Women and literacy
Prison Studies Project bringing together students from Harvard and students in prison. Each is part of a curriculum for college credit; classes focus on urban sociology, race, ethics, and transformative learning.
Italian prisoners get cut sentences for reading as UK 'book ban' continues 8 May, 2014, the Independent
Women in Prison - ACLU resources
the New Jim Crow: An Interview With Michelle Alexander - Rethinking Schools interviews Michelle Alexander about the school to prison pipeline.
Transcending Through Education Foundation - The Foundation seeks to provide resources and support for incarcerated individuals in Rhode Island state prisons to obtain higher education. Through a powerful narrative of self-empowerment and giving back, the Foundation seeks to reverse the School-to-Prison Pipeline and establish the Prison-to-School Pipeline.
Adrian Clarke, in the Paris Review, encodes narratives and makes photos of formerly incarcerated women here.
Rhode Island Department of Corrections: Cost per Offender -
FY 2012 Actual Expenditures (pdf document) - Adrian Clarke, in the Paris Review, encodes narratives and makes photos of formerly incarcerated women here.
Loury, Rich serve on NAS imprisonment panel - the National Academy of Sciences has convened a
committee that counts Brown professors Glenn Loury and Josiah D. Rich
among its members. They argue that imprisonment is often the
consequence of society’s failure to address underlying noncriminal
problems. read more here.
Daily Comment, June 14, 2012: June 14, 2012
in Prison: Lessons from the United Kingdom By Becky Mer - This report offers lessons from arts in criminal justice
in the United Kingdom. Designed as a practitioner guide, this work
draws on perspectives from arts practitioners, program participants,
and staff at secure facilities, including prisons, secure hospitals,
young offender institutions, and immigration detention centres. The
report is supplemented by a directory of British programs and an
extensive bibliography including books, publications, and films
Work after prison:
from the transitional jobs reentry demonstration is the first major
evaluation of the multi-year "Transitional Jobs Reentry Demonstration"
project funded by the Joyce
Foundation. MDRC is the lead evaluator in a team that includes
the Urban Institute and the University of Michigan. The project
programs that provide temporary subsidized jobs, support services, and
job placement help. The project's purpose is to test
transitional jobs as a promising approach to regular paid employment
for ex-offenders and other disadvantaged groups.
A key general finding is that transitional jobs, as currently designed and operated, do not sufficiently help people get or retain permanent jobs, nor do they have an impact on recidivism. Only about one-third of the participants was employed in the formal labor market at the end of a year. However, it is seen as a positive indicator that about 85 percent of the men assigned to the program actually worked in an income-subsidized transitional job, reflecting genuine eagerness to work. And the evaluators are inclined to think that subsidized transitional employment programs could be effective if they were strengthened with components that provide basic and workplace skills instruction and if better job- and post-placement services were built in.
The project website is posted at http://www.mdrc.org/project/transitional-jobs-reentry-demonstration#featured_content
The Caging of America Why do we lock up so many people? by Adam Gopnik in the New Yorker, 30 January, 2012
The Prison Arts Coalition - an independent space providing information and resources for people creating art in and around the American criminal justice system.
Prison Photography - words and
Teaching Film in Prison - Utne Reader on Ann Snitow’s terrific essay in Dissent
Perspectives on Incarceration - Panel of the 2011 Theories in Action conference at Brown University
Tim Robbins' Actors' Gang - September 18th LA TImes article; more about the Actors' Gang here. another article, Safety Valve for Inmates, the Arts, Fades in California, NY Times, 30 June, 2011.
Writers in Prison Network Ltd puts writers and creative artists into prisons to deliver creative writing, drama, video, music, oral storytelling, journalism, creative reading and publishing programmes.
prison initiative - restoring
higher-education to the prisons of New York.
Study: Prisons Lack Heroin Addiction
Treatment Despite Proven Benefits
Some prisoners are confined to art - art with inmates at the Rhode Island Adult Correctional
View From Inside: Why We Need Prison Reform - Blog post at change.org from Michael Santos, a federal
inmate and the author of Inside:
Life Behind Bars in America.
The Second Chance Act of 2007 - federal legislation designed to ensure the safe and successful return of prisoners to the community, passed by the US Senate, March 11, 2008.
mapping, from the Providence Plan:
behind Bars: AIDS Opens the Door, (preview
of) an article written by Kathy
Educational Review, Volume 63:2 (Summer 1993), and collected in
Enriching ESOL Pedagogy: Readings and Activities for Engagement,
Reflection, and Inquiry.
National Center on Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice - "examines the overrepresentation of youth with
disabilities at-risk for contact with the courts or already involved in
the juvenile delinquency system. We provide professional development
and technical assistance, conduct research and disseminate resources in
three areas of national significance: prevention of school
failure and delinquency, education and special education for
detained and committed youth, and transition services for youth
returning to schools and communities."
Voices - "an
inmate-written book, made to encourage reading and writing in
prisons. Within these pages twelve convict-authors reveal the
dramatic details of their lives and their struggles." Read more
about the Prison Voices
(scroll down to John Howard Society). Teachers' guide now on line
(Paperback edition here).
activistscholarshiplists.riseup.net - unmoderated listserv for
academics dedicated to putting their scholarly work at the service of
progressive movements, including anti-racist, feminist, environmental
justice, economic justice, disability rights, anti-globalization and
immigrant rights movements. Postings on roles, dilemmas, costs,
pedagogies and methodologies of activist scholarship are welcomed.
