Copyright by David Geggus.

1. Vie privée, politique et militaire de Toussaint Louverture par un homme de couleur (Paris: Magasin de Librairie, 1801); Vita privata politica e militare di Toussaint-Louverture, scritta da un uomo del suo colore, prima traduzione italiana adorna del suo ritratto (Milan: Stamperìa Italiana e Francese, 1802); [Charles-Yves] Cousin d’Avallon, Histoire de Toussaint-Louverture (Paris: Pillot, 1802); René Périn, L'incendie du Cap: ou, le règne de Toussaint-Louverture (Paris: Marchand, 1802); [Louis] Dubroca, Vie de Toussaint-Louverture (Paris: Dubroca, 1802), which was quickly translated into English, Dutch, Danish, and Swedish, and into German in 1806; Toussaint-Louverture’s frühere Geschichte nach englischen Nachrichten bearbeitet (Fürth: Bureau für Litteratur, 1802); Morning Post, 2 February 1803; Annual Register for 1802 (London: Otridge, 1803), 211-212.

2. [James Stephen], Buonoparte in the West Indies, or the History of Toussaint Louverture, the African Hero (London: Hatchard, 1803). A revised version was published as James Stephen, The History of Toussaint Louverture (London: Butterworth, 1814). 

3. The undocumented claim that blacks in Rio de Janeiro were wearing in 1804 badges inscribed “Toussaint Louverture, king of the blacks,” reported in Yann Moulier Boutang, “La fin de l’esclavage: Haïti et les modèles de transition abolitionnistes,” 202, in Rétablissement de l’esclavage dans les colonies françaises, ed. Yves Bénot, Marcel Dorigny (Paris: Maisonneuve et Larose, 2003), is a garbled version of an incident concerning Jean-Jacques Dessalines, not Toussaint. 
4. The northern planter who published Histoire des désastres de Saint-Domingue in mid-1795 did not mention him, but briefly introduced him in his Réflexions sur la colonie de Saint-Domingue that appeared a year later.  The Times of London first mentioned him (as “Pouissaint L’Ouverture”) on 7 November 1794, and the London Gazette in December 1798. The Times erroneously referred to him several times as a “mulatto general” between January 1799 and October 1800.

5. Deborah Jenson, “Toussaint Louverture Spin Doctor? Launching the Haitian Revolution in the French Media,” in Doris Garraway, ed., Tree of Liberty: Cultural Legacies of the Haitian Revolution in the Atlantic World (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2008), 57-60. It is quite untrue that Toussaint gave interviews that appeared in the French press “throughout the second half of the 1790s,” as claimed in Nick Nesbitt, Universal Emancipation: The Haitian Revolution and the Radical Enlightenment (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2008), 59.

6. David Geggus, “British Opinion and the Emergence of Haiti, 1791-1805,” in Slavery and British Society, 1776-1848, ed. James Walvin (London: Macmillan, 1982), 130-131.

7. [François] Pamphile de Lacroix, Mémoires pour servir à l’histoire de la révolution de Saint-Domingue (Paris: Pillet, 1819), 2:204.

8. See above, note 1.  As well as presenting him as a chaste and hard working African house servant, a noble defender of the weak, and an avid reader of the Classics, the German work was the first to claim royal ancestry for Toussaint and is the only one ever to depict him as a maroon. 

9. Geggus, “British Opinion,” 141.

10. See above, note 1. Though dated 1801, the events it mentions places its publication after mid-March 1802. The author may be the insurgent leader and future Haitian statesman Juste Chanlatte (1766-1828) or, more probably, his uncle, General Antoine Chanlatte (1752-1815).

11. However, the work condemns the southern rebellion and its leader, André Rigaud. The book’s likely author was connected with the colony’s West Province. Antoine Chanlatte was at different times Toussaint’s opponent and subordinate. Juste Chanlatte briefly sided with the pro-slavery British invaders.

