: Applied computational geometry, computer graphics, geometric modeling, 3D photography, computer vision, Argentina. 


Ecology and Evolutionary Biology 

Mark Bertness Robert P. Brown Professor of Biology. Specializations: Conservation Biology in South America. 


 

Linda Deegan Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. Specializations: Stream ecosystems in the Amazon River, effects of land-use change on biogeochemical cycling and biodiversity in Mato Grosso. 

 

Erika Edwards Associate Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. Director of the Herbarium. Specializations: Botany, evolutions, Venezuela, Dominican Republic. 

 

Fred Jackson Director and Teaching Associate of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. Specailizations: Medicinal plants in indigenous South America, ethnobotany. 

 

Stephen Porder Associate Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Environment and Society. Co-Director of the Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Graduate Program. Specializations: Ecology, biogeochemistry, geology, rainforests, Brazil. 

Jeremy Rich Assistant Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. Speciliazations: Microbial life in the coastal waters of the Western Antarctic Peninsula. 

 

Jon Witman Professor of Biology. Specializations: Biodiversity, macroecology, South Pacific. 
 

 

Economics

 Pedro Dal Bó Professor of Economics. Specializations: Experimental economic game theory, political economy. 

 

Andrew Foster Professor of Economics. Director of Population Studies. Specializations: Demography, development, education, empricial microeconomics. 


Justine Hastings Associate Professor of Economics. Specializations: Consumer behavior and its implications for firm strategy and optimal public policy design. 

 

John V. Henderson Professor Emeritus of Population Studies. Specializations: Urbanization, democratization, Brazil. 
 

 

Sriniketh Nagavarapu Assistant Professor of Economics and Environmental Science. Specializations: Environmental and labor economics in developing countries. 

 

Education

Daniel Bisaccio Lecturer in Education. Director of Science Education. Specializations: Biological diversity education in Central and South America. 

 

Environmental Studies

Heather Leslie Peggy and Henry D. Sharpe Assistant Professor of Environmental Studies. Assistant Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. Specializations: Ecology, policy, and management of coastal marine ecosystems in Mexico and elsewhere. 

Dawn King Lecturer in Environment and Society. Specializations: Urban agriculture and local food economies, environmental and LGBT social movements in Latin America, sustainable development in Cuba. 
 

French Studies

Pierre Saint-Amand Francis Wayland Professor of French Studies and Comparative Literature. Specializations: Haitian-French Caribbean. 

 

Réda Bensmaia University Professor Emeritus of French Studies and Comparative Literature. Specializations: African, North African, and Canadian francophone literatures and cultures. 
 

Geological Sciences

 Karen Fischer Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences. Specializations: Research on the structure of the earth’s crust using seismic waves in Costa Rica and Nicaragua.

 

Jack Mustard Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences. Professor of Environmental Studies. Specializations: Morphology, planetary geology. 

 

Alberto Saal Associate Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences. Specializations: Continents, crustal rock, lunar magma, ocean islands, volcanic rock. 


Hispanic Studies

 José Amor y Vázquez, Emeritus  Professor Emeritus of Hispanic Studies. Specializations: Latin American Literature.

 


Laura Bass Associate Professor of Hispanic Studies. Associate Professor of History of Art and Architecture. Chair of Hispanic Studies. Specializations:  Cultural production of early modern Spain and the broader Hispanic world, theater and visual culture, fashion and urbanism, authorship, poetics, and literary canon formation.

Beth Bauer Senior Lecturer in Hispanic Studies. Specializations: Spanish language, Mexico, Dominican Republic. 

 


Michelle Clayton
 Associate Professor Hispanic Studies and Comparative Literature. Specializations: Modern and contemporary Latin American and European writing and film, avant-garde aesthetics and poetry, dance, art history, and media studies.

Jill Kuhnheim Visiting Professor of Hispanic Studies. Specializations: Spanish American literature, health care, contemporary representations of gender in Latin America. 

 

Felipe Martinez-Pinzon Assistant Professor of Hispanic Studies. Specializations: Latin American literature, Amazon, costumbrismo, romanticism 

 

Aldo Mazzucchelli Adjunct Assistant Professor of Hispanic Studies. Specializations: Latin American literature in the 19th-20th centuries. 

 

Stephanie Merrim Professor of Comparative Literature. Professor of Hispanic Studies. Specializations: 16th-century New World historiography, the Baroque, 17th-century women's writing in Spanish, English, and French, contemporary North and South American literatures, Latin American existentialism. 

Julio Ortega Professor of Hispanic Studies. Specializations: Contemporary Latin American novel and poetry, theory of Latin American literature, especially Mexico and the Andes. 


