Trichodysplasia spinulosa-Associated Polyomavirus Uses a Displaced Binding Site on VP1 to Engage Sialylated Glycolipids.Ströh LJ, Gee GV, Blaum BS, Dugan AS, Feltkamp MC, Atwood WJ, Stehle T.

Human polyomavirus receptor distribution in brain parenchyma contrasts with receptor distribution in kidney and choroid plexus. Haley SA, O'Hara BA, Nelson CD, Brittingham FL, Henriksen KJ, Stopa EG, Atwood WJ.

The Greater Affinity of JC Polyomavirus Capsid for α2,6-Linked Lactoseries Tetrasaccharide c than for Other Sialylated Glycans Is a Major Determinant of Infectivity. Ströh LJ, Maginnis MS, Blaum BS, Nelson CD, Neu U, Gee GV, O'Hara BA, Motamedi N, DiMaio D,Atwood WJ, Stehle T.

Modulation of a pore in the capsid of JC polyomavirus reduces infectivity and prevents exposure of the minor capsid proteins. Nelson CD, Ströh LJ, Gee GV, O'Hara BA, Stehle T, Atwood WJ.

Small-molecule inhibitors of JC polyomavirus infection. Yatawara A, Gaidos G, Rupasinghe CN, O'Hara BA, Pellegrini M, Atwood WJ, Mierke DF.

An animal model for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Haley SA, Atwood WJ.

Structural optimization of a retrograde trafficking inhibitor that protects cells from infections by human polyoma- and papillomaviruses. Carney DW, Nelson CD, Ferris BD, Stevens JP, Lipovsky A, Kazakov T, DiMaio D, Atwood WJ, Sello JK.

JC polyomavirus attachment, entry, and trafficking: unlocking the keys to a fatal infection. Maginnis MS, Nelson CD, Atwood WJ.

Gallic acid-based small-molecule inhibitors of JC and BK polyomaviral infection. O'Hara BA, Rupasinghe C, Yatawara A, Gaidos G, Mierke DF, Atwood WJ.

Host cell autophagy promotes BK virus infection.Bouley SJ, Maginnis MS, Derdowski A, Gee GV, O'Hara BA, Nelson CD, Bara AM, Atwood WJ, Dugan AS

A retrograde trafficking inhibitor of ricin and Shiga-like toxins inhibits infection of cells by human and monkey polyomaviruses. Nelson CD, Carney DW, Derdowski A, Lipovsky A, Gee GV, O'Hara B, Williard P, DiMaio D, Sello JK, Atwood WJ. MBio. 2013 Nov 12;4(6):e00729-13.

The human alpha defensin HD5 neutralizes JC polyomavirus infection by reducing endoplasmic reticulum traffic and stabilizing the viral capsid. Zins SR, Nelson CD, Maginnis MS, Banerjee R, O'Hara BA, Atwood WJ. J Virol. 2014 Jan;88(2):948-60.

A structure-guided mutation in the major capsid protein retargets BK polyomavirus. Neu U, Allen SA, Blaum BS, Liu Y, Frank M, Palma AS, Ströh LJ, Feizi T, Peters T, Atwood WJ, Stehle T. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9(10):e1003688.

Pseudovirus mimics cell entry and trafficking of the human polyomavirus JCPyV. Gee GV, O'Hara BA, Derdowski A, Atwood WJ. Virus Res. 2013 Dec 26;178(2):281-6.

5-HT2 receptors facilitate JC polyomavirus entry. Assetta B, Maginnis MS, Gracia Ahufinger I, Haley SA, Gee GV, Nelson CD, O'Hara BA, Allen Ramdial SA, Atwood WJ. J Virol. 2013 Dec;87(24):13490-8.

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy-associated mutations in the JC polyomavirus capsid disrupt lactoseries tetrasaccharide c binding. Maginnis MS, Ströh LJ, Gee GV, O'Hara BA, Derdowski A, Stehle T, Atwood WJ. MBio. 2013 Jun 11;4(3):e00247-13.

Genome-wide siRNA screen identifies the retromer as a cellular entry factor for human papillomavirus. Lipovsky A, Popa A, Pimienta G, Wyler M, Bhan A, Kuruvilla L, Guie MA, Poffenberger AC, Nelson CD, Atwood WJ, DiMaio D.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Apr 30;110(18):7452-7.

Reining in polyoma virus associated nephropathy: design and characterization of a template mimicking BK viral coat protein cellular binding. Audu CO, O'Hara B, Pellegrini M, Wang L, Atwood WJ, Mierke DF. Biochemistry. 2012 Oct 16;51(41):8092-9.