12. Vie privée, 10, 16-17, 42, 107.

13. Capt. Rainsford, A Memoir of Transactions that took place in St. Domingo in the Spring of 1799; affording an idea of…the real character of its black governor, Toussaint L’ouverture (London: Scott, 1802). A revised edition appeared two months later as Marcus Rainsford, St. Domingo, or an Historical, Political and Military Sketch of the Black Republic, with a View of the Life of Toussaint L’Ouverture (London: Scott, 1802).

14. An expanded edition was published in 1805.

15. James McCune Smith, Lecture on the Haytien Revolutions, with a Sketch of the Character of Toussaint L’Ouverture (New York: Colored Orphans Asylum, 1841); Charles Wyllys Elliott, Saint Domingo, its Revolution and its Hero, Toussaint L’Ouverture (New York: J. Dix, 1855); William Wells Brown, St Domingo, its Revolutions and its Patriots (Boston: Bela Marsh, 1855); William Wells Brown, The Black Man, his Antecedents, his Genius, and his Achievements (New York: T. Hamilton, 1863); Wendell Phillips, The St. Domingo Insurrection: Toussaint L'Ouverture, the John Brown of St.Domingo (New York, 1860); Wendell Phillips, Toussaint L’Ouverture: A Lecture (Boston, 1861); Jacqueline Bacon, Maurice Jackson, eds., African Americans and the Haitian Revolution (New York: Routledge, 2009); Matthew J. Clavin, Toussaint Louverture and the American Civil War: The Promise and Peril of a Second Haitian Revolution (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011), 201.

16. Alfred Hunt, Haiti’s Influence on Antebellum America: Slumbering Volcano in the Caribbean (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1988), 84-106.

17. Adolphe Thiers, Histoire du Consulat et de l’Empire (Paris: Paulin, 1845), 173-185. 

18. David Geggus, “Haiti and the Abolitionists: Opinion, Propaganda and International Politics in Britain and France, 1804-1838,” in David Richardson, ed., Abolition and its Aftermath: The Historical Context, 1790-1916 (London: Frank Cass, 1985), 113-140.

19. Harriet Martineau, The Hour and The Man: A Historical Romance (New York: Harper Brothers, 1841); The Iris, or Literary Messenger, 1 (1841): 183-4.

20. John R. Beard, Life of Toussaint Louverture: The Negro Patriot of Hayti (London: Ingram, Cooke, 1853); John R. Beard, Life of Toussaint Louverture: A Biography and Autobiography (Boston: J. Redpath, 1863), vi.

21. Clavin, Toussaint Louverture.

22. Augustin Régis, Mémoire historique sur Toussaint-Louverture, ci-devant général en chef de l'armée de Saint-Domingue, justifié par ses actions des accusations dirigées contre lui (Paris: Scherff, 1818).

23. Pamphile de Lacroix, Mémoires, 1:300-305, 394-410, 2:45-46, 198-211.

24. Charles-Malo, Histoire d’Haïti (Ile de Saint-Domingue) (Paris: Marchand, 1825); Antoine Métral, Histoire de l'insurrection des esclaves dans le nord de Saint-Domingue (Paris: Scherff, 1818); Métral, Histoire de l’expédition des Français à Saint-Domingue sous le consulat de Napoléon Bonaparte (1802-1803) suivie des mémoires et notes d’Isaac Louverture (Paris: Fanjat, 1825).

25. Percy Waxman, The Black Napoleon (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1931), 6.  Comte actually classed Toussaint in his lowest rank of the luminaries of world history, along with Madison, Kosciuscko, Louis XIV, and Saladin.  This was three ranks below Charlemagne and Frederick II; two below the Buddha and Cromwell; and one below Washington, Bolívar, and Jefferson.

26. J.-Hippolyte-Daniel de Saint-Anthoine, Notice sur Toussaint Louverture (Paris: Lacour, 1842), 28-29. In Isaac Louverture’s papers, however, this plan of going to Africa is located in 1802, after Toussaint’s surrender to General Leclerc and is described less clearly as “to do...what he had done on the island.” A margin note (probably by Gragnon-Lacoste) glosses that phrase as “to civilize Africa through work and education”: Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Manuscrits, NAF 6864, f. 88. Three decades later, Gragnon-Lacoste claimed to be the first to reveal this story, and used it deflect charges that Toussaint sought independence by claiming he wanted to raise the French flag over new African conquests: Thomas-Prosper Gragnon-Lacoste, Toussaint-Louverture, général en chef de l'armée de Saint-Domingue, surnommé le premier des noirs (Paris: Durand, 1877), 202-3.