Nidia Schuhmacher Senior Lecturer in Hispanic Studies. Specializations: Spanish Language. 
 

 

Victoria Smith Senior Lecturer in Hispanic Studies. Specializations: Spanish Language. 

 

 

Silvia Sobral Senior Lecturer in Hispanic Studies. Specializations: Spanish Language. 

 

 

Sarah Thomas Assistant Professor of Hispanic Studies. Specializations: Representation of outsider or marginalized subjects, particularly in the context of civil conflict or dictatorship and its aftermath, in Spanish literature and film.
 

Mercedes Vaquero Professor of Hispanic Studies. Director of Medieval Studies. Specializations: Medieval Spanish epic, chronicles, ballads, and oral tradition, Spanish philology.

 

History 

R. Douglas Cope Associate Professor of History. Specializations: Colonial Mexican history, comparative history of the Americas, Native American peoples of Latin America.

 

Roquinaldo Ferreira Vasco da Gama Associate Professor of Early Modern Portuguese History. Specializations: African, Colonial Brazil, Atlantic history. 

 

James Green Carlos Manuel de Cespedes Professor of Modern Latin American History and Portuguese and Brazilian Studies. Director of the Brazil Initiative. Specializations: Modern Brazil, modern Latin America, gender and sexuality in Latin America. 

 

Evelyn Hu-Dehart Professor of History. Professor of American Studies. Specializations: Modern Mexico, Asian migration to Latin America and the Caribbean.

 

Jennifer Lambe Assistant Professor of Latin American and Caribbean History. Specializations: Mental illness and healing in Cuba, Cuban film.

 

Iris Montero Postdoctoral Fellow at the Cogut Center for the Humanities. Specializations: History of science and medicine in the Iberian Atlantic, Mesoamerican visual thinking, colonial Latin American literature.

 

Jeremy Mumford Professor of History. Specializations: Indigenous movements, the Andean region. 
 


Amy Remensnyder Professor of History. Specializations: Cultural and religious history of medieval Europe.



Daniel Rodriguez Assistant Professor of History. Specializations: history of public health, medicine, and disease in Latin America and the Caribbean.

 

History of Art and Architecture

Camila Maroja Postdoctoral Fellow in International Humanities. Specializations: Decolonization in art, exhibition history, global art history, Latin American art, modern and contemporary art. 
 

 

Catherine Zerner Professor Emerita of History of Art and Architecture. Specializations: History of art and architecture in Latin America.


 International Advancement Office

Joshua Taub Assistant Vice President for International Advancement.

 

 

International Relations

 Claudia Elliott Associate Director of the International Relations Program. Senior Lecturer in International Studies. Faculty Fellow. Specializations: Theory of democracy and democratization, electoral reform, comparative democratization, political representation, Latin America, Venezuela, Mexico.

Italian Studies

Massimo Riva Royce Family Professor of Teaching Excellence. Professor of Italian Studies. Chair of Italian Studies. Specializations: Italian film and literature, Renaissance studies, collaborative research with scholars in Argentina and Mexico, data visualization in the humanities. 

John Carter Brown Library

 Norman Fiering Emeritus Director and Librarian.

 

 

Neil Safier Associate Professor of History. Director of John Carter Brown Library.

 

 

Kenneth Ward Maury A. Bromsen Curator of Latin American Books. 

John Hay Library

Patricia Figueroa Curator of Iberian and Latin American Collections. 

 

 

Holly Snyder Curator of American Historical Collections. Spcializations: Anglophone Caribbean, scholarly resources. 

 

 

Marine Biology Lab

 Christopher Neil Associate Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (MBL). Phyllis and Charles M. Rosenthal Director of the Brown-Marine Biological Laboratory Partnership. Specializations: Water and elements cycles in the tropical forests of the Amazon.

Music

Matthew McGarrell Director of Bands and Senior Lecturer in Music. Specializations: Trombone, directing, Jazz band, collaborations with Cuban Jazz musicians. 



 Kiri Miller Associate Professor of Music. Specializations: Ethnomusicology, Latino diaspora music, diaspora music in the Americas.

 

Joshua Tucker Assistant Professor of Music. Postdoctoral Research Associate. Specializations: Popular music and social change in Latin America. 

Office of Global Engagement

Sonia Feigenbaum Associate Provost for Global Engagement. Specializations: Development and implementation of internationalization strategy, public program, global partnerships, education policy, Puerto Rico. 

 

Physics

Meenakshi Narain Professor of Physics. Specializations: Experimental high energy, TeV energy scale, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico. 

 

David Targan Adjunct Associate Professor of Physics. Associate Dean of the College for Science. Director of the Science Center. Specializations: Astronomy, astrophysics, science education. 