Molecular biology, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, the JC virus-induced demyelinating disease of the human brain. Ferenczy MW, Marshall LJ, Nelson CD, Atwood WJ, Nath A, Khalili K, Major EO. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2012 Jul;25(3):471-506.

The VP1 subunit of JC polyomavirus recapitulates early events in viral trafficking and is a novel tool to study polyomavirus entry. Nelson CD, Derdowski A, Maginnis MS, O'Hara BA, Atwood WJ. Virology. 2012 Jun 20;428(1):30-40.

BiP and multiple DNAJ molecular chaperones in the endoplasmic reticulum are required for efficient simian virus 40 infection.Goodwin EC, Lipovsky A, Inoue T, Magaldi TG, Edwards AP, Van Goor KE, Paton AW, Paton JC, Atwood WJ, Tsai B, DiMaio D. MBio. 2011 Jun 14;2(3):e00101-11.

 Taxonomical developments in the family Polyomaviridae. Johne R, Buck CB, Allander T, Atwood WJ, Garcea RL, Imperiale MJ, Major EO, Ramqvist T, Norkin LC. Arch Virol. 2011 Sep;156(9):1627-34.

 The structure of avian polyomavirus reveals variably sized capsids, non-conserved inter-capsomere interactions, and a possible location of the minor capsid protein VP4. Shen PS, Enderlein D, Nelson CD, Carter WS, Kawano M, Xing L, Swenson RD, Olson NH, Baker TS, Cheng RH, Atwood WJ, Johne R, Belnap DM. Virology. 2011 Mar 1;411(1):142-52.

Structure-function analysis of the human JC polyomavirus establishes the LSTc pentasaccharide as a functional receptor motif. Neu U, Maginnis MS, Palma AS, Ströh LJ, Nelson CD, Feizi T, Atwood WJ, Stehle T. Cell Host Microbe. 2010 Oct 21;8(4):309-19.

 SV40 associated miRNAs are not detectable in mesotheliomas. Gee GV, Stanifer ML, Christensen BC, Atwood WJ, Ugolini D, Bonassi S, Resnick MB, Nelson HH, Marsit CJ, Kelsey KT. Br J Cancer. 2010 Sep 7;103(6):885-8.

Role of N-linked glycosylation of the 5-HT2A receptor in JC virus infection. Maginnis MS, Haley SA, Gee GV, Atwood WJ. J Virol. 2010 Oct;84(19):9677-84.

Unique susceptibility of a human lung carcinoid tumor cell line to infection with BK virus. Haley SA, O'Hara BA, Banerjee R, Atwood WJ. Virus Res. 2010 Apr;149(1):128-32.

 Transcriptional regulation of BK virus by nuclear factor of activated T cells. Jordan JA, Manley K, Dugan AS, O'Hara BA, Atwood WJ. J Virol. 2010 Feb;84(4):1722-30.

Modulation of PML protein expression regulates JCV infection. Gasparovic ML, Maginnis MS, O'Hara BA, Dugan AS, Atwood WJ. Virology. 2009 Aug 1;390(2):279-88.

JC virus: an oncogenic virus in animals and humans? Maginnis MS, Atwood WJ. Semin Cancer Biol. 2009 Aug;19(4):261-9.

High-throughput cell-based screen for chemicals that inhibit infection by simian virus 40 and human polyomaviruses. Goodwin EC, Atwood WJ, DiMaio D. J Virol. 2009 Jun;83(11):5630-9.

The Polyomaviridae: Contributions of virus structure to our understanding of virus receptors and infectious entry. Neu U, Stehle T, Atwood WJ. Virology. 2009 Feb 20;384(2):389-99.

Human alpha-defensins inhibit BK virus infection by aggregating virions and blocking binding to host cells. Dugan AS, Maginnis MS, Jordan JA, Gasparovic ML, Manley K, Page R, Williams G, Porter E, O'Hara BA, Atwood WJ. J Biol Chem. 2008 Nov 7;283(45):31125-32.

Evolutionarily conserved function of a viral microRNA. Seo GJ, Fink LH, O'Hara B, Atwood WJ, Sullivan CS. J Virol. 2008 Oct;82(20):9823-8.

Human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells express the serotonin receptor and are susceptible to JC virus infection. Schaumburg C, O'Hara BA, Lane TE, Atwood WJ. J Virol. 2008 Sep;82(17):8896-9.

 Direct correlation between sialic acid binding and infection of cells by two human polyomaviruses (JC virus and BK virus). Dugan AS, Gasparovic ML, Atwood WJ. J Virol. 2008 Mar;82(5):2560-4.

 Interferon beta1-a and selective anti-5HT(2a) receptor antagonists inhibit infection of human glial cells by JC virus. O'Hara BA, Atwood WJ. Virus Res. 2008 Mar;132(1-2):97-103.

Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) plays a role in SV40 infection. Manley K, O'Hara BA, Atwood WJ. Virology. 2008 Mar 1;372(1):48-55.

 Identification of amino acid residues in BK virus VP1 that are critical for viability and growth.vDugan AS, Gasparovic ML, Tsomaia N, Mierke DF, O'Hara BA, Manley K, Atwood WJ. J Virol. 2007 Nov;81(21):11798-808.

 Microarray analysis of glial cells resistant to JCV infection suggests a correlation between viral infection and inflammatory cytokine gene expression. Manley K, Gee GV, Simkevich CP, Sedivy JM, Atwood WJ. Virology. 2007 Sep 30;366(2):394-404.

JC virus minor capsid proteins Vp2 and Vp3 are essential for virus propagation. Gasparovic ML, Gee GV, Atwood WJ. J Virol. 2006 Nov;80(21):10858-61.

 NFAT4 is required for JC virus infection of glial cells. Manley K, O'hara BA, Gee GV, Simkevich CP, Sedivy JM, Atwood WJ. J Virol. 2006 Dec;80(24):12079-85.

Invasion of host cells by JC virus identifies a novel role for caveolae in endosomal sorting of noncaveolar ligands. Querbes W, O'Hara BA, Williams G, Atwood WJ. J Virol. 2006 Oct;80(19):9402-13.

 Update on BK virus entry and intracellular trafficking. Dugan AS, Eash S, Atwood WJ. Transpl Infect Dis. 2006 Jun;8(2):62-7.

 Virus receptors and tropism. Ashok A, Atwood WJ. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006;577:60-72.

 The role of sialic acid in human polyomavirus infections. Gee GV, Dugan AS, Tsomaia N, Mierke DF, Atwood WJ. Glycoconj J. 2006 Feb;23(1-2):19-26.

The human polyomaviruses. Eash S, Manley K, Gasparovic M, Querbes W, Atwood WJ. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006 Apr;63(7-8):865-76.

An N-linked glycoprotein with alpha(2,3)-linked sialic acid is a receptor for BK virus. Dugan AS, Eash S, Atwood WJ. J Virol. 2005 Nov; 79(22):14442-5.

 Involvement of cytoskeletal components in BK virus infectious entry. Eash S, Atwood WJ. J Virol. 2005 Sep;79(18):11734-41.

 The human polyomavirus, JCV, uses serotonin receptors to infect cells. Elphick GF, Querbes W, Jordan JA, Gee GV, Eash S, Manley K, Dugan A, Stanifer M, Bhatnagar A, Kroeze WK, Roth BL, Atwood WJ. Science. 2004 Nov 19;306(5700):1380-3.

 Infection of vero cells by BK virus is dependent on caveolae. Eash S, Querbes W, Atwood WJ. J Virol. 2004 Nov;78(21):11583-90.

Modeling a sialic acid binding pocket in the external loops of JC virus VP1. Gee GV, Tsomaia N, Mierke DF, Atwood WJ. J Biol Chem. 2004 Nov 19;279(47):49172-6.

Polyomavirus nephropathy in kidney transplantation. Trofe J, Gordon J, Roy-Chaudhury P, Koralnik IJ, Atwood WJ, Alloway RR, Khalili K, Woodle ES. Prog Transplant. 2004 Jun;14(2):130-40

 Nuclear entry mechanism of the human polyomavirus JC virus-like particle: role of importins and the nuclear pore complex. Qu Q, Sawa H, Suzuki T, Semba S, Henmi C, Okada Y, Tsuda M, Tanaka S, Atwood WJ, Nagashima K. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jun 25;279(26):27735-42.

Differential distribution of the JC virus receptor-type sialic acid in normal human tissues. Eash S, Tavares R, Stopa EG, Robbins SH, Brossay L, Atwood WJ. Am J Pathol. 2004 Feb;164(2):419-28.

 A JC virus-induced signal is required for infection of glial cells by a clathrin- and eps15-dependent pathway. Querbes W, Benmerah A, Tosoni D, Di Fiore PP, Atwood WJ. J Virol. 2004 Jan;78(1):250-6.

Derivation of a JC virus-resistant human glial cell line: implications for the identification of host cell factors that determine viral tropism. Gee GV, Manley K, Atwood WJ. Virology. 2003 Sep 15;314(1):101-9.

Genotypes, archetypes, and tandem repeats in the molecular epidemiology and pathogenesis of JC virus induced disease. Atwood WJ. J Neurovirol. 2003 Oct;9(5):519-21.