27. Toussaint needed to cultivate British goodwill, because of the British navy’s ability to blockade Saint Domingue. Although documentary proof of Toussaint’s actions was published as early as 1910, historians of the revolution ignored this episode until the late 1970s. See "Letters of Toussaint Louverture and of Edward Stevens, 1798-1800," American Historical Review 16 (1910): 83.

28. Joseph Saint-Rémy, Vie de Toussaint-L'Ouverture (Paris: Moquet, 1850); Joseph Saint-Rémy, Pétion et Haïti, 5 vols. (Paris: Saint-Rémy, 1854-57); Thomas Madiou, Histoire d'Haïti, 3 vols. (Port-au-Prince: Courtois, 1847-1848); Beaubrun Ardouin, Études sur l'histoire d’Haïti, 11 vols. (Paris: Dézobry & Madeleine, 1853-60).

29. Joseph Saint-Rémy, Mémoires de général Toussaint-Louverture, écrits par lui-même (Paris: Pagnerre, 1853), 17, 19.

30. Gragnon-Lacoste, Toussaint-Louverture, 1.

31. David Geggus, Haitian Revolutionary Studies (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2002), 126.

32. Victor Schoelcher, Vie de Toussaint Louverture (Paris: Ollendorff, 1889), 303-4; Geggus, Haitian Revolutionary Studies, 127.

33. Anténor Firmin, De l'égalité des races humaines: anthropologie positive (Paris: Pichon, 1885), 546-559.

34. David Aliano, “Revisiting Saint Domingue: Toussaint L'Ouverture and the Haitian Revolution in the French Colonial Debates of the Late Nineteenth Century,” French Colonial History 9 (2008): 15-35.

35. Carolyn Fick, The Making of Haiti: The Saint Domingue Revolution from Below (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1990); Alejo Carpentier, El reino de este mundo (Mexico City: Edición y Distribución Ibero Americana, 1949).

36. David Nicholls, From Dessalines to Duvalier: Race, Colour and National Independence in Haiti (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979), 85-107; David Nicholls, “A Work of Combat: Mulatto Historians and the Haitian Past,” Journal of Interamerican Studies 16:1 (1974), 15-38.

37. Horace Pauléus Sannon, Histoire de Toussaint-Louverture, 3 vols. (Port-au-Prince: Héraux, 1920-1933); Jean Price Mars, “Toussaint Louverture,” Revue de la Société Haïtienne d'Histoire, de Géographie et de Géologie 57 (1945): 7-17; François Duvalier, Lorimer Denis, Le problème des classes à travers l’histoire d’Haïti (Port-au-Prince: Au service de la Jeunesse, 1948).

38. C.L.R. James, The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution (New York: Dial, 1938; 2nd ed., New York: Vintage, 1963); Aimé Césaire, Toussaint Louverture: La Révolution française et le problème colonial (Paris: Club français du livre, 1960).

39. David Scott, Conscripts of Modernity: The Tragedy of Colonial Enlightenment (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004), ch. 4.

40. James, Black Jacobins, 286.

41. Waxman, Black Napoleon; Karl Otten, Der schwarze Napoleon: Toussaint L'Ouverture und der Negeraufstand auf Saint Domingo (Berlin: Atlantis, 1931); Anatolii Vinogradov, The Black Consul (New York: Viking 1935); William Du Bois, "Haiti: A drama of the black Napoleon,” in Federal Theater Plays (New York: Random House, c1938); Raphael Tardon, Toussaint L'Ouverture, le Napoléon noir (Paris: Bellenand, 1951); Nicolas Saint-Cyr, Toussaint L'Ouverture; le Napoléon noir (Paris: Hachette 1985); James Hannon, The Black Napoleon: Toussaint L'Ouverture liberator of Haiti (Yucca Valley, CA: Pacific American, 1992); Martin Ros, Karin Ford, Night of Fire: The Black Napoleon and the Battle for Haiti (New York: Sarpedon, 1994).