There's more to justice than prison - Alexander Provan profiles efforts to support reentry and otherwise address policy reform in Rhode Island and across the country. Providence Phoenix, April 15-21, 2005.
Voices from the Days of Slavery: Former Slaves Tell Their Stories - interviews, photographs and related documents from the American Folklife Center, Library of Congress.
Open Doors (formerly known as Rhode Island's Family Life Center) - resources to assist ex-offenders and their families by providing long-term holistic case management services starting prior to release from prison and extending up to 18 months thereafter.
The Blessing Way - a faith-based 501c.3 providing personalized support and guidance for men and women reentering Providence, RI or the greater Providence area from prison or drug treatment facilities.
Re-Entry Policy Council - resources, examination[s]of the many dimensions of prisoners returning home.
Dr. Anita Wilson - prison ethnographer whose general interests include all aspects of literacy-oriented activities, practices and artefacts within custodial settings. Site includes links to her writing and other useful resources.
At-Risk Youth, Juvenile Justice, Violence Prevention, Youth Courts and Service-Learning: Selected Resources
Back to School: A Guide to Continuing your Education after prison; (PDF document); more about the resource (and others) here.
Changing Minds: The impact of college in a maximum-security prison with thanks to Andy Nash - multiauthor study of positive impact of college on incarcerated women.
Education - Focus on Basics,
Volume 7, Issue D September
NALD Corrections Collection - resources from the Canadian National Adult Literacy Database
Correctional Service of Canada - including listings of programs and relevant resources.
Education Not Incarceration - a group of teachers, parents, students, and community members outraged by the current cuts in education funding.
- "Staffed primarily by ex-prisoners, The Fortune Society is a
community-based organization dedicated to educating the public about
criminal justice issues, and the root causes of crime. We also help
and at-risk youth break the cycle of crime and incarceration through a
broad range of services."
Incarcerated Parents and Their Families: A Review of the Literature
The European Prison Education Association - organisation "of prison educators, administrators, governors, researchers and other professionals whose interests lie in promoting and developing education and related activities in prisons throughout Europe in accordance with the recommendations of the Council of Europe." Site includes research, resource, events and other links to related information.
Transition to the Community: Prison Literacy Programs and Factors Which Lead to Success in the Community - Prepared forHuman Resources Development Canada, National Literacy Secretariat by Russell James Loewen October 1997. from the abstract: "Conclusions reached as a result of this research point to the importance of a safe and respectful prison school environment in order for learning to occur. The type of learning environment and subject content in prison schools are influenced, in part, by the philosophical orientation of teachers, prevailing penal philosophy, goals of the local prison administration, and the security level of the prison."
LINCS special collection - correctional education resources
English Language Instruction for Incarcerated Youth Margo DelliCarpini, Stony Brook University, May, 2003 NCLE digest
Field Notes, Volume 12, Prison Issue - adult educators' writings about teaching and learning in prisons.
Hard Road Home - An Independent Lens film documenting the work of Exodus Transitional Community in East Harlem, and its work with men and women re-entering communities.
How Do You Spell Murder - a film by Alan and Susan Raymond documenting a literacy program at Trenton State Prison.
November 16, 2001 Inmate Education Is Found to Lower Risk of New Arrest by Tamar Lewin , New York Times.
[see also the Criminal Justice Initiative of the Soros Foundation, whose Open Society Institute undertook the study described in the article]
Incarceration to Inclusion : Looking at the Transition from Correctional Facility Program to Community Based Adult Education (overview) - abstract of a report written in Western Canada, due to be released online, PDF file.
Internet Resources for Correctional Educators - Louisian State Literacy Resource Center
Inmates help kids learn to read - Organizers of program hope to sell idea to School District in upcoming meeting; project in British Columbia, Canada.
Interview with Christian Parenti on the US Prison System (and more on Parenti)
Literacy 2000 - Literacy/corrections conference site [April 30 - May 3, 2000]; describing the four cornerstones of correctional education: literacy, special learning needs, technology and career development and teaching for independent learning, in English and French.
From the Educational Testing Service's
Education Research Update: Locked Up and Locked Out: An Educational
Perspective on the U.S. Prison Population - study describing
"the rising prison population and its characteristics, examines the
status of prison education programs and their impact, and describes
programs that try to help ex-prisoners reenter society. (Policy
Information Report. Authors: R.J. Coley and P.E. Barton)"
The [best of the] Other Side of the Wall - prison law, writings, criminal justice news, death penalty and links to a prison sites web ring
Office of Correctional Education (OCE) - information on funding & technical assistance for state & local correctional education agencies that provide quality educational programming to incarcerated individuals
Participatory Literacy behind Bars: AIDS Opens the Door, (preview of) an article written by Kathy Boudin, Harvard Educational Review, Volume 63:2 (Summer 1993), and collected in Enriching ESOL Pedagogy: Readings and Activities for Engagement, Reflection, and Inquiry.
Prison Literacy Programs, ERIC Digest no 159, by Sandra Kerka, ED383859 . 1995.
and what happens when you enter Prison Literacy Programs as a google search.
Prisoners, literacy practices and politics - Stephen Black. A literacy worker's analysis of corrections education