Although international wars involving large armies have become rare, civil wars persist and deadly attacks by nongovernmental organizations have increased, both within and across national borders.1 The violent conflicts that include major transnational actors often have an impact on several countries and attract armed intervention, sometimes from several countries. This article examines conflicts of this type, as well as inter-state wars, focusing on both the actual and potential contributions of a constructive conflict approach to reducing the incidence and severity of these diverse kinds of world struggles.
Louis Kriesberg is Professor Emeritus of Sociology, Maxwell Professor Emeritus of Social Conflict Stud- ies, and founding director of the Program on the Analysis and Resolution of Conflicts (PARC) at Syracuse University. He writes and speaks on issues relating to U.S. foreign policy, the Middle East, and the fields of conflict resolution, peace studies, and constructive conflict. His most recent book is Realizing Peace: A Constructive Conflict Approach (Oxford University Press, 2015).