Children can be at risk for non-optimal developmental outcome because of biological factors or social factors, or often because of both biological and social factors. The focus of our research at the Center is on the biological embedding of developmental processes in children at risk and how these processes are modified by environmental factors. The study of the interplay between biological and social factors provides an understanding of the mechanisms that determine developmental outcome. Current research at the Center includes studies of children with various risk factors including prenatal drug exposure, autism, prematurity, and maternal depression. We also study epigenetic mechanisms that affect outcome in children at risk. (see Ongoing Studies