Sources for the AAAH
In order to survey the processes of colonial conquest and occupation in any given year, we began with the following historical atlases and websites, which provided excellent introductions to the historical geography of Africa.
- Atlas zur Geschichte. Gotha: H. Haack, Geographisch-Kartographische Anstalt Gotha/Leipzig, 1976-1978.
- Africa and the European empires - 1880-1914. Concise Atlas of World History, Andromeda (1997). Retrieved 08 July 2005.
- Haywood, John. Atlas of World History [electronic resource]. Abingdon, Eng.: Andromeda, 2002.
- Kasule, Samuel. The History Atlas of Africa. New York: Macmillan, 1998.
- Kwamena-Poh, Michael, et al. African History in Maps. Harlow, Essex, U.K.: Longman Group, 1982.
- McEvedy, Colin. The Penguin Atlas of African History. London: Penguin Books, 1983.
- Rand McNally Historical Atlas of the World. Illinois: Houghton Mifflin Co, c1997.
We also consulted a variety of historical maps in order to corroborate the information from the atlases. Many of these maps are made available on the Internet by universities and museums. The following websites contain the most extensive collections of twentieth century African maps.
Historical Texts and Documents
After consulting general references and primary sources, we corroborated the information using historical texts, ranging from general textbooks to specialized journal articles. The following textbooks of African history deserve mention for their informative maps as well as clear narratives on political history.
- Oliver, Roland and Atmore, Anthony. Africa since 1800. Great Britain: Cambridge University Press, 1981.
- Shillington, Kevin. History of Africa. New York: St. Martins Press, 1995.
International Boundary Studies, issued by the United States State Department, were also important resources on the history of border establishment. These documents are made available on the internet by the Florida State University of Law.
The following works provided a general background and in some cases, detailed information on specific conflicts.
- Crowder, Michael (ed). West African Resistance; The Military Response to Colonial Occupation. New York: Africana Publishing, 1971.
- Farwell, Byron. The Great War in Africa 1914-18. New York: W.W. Norton,1986.
- Hallam, W.K.R. The Life and Times of Rabih Fadl Allah. Ilfracombe: Stockwell, 1977.
- Iliffe, John. A Modern History of Tanganyika. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979.
- Shillington, Kevin. History of Africa. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989.
- Vandervort, Bruce. Wars of Imperial Conquest in Africa, 1830-1914. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998.
Timelines on several websites served as a starting point in our research on violence, although many offered conflicting information. Specifically, the sites listed here proved to be valuable and more credible.
- AfricaVenir: Foundation for Development, International Cooperation and Peace. “Africa Between 1880 and 1935.”
- Memorial Gates Trust. “First World War.”
- Ganse, Alexander. “World History at KMLA.”
- African Unification Front. “Historia Africana: Dates for Major African Events.”
- “History of Morocco.”
- Johnson, Larry and Lamb, Annette. “Battles, Campaigns, & Events of WWII.” June 2005.
- “Military History.”
- Mills, T.F. “Wars, Campaigns and Operations of Britain, the Empire and Commonwealth.” http://www.regiments.org/wars/index.htm
- Mirak-Weissbach, Muriel. “The history of the Nile region.” http://www.aboutsudan.com/general_information/history.htm. Executive Intelligence Review June 9, 1995, pp. 19-27
- “Samori Toure.” Black History Pages.
- Saavedra, Martha. “Chronology of Sudanese History.”
- Stokes, Phil. “Phil’s World War II Pages.”
- Stone, Bill. “Operation Ironclad: Invasion of Madagascar.”
- Timelines of History. June, 2005.
- “Wars and Conflict: World War Two.” BBC.co.uk
Using the names of places found in the above sources, we searched for the longitude and latitude readings of battle locations using EarthSearch.
Sources on the History of Violence, 1946 – 2002
Data on conflicts after 1945 are taken from a database compiled by the International Peace Research Institute in Oslo The database provides precise geographical locations and years for the conflicts. It also differentiates between three levels of intensity, represented on the AAAH by X’s of different sizes.
We conducted most of our research for on the political systems of post-colonial Africa on the Worldwide Web. The following sites were especially helpful. We consulted several sources to determine each classification.
When the best classification was in question, we consulted specialized academic publications.
Population and GDP
Data on population and economic trends after 1960 are taken from the World Bank Development Index Database.