42. Erwin Rüsch, Die Revolution von Saint Domingue (Hamburg: Friedrichsen, De Gruyter, 1930); Pierre Pluchon, Toussaint Louverture: De l'esclavage au pouvoir (Paris: L'École, 1979); Pierre Pluchon, Toussaint Louverture: Un révolutionnaire noir d'Ancien régime (Paris: Fayard, 1989).

43. Gabriel Debien, Jean Fouchard, Marie-Antoinette Ménier, "Toussaint Louverture avant 1789: Légendes et Réalités," Conjonction:Revue Franco-Haïtienne 134 (1977): 67-80. Debien and Ménier each discovered one of the key documents presented. Fouchard’s contribution to the article was its account of Toussaint’s descendants.

44. David Geggus, "Toussaint Louverture and the Slaves of the Bréda Plantations," Journal of Caribbean History 20 (1985-6): 33

45. Madison Smartt Bell, Toussaint Louverture: A Biography (New York: Pantheon, 2007).

46. David Geggus, “La Famille de Toussaint Louverture,” Généalogie et Histoire de la Caraïbe 174 (octobre 2004): 4319-4320; D. Geggus, “Les débuts de Toussaint Louverture,” Généalogie et Histoire de la Caraïbe 170 (mai 2004): 4173-4174.

47. Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris, Manuscrits, Nouv. acq. fr. 6864, “Notes diverses d’Isaac sur la vie de Toussaint-Louverture.” These notes were published in Métral, Histoire de l’expédition, 325-339.

48. Geggus, “Les débuts,” 4173-4174. James and Césaire were exceptions to this tendency. In his 1842 history, Saint-Anthoine correctly stated Toussaint’s relationship to Gaou Guinou, whom he called a “powerful king”: Notice, 1-6. He wrongly thought Toussaint was orphaned as a child but correctly noted that his parents died almost at the same time. This can be verified in the surviving papers of the Bréda plantation: AN, 18 AP 3, dossier 12. 

49. Geggus, “La famille,” 4320; Ralph Korngold, Citizen Toussaint (London: Gollancz, 1945), 258-9; Timoléon C. Brutus, Rançon du génie ou la leçon de Toussaint Louverture (Port-au-Prince: Théodore, 1946), 1:46.

50. Robin Law, The Slave Coast of West Africa, 1550-1750 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991), 271.

51. Jean-Louis Donnadieu, Un Grand seigneur et ses esclaves: Le comte de Noé entre Antilles et Gascogne, 1728-1816 (Toulouse: Presses Universitaires du Mirail, 2009), 96-100.

52. On Isaac’s true age, see Geggus, “La famille,” 4320.

53. Different parts of the puzzle can be found in Dominique Rogers, “Les Libres de couleur dans les capitales de Saint-Domingue: fortune, mentalités et intégration à la fin de l’Ancien régime (1776-1789)” Thèse de doctorat de l’université (Université de Bordeaux III, 1999), 164; Jean-Louis Donnadieu, “La Famille ‘oubliée’ de Toussaint Louverture,” Bulletin de la Société Archéologique et Historique du Gers 401 (2011): 357-365; Jacques de Cauna, “Dessalines esclave de Toussaint?” Outre-Mers. Revue d'Histoire, 374-375 (2012): 319-322.

54. David Geggus, “Toussaint Louverture avant et après le soulèvement de 1791,” in Mémoire de révolution d'esclaves à Saint-Domingue, ed. Franklin Midy (Montréal: CIDHICA, 2006), 112-132.

