CGHCR researchers helped to develop the Minimum Dataset (MDS), which has been in use by CMS since 1990. The Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a federally mandated assessment tool for all residents in Medicare- or Medicaid-certified facilities. Federal regulations require nursing homes to complete MDS assessments for each resident at admission and quarterly thereafter, for as long as a resident remains in the nursing home. The MDS, now in its third version (MDS 3.0) includes over 400 variables which contain detailed information about residents’ health conditions, such as individual cognitive functioning status (e.g. cognitive performance scale), behavior patterns, physical functioning status (e.g. activities of daily living), and disease diagnoses, and is used by CGHCR researchers for many projects. Susan Miller is leading scholarship of culture change practices in U.S. nursing homes and she and colleagues have studied how the prevalence of culture change practices vary in relation to a state's long term care policies as well as how practices are related to quality outcomes.