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India’s Emerging Security Policy

India’s Evolving National Identity
Sumit Ganguly

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India’s security policy has evolved considerably since the country achieved its independence from Britain in 1947. Today, India faces several internal threats and two compelling external threats. The internal threats stem from the resurgence of neophyte Maoist guerilla violence in parts of northern and central India, an unsettled ethnic/secessionist movement in the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir, continuing discontent in parts of India’s northeast, and growing radicalization of a small but significant segment of the Muslim community in the country. Finally, India also suffers from an antiquated and cumbrous defense acquisition system—one that has ill-served its armed forces and that has left the country increasingly vulnerable to external threats. What India appears to lack is a discernible grand strategy that could provide the necessary guidance to its national security policies. Instead, the government seems to be both reactive and idiosyncratic, with a minimal overarching strategic design.