Principal funding for this research is provided by the Population Dynamics Branch of the Eunice Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development, US NIH grant 1R01HD083374, “Migration, Urbanization and Health in a Transition Setting.” 

Additional funding has been provided by the Mellon Foundation, the Providence/Boston Center for AIDS Research (CFAR) under NIH grant P30AI042853.

The Agincourt HDSS has been funded by the Wellcome Trust, UK (grant 058893/Z/99/A, 069683/Z/02/Z, 069683/Z/08/Z) and the University of the Witwatersrand and Medical Research Council, South Africa.