Early events in the life cycle of JC virus as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Baum S, Ashok A, Gee G, Dimitrova S, Querbes W, Jordan J, Atwood WJ. J Neurovirol. 2003;9 Suppl 1:32-7.

Contrasting roles of endosomal pH and the cytoskeleton in infection of human glial cells by JC virus and simian virus 40. Ashok A, Atwood WJ. J Virol. 2003 Jan;77(2):1347-56.

Oligosaccharides as receptors for JC virus. Komagome R, Sawa H, Suzuki T, Suzuki Y, Tanaka S, Atwood WJ, Nagashima K. J Virol. 2002 Dec;76(24):12992-3000.

Construction of a novel JCV/SV40 hybrid virus (JCSV) reveals a role for the JCV capsid in viral tropism. Chen BJ, Atwood WJ. Virology. 2002 Sep 1;300(2):282-90.

Glial cells as targets of viral infection in the human central nervous system. Schweighardt B, Atwood WJ. Prog Brain Res. 2001;132:721-35.

HIV type 1 infection of human astrocytes is restricted by inefficient viral entry. Schweighardt B, Atwood WJ. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2001 Aug 10;17(12):1133-42.

A combination of low-dose chlorpromazine and neutralizing antibodies inhibits the spread of JC virus (JCV) in a tissue culture model: implications for prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of progressive multifocal leukencephalopathy. Atwood WJ. J Neurovirol. 2001 Aug;7(4):307-10.

Virus receptors in the human central nervous system. Schweighardt B, Atwood WJ. J Neurovirol. 2001 Jun;7(3):187-95.

CD4/CXCR4-independent infection of human astrocytes by a T-tropic strain of HIV-1. Schweighardt B, Shieh JT, Atwood WJ. J Neurovirol. 2001 Apr;7(2):155-62.

Propagation and assay of the JC virus. Liu CK, Atwood WJ. Methods Mol Biol. 2001;165:9-17.

JC virus binds to primary human glial cells, tonsillar stromal cells, and B-lymphocytes, but not to T lymphocytes. Wei G, Liu CK, Atwood WJ. J Neurovirol. 2000 Apr;6(2):127-36

JC virus enters human glial cells by clathrin-dependent receptor-mediated endocytosis. Pho MT, Ashok A, Atwood WJ. J Virol. 2000 Mar;74(5):2288-92.

Infection of glial cells by the human polyomavirus JC is mediated by an N-linked glycoprotein containing terminal alpha(2-6)-linked sialic acids. Liu CK, Wei G, Atwood WJ. J Virol. 1998 Jun;72(6):4643-9.

The human polyomavirus, JCV, does not share receptor specificity with SV40 on human glial cells. Liu CK, Hope AP, Atwood WJ. J Neurovirol. 1998 Feb;4(1):49-58.

JC virus infection of hematopoietic progenitor cells, primary B lymphocytes, and tonsillar stromal cells: implications for viral latency. Monaco MC, Atwood WJ, Gravell M, Tornatore CS, Major EO. J Virol. 1996 Oct;70(10):7004-12.

Evaluation of the role of cytokine activation in the multiplication of JC virus (JCV) in human fetal glial cells. Atwood WJ, Wang L, Durham LC, Amemiya K, Traub RG, Major EO. J Neurovirol. 1995 Mar;1(1):40-9.

An increase in p50/p65 NF-kB binding to the HIV-1 LTR is not sufficient to increase viral expression in the primary human astrocyte. Conant K, Atwood WJ, Traub R, Tornatore C, Major EO. Virology. 1994 Dec;205(2):586-90.

Stimulation of HIV type 1 gene expression and induction of NF-kappa B (p50/p65)-binding activity in tumor necrosis factor alpha-treated human fetal glial cells. Atwood WJ, Tornatore CS, Traub R, Conant K, Drew PD, Major EO. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1994 Oct;10(10):1207-11.

HIV-1 mRNA transcripts from persistently infected human fetal astrocytes. Atwood WJ, Tornatore CS, Meyers K, Major EO. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1993 Oct 29;693:324-5.

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of the brain. Atwood WJ, Berger JR, Kaderman R, Tornatore CS, Major EO. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1993 Oct;6(4):339-66.

Interaction of the human polyomavirus, JCV, with human B-lymphocytes. Atwood WJ, Amemiya K, Traub R, Harms J, Major EO. Virology. 1992 Oct;190(2):716-23.

Class I major histocompatibility proteins are an essential component of the simian virus 40 receptor. Breau WC, Atwood WJ, Norkin LC. J Virol. 1992 Apr;66(4):2037-45.

Class I major histocompatibility proteins as cell surface receptors for simian virus 40. Atwood WJ, Norkin LC. J Virol. 1989 Oct;63(10):4474-7.