 

Political Science

Peter Andreas  John Hay Professor of International Studies and Political Science. Specializations: US Borders, Mexico. 

 

 

Robert Blair Joukowsky Family Assistant Professor of Political Science and International and Public Affairs. Specializations: International intervention and the consolidation of state authority after civil war, rule of law and security institutions, Colombia. 

Jeff Colgan Richard Holbrooke Assistant Professor of Political Science and International and Public Affairs. Specializations: Geopolitics of energy, Venezuela. 

 

Janice Gallagher Postdoctoral Fellow in International and Public Affairs. Specializations: Human rights and citizen action in Mexico and Colombia. 


Richard Locke Professor of Political Science and International and Public Affairs. Brown University Provost. Specializations: International labor rights, comparative political economy, employment relations, and corporate responsibility.

 

Richard Snyder Professor of Political Science. Director, Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies. Specializations: Comparative politics and political economy, government and politics of Latin America, especially Mexico. 

 

Rebecca Weitz-Shapiro  Stanley J. Bernstein '65 P '02 Assistant Professor of Political Science. Specializations: Machine politics in Latin America.


 

Portuguese and Brazilian Studies

Onésimo Almeida Professor of Portuguese and Brazilian Studies.  Specializations: Portuguese and Brazilian intellectual history.

 

Maria Pacheco Executive Director of the Education Alliance. Specializations: English as a second language (ESL), culturally responsive pedagogy, second language acquisition, and cognitive development. 
 

Leonor Simas-Almeida Senior Lecturer in Portuguese and Brazilian Studies. Specializations: Portuguese language and literature, Luso-African literature. 


Patricia Sobral Senior Lecturer in Portuguese and Brazilian Studies. Specializations: Portuguese language, Brazilian cinema, Brazilian literature.

Luiz Valente Professor of Portuguese and Brazilian Studies and Comparative Literature. Specializations: 19th and 20th century Brazilian literature and intellectual history, comparative literature, literature of the Americas. 

 

Nelson Vieira University Professor of Portuguese and Brazilian Studies. Professor of Judaic Studies. Chair of Portuguese and Brazilian Studies. Specializations: Modern Brazilian literature, 19th century novels of Brazil, women writers from Brazil, Jewish-Brazilian narratives. 

Public Health

Timothy Empkie Clinical Associate Professor of Family Medicine. Specializations: Family Medicine in Hispaniola and the Dominican Republic, healthcare in Haiti. 

 

Omar Galarraga Assistant Professor of Health Economics. Specializations: Comparative health care systems, statistical analysis of population-level datasets, and global health economics. 


Matthew Mimiaga Professor of Epidemiology. Professor of Behavioral and Social Sciences. Director for the Institute for Community Health Promotion. Specializations: HIV prevention, mental health and substance use disorders, psychiatric and infectious disease epidemiology, sexual and gender minority health, global health. 

Don Operario Associate Dean for Academic Affairs in the school of Public Health. Associate Professor of Public Health in Behavioral and Social Sciences. Specializations: Social psychological determinants of HIV, sexual health, substance abuse, mental health, as influenced by socioeconomic inequality. 

Religious Studies

Thomas Lewis Associate Professor of Religious Studies. Specilizations: Liberation theology in Latin America.
 

 

Sociology

Patrick Heller Professor of Sociology and International and Public Affairs. Specializations: Inequality and development, urban transformation, democracy, globalization - Brazil, India, South Africa. 

 

Paget Henry Professor of Africana Studies and Sociology. Specializations: Dependency theory, Caribbean political economy, sociology of religion, sociology of art and literature, africana philosophy and religion, race and ethnic relations, poststructuralism, critical theory. 

José Itzigsohn Professor of Sociology. Specializations: Sociology of development, labor markets in the Caribbean, social movements in Argentina. 

 

David Lindstrom Professor of Sociology. Chair of Sociology. Specializations: Demography, migration, reproductive change, Latin America (Mexico and Guatemala), Africa. 

 

John Logan Professor of Sociology. Director of Spatial Structures in the Social Sciences. Specializations: Urban sociology, race and ethnicity, migration and immigration, family, political sociology. 

 

Timmons Roberts Ittleson Professor of Environmental Studies and Sociology. Specializations: Climate change and international development. 

 

Andrew Schrank Olive C. Watson Professor of Sociology and International Studies. Specializations: Comparative sociology - political, economic, historical.

 

Leah VanWey Associate Professor of Sociology. Senior Deputy Director (Research) of the Institute at Brown for Environment and Society. Specializations: Migration and household livelihoods in developing countries, community economic development in Oaxaca, Mexico. 

