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Rhythmic Hyobranchial Behaviors in Tetrapods
Elizabeth L. Brainerd

Buccal pump
Used for lung ventilation by amphibians and air-breathing fishes. Retraction and depression of the hyobranchium draws air into the buccal cavity (oropharynx) either through the nares or the mouth. The mouth and nares are then sealed and the hyobranchium is protracted and elevated to force air into the lungs.

Buccal oscillation
Non-ventilatory expansion and compression of the buccal cavity, performed with the mouth closed. Air is drawn into the buccal cavity through the nares and is pumped out again without entering the lungs. Buccal oscillation behavior is seen in amphibians, non-serpentine squamates ("lizards") and crocodilians. Buccal oscillation draws air over the nasal epithelia and is thought to contribute to olfaction in these groups (it is analogous to mammalian sniffing, but decoupled from lung ventilation.)

Gular flutter
Non-ventilatory expansion and compression of the buccal cavity, performed with the mouth open. Gular flutter behavior is seen in crocodilians, birds and a few non-serpentine squamates ("lizards"). This behavior is associated with heat stress and is thought to contribute to evaporative cooling.

Gular pump
Contributes to lung ventilation during exercise in some non-serpentine squamates ("lizards"). The gular pump is very similar in function to the buccal pump used by air-breathing fishes and amphibians, but the hyobranchium is generally situated more in the throat (gular) region and the mechanism for sealing the nares is different in amphibians and "lizards".

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