The Mylonakis lab developed new models to identify novel antimicrobials and study basic, evolutionarily conserved aspects of microbial virulence and host response. Also, established the cost-effectiveness of antimicrobial stewardship and new diagnositics. His work identified new classes of antimicrobial compounds, new targets for antimicrobial therapy and a deeper understanding of host–pathogen interaction. This diverse background includes areas such as molecular biology, immunology, biostatistics, decision-making analysis, risk assessment, outcomes research and cost-effectiveness studies. These investigations have identified novel virulence factors, cross kingdom pathogen-pathogen interactions, novel antimicrobial agents and evolutionarily conserved traits that are involved in host virulence and immune responses during infection.