Theatre Arts and Performance Studies

Patricia Ybarra Associate Professor of Theatre Arts and Performance Studies. Specializations: Theatre historiography of the Americas, theatre, nationalism, and American identities in North America.


Warren Alpert Medical School

Bruce Becker Professor of Emergency Medicine. Professor of Behavioral and Social Sciences. Specializations: Smoking cessation, refugee medicine, disaster relief, Nicaragua. 

 

Cesario Bianchi Associate Professor of Surgery (Rhode Island Hospital Cardiothoracic Research). CAPES Visiting Professor (Federal University of Goias, Brazil). Specializations: Research training for medical students (Santa Casa de Sao Paulo), effects of Brazilian natural products on heart diseases.

Joseph Bliss Associate Professor of Pediatrics. Specializations: Health care in Guatemala. 
 

 

Jeffrey Borkan Professor of Family Medicine. Chair of Family Medicine. Specializations: Doctor-patient communication and narratives, Dominican Republic.

 

Suzanne de la Monte Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. Professor of Neurosurgery. Specializations: Anatomic pathology, neuropathology, public health. 

 

Joseph Diaz Associate Professor of Medicine. Specializations: Dominican Republic exchange program for medical students.

 

David Egilman Clinical Professor of Family Medicine. Specializations: Occupational medicine, health and safety in the workplace, health issues in Latin America, Nicaragua, Cuba. 

Mark Fagan Professor of Medicine. Co-Director of the Department of Medicine Dominican Republic Exchange Program. 

Timothy Flanigan Professor of Medicine. Professor of Health Services - Policy and Practice. Specializations: HIV and Hepatitis infections in underserved communities. 

 

John Foggle Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine. Specializations: Emergency and trauma care, cultural context, Nicaragua. 

 

Beth Fuchs Assistant Professor of Medicine. Specializations: Infectious diseases, antibiotic and anti-fungal drug development.

 

Roberta Goldman Clinical Professor of Family Medicine. Specializations: Mid-life changes among Spanish-speaking Latinas, barriers to care in U.S. Hispanic communities. 

 

Skip Granai Professor Of Obstetrics And Gynecology. Specializations: Gynecologic oncology, obstetric and gynecology. 


Emily Harrison Clinical Associate Professor of Family Medicine. Specializations: Health care in Honduras. 

Rami Kantor Associate Professor of Medicine. Specializations:  HIV treatment monitoring, diversity, molecular epidemiology, evolution of resistance to antiretroviral drugs.



Michael Lepore Adjunct Assistant Professor of Health Services, Policy and Practice. Specializations: Medicare, Medicaid, early childhood care. 



Barry Lester Professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior. Professor of Pediatrics. Director of the Center for the Study of Children at Risk. Specializations: Children at risk, pediatrics, psychiatry and human behavior, developmental psychopathology, prenatal substance exposure. 

Simin Liu Professor of Epidemiology. Professor of Medicine. Specializations: Pharmacoepidemiology, aging, cardiovascular disease, clinical trials, diabetes, endocrinology, meta-analysis, molecular genetics, nutrition, obesity, sex hormones. 


Stephen McGarvey Professor of Epidemiology. Director of International Health Institute. Specializations: International health and environmental issues, global health. 

 

Amy Nunn Assistant Professor of Behavioral and Social Sciences. Assistant Professor of Medicine. Specializations: Generic medicines for HIV in Brazil and other developing countries. 


Pablo Rodriguez
 Clinical Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Specializations: Health care in the Dominican Republic. 

Peter Simon Clinical Associate Professor of Epidemiology. Specializations: Health care in Haiti. 
 

 

Barbara Stonestreet Professor of Pediatrics. Specializations: Health care in the Dominican Republic. 
 

 

Patrick Vivier  Royce Family Associate Professor of Teaching Excellence. Associate Professor of Health Services - Policy and Practice. Specializations: Medicaid managed care, childhood obesity, health issues for low income families, health services research, immunizations, information technology, lead poisoning, preventive services. 

Watson Institute of International and Public Affairs

Andrew Blackadar Director of Curriculum Development for the Choices Program. Specializations: International topics for high school social studies classrooms, Brazil's transition to democracy. 

 

Peter Evans Senior Fellow of International Studies. 

 

 

Jane Jaquette Adjunct Professor of International Studies. Specializations: Latin American politics, women’s movements in Latin America.

 

Abraham Lowenthal Adjuct Professor of International Studies. Specializations: Economic reforms in Latin America, East Asia, and Central Europe. 

 

 Barbara Stallings William R. Rhodes Research Professor. Professor of International Studies (Research). Specializations: Economic reform and development in Chile.