55. Madiou, Histoire, 1:93, 100; Saint-Rémy, Vie, 18; Ardouin, Etudes (1958 ed.) 1:49-51, 4:57; C. N. Céligni Ardouin, Essais sur l’histoire d’Haïti (Port-au-Prince: Bouchereau, 1865), 16-17; Beauvais Lespinasse, Histoire des affranchis de Saint-Domingue (Paris: Kugelmann, 1882), 15, 343-344; Hannibal Price, De la réhabilitation de la race noire par la République d'Haïti (Port-au-Prince: Verrollot, 1900), 295; Sannon, Histoire, 1:88; Mentor Laurent, Erreurs et vérités dans l’histoire d’Haïti (Port-au-Prince: Telhomme, 1945),18-19; Gérard Laurent, Coup d’oeil sur la politique de Toussaint-Louverture (Port-au-Prince: Deschamps, 1949), 34-35; Saint-Victor Jean-Baptiste, Haïti, sa lutte pour l'indépendance (Paris: Nef, 1957), 185; Jean Fouchard, Toussaint Louverture (Port-au-Prince: Deschamps, nd), 32.

56. Korngold, Citizen Toussaint, 59-60, 65-67; Bell, Toussaint Louverture, 77-79; Carolyn Fick, The Making of Haiti: The Saint Domingue Revolution from Below (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1990), 92. 

57. For example, Gros, Isle St.-Domingue, Province du Nord. Précis historique (Paris : Potier de Lille, 1793), 9-12; Contre-amiral Reveillère, Polverel et Sonthonax (Paris: Librairie Baudouin, 1891), 8-13.

58. David Geggus, “Toussaint Louverture and the Haitian Revolution,” in Profiles of Revolutionaries in Atlantic History, 1750-1850, ed. R. William Weisberger, Dennis P. Hupchick, David L. Anderson (New York: Columbia University Press, 2007),  115-135.

59. Pluchon, Toussaint Louverture: un révolutionnaire noir, 76, 142; Pierre Pluchon, Toussaint Louverture d’après le général Kerverseau (Port au Prince: Le Natal, nd), p. 20

60. The next three paragraphs are based on David Geggus, “Toussaint Louverture et l’abolition de l’esclavage à Saint-Domingue,” in Liliane Chauleau, ed., Les Abolitions dans les Amériques, actes du colloque organisé par les Archives départementales de la Martinique (Fort de France: Société des Amis des Archives, 2001), 109-116.

61. E.g. Nesbitt, Universal Emancipation, 146; Robin Blackburn,  The American Crucible: Slavery, Emancipation and Human Rights (London: Verso, 2011), 173.

62. Antonio del Monte y Tejada,  Historia de Santo Domingo (Santo Domingo: Amigos del País, 1892), 4:110;  Louverture, Notes diverses, 319.

63. Geggus, Haitian Revolutionary Studies, ch. 8.

64. [François Laplace], Reflexions sur la colonie de Saint-Domingue (Paris: Garnery, 1796), 1:33.

65. Archives Nationales, Paris, 195Mi1, doss. 8, item 10; National Archives, Kew, CO 245/1, ff. 68-75, Cathcart to Maitland, 26 November 1799;  Rayford Logan, The Diplomatic Relations of the United States with Haiti, 1776-1891 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1941), ch. 3; Christian Schneider, “Le Colonel Vincent, officier du génie à Saint-Domingue,” Annales Historiques de la Révolution Française 329 (2002): 101-102.

66. Ardouin, Etudes, 4:101-102; Madiou, Histoire, 1:442.

67. Firmin, De l'égalité des races, 553; Antoine Michel, La Mission du Général Hédouville (Port-au-Prince: np, 1929), 75; François Duvalier, Lorimer Denis, Problème des classes, 99; Laurent, Coup d’oeil, passim; Claude B. Auguste, Marcel B. Auguste, L’Expédition Leclerc, 1801-1803 (Port-au-Prince: Deschamps, 1986), 87-88.

68. Marcus Rainsford, An Historical Account of the Black Empire of Hayti (London: James Cundee, 1805), 252.

69. Cited in Alphonse de Lamartine, Toussaint Louverture: poème dramatique (Paris: Michel Lévy, 1850), xvii-xviii.

70. See above, note 1; Louis Dubroca, Vida de J. J. Dessalines, gefe de los Negros de Santo Domingo (Mexico City: Zúñiga y Ontiveros, 1806), following pp. 8, 44.

71. John Kay, A Series of Original Portraits and Caricature Etchings. With Biographical Sketches and Illustrative Anecdotes (Edinburgh: A. & C. Black, 1877), 2:478. Along with prints of Napoleon and Tsar Paul, this was almost the only one with a non-British subject in an opus of some 360 engravings.

72. Fritz Daguillard, Mystérieux dans la Gloire: Une exposition commémorant le bicentenaire  de la mort de Toussaint Louverture (Port-au-Prince: MUPANAH, 2003), 12.

73. Grégory Pierrot, "'Our Hero': Toussaint Louverture in British Representations," Criticism 50:4 (2008): 592-596.
René Chartrand, Paul Chappell, British Forces in the West Indies, 1793-1815 (London: Osprey, 1996), 8-29. The issue is not clear-cut, however, for it seems the French increasingly issued round hats to their colonial troops during the Revolution. See

74. René Chartrand, Paul Chappell, British Forces in the West Indies, 1793-1815 (London: Osprey, 1996), 8-29. The issue is not clear-cut, however, for it seems the French increasingly issued round hats to their colonial troops during the Revolution. See René Chartrand, Napoleon’s Overseas Army (London: Osprey, 1989), 42-43; also the illustrations in Jacques de Cauna, Toussaint Louverture et l’indépendance d’Haïti (Paris: Karthala, 2004), following 128.

75. Rainsford, Memoir of Transactions, 22; Rainsford, Historical Account, 252.

76. “The imminent threat of slave revolution embodied by Toussaint had to be culturally neutralized”: Pierrot, “‘Our Hero,’” 592.  Publishing martial portraits of him and arguing, as did Rainsford, that his forces were unbeatable would seem a strange way of doing this.

77. Iconographie des contemporains depuis 1789 jusqu'à 1829 (Paris: Delpech, 1832), vol. 2. Shown here is the larger 1838 version which includes Maurin’s signature.

78. Saint-Rémy, Vie de Toussaint, front matter. Maurin, born in 1799, could not have been the original artist, as stated in Bell, Toussaint Louverture, 292.

79. Daguillard, Mystérieux dans la Gloire, 11.

80. Marcel Châtillon, Images de la Révolution aux Antilles (Basse-Terre: Société d’Histoire de la Guadeloupe, 1989), [6]; Daguillard, Mystérieux dans la Gloire,18; Jacques de Cauna, “Le Véritable visage de Toussaint-Louverture,” http://www.anneauxdelamemoire.org/en/resources-center/publications-and-conferences/articles-and-new-publications/item/431-le-véritable-visage-de-toussaint-louverture.html (Apr. 2013).

81. David Karel, Dictionnaire des artistes de langue française en Amérique du Nord (Québec: Presses de l’Université Laval, 1992), 825; David Sellin, “Denis A. Volozan, Philadelphia Neoclassicist,” Winterthur Portfolio 4 (1968): 118-128.

82. Gragnon-Lacoste, Toussaint-Louverture, front matter. Montfayon entered Toussaint’s service in late 1795.

83. The medallion is reproduced in de Cauna, Toussaint Louverture, following 128. De Cauna (p. 43) states it belonged to Toussaint himself but, as it forms a set with miniatures of his stepson Placide and his French bride, it probably dates from the 1820s.

84. Daguillard, Mystérieux dans la Gloire, 39-40.

85. De Cauna, Toussaint Louverture, 42. It was first published in Jacques de Cauna, Haïti: l’éternelle révolution (Port-au-Prince: Deschamps, 1997), 164-165.

86. De Cauna, “Véritable visage.”

87. Daguillard, Mystérieux dans la Gloire, 11. Daguillard calls the work a drawing; de Cauna, an engraving.

88. Patrick Sylvain, “Is this the authentic face of Toussaint L'Ouverture?” The Boston Haitian Reporter,10 May 2011; Haiti-Liberté, 2/8 November 2011, 9; Jacques de Cauna, “Le Vrai Visage de Toussaint Louverture?” http://www.anneauxdelamemoire.org/fr/component/k2/item/412-le-vrai-visage-de-toussaint-louverture-?.html (Apr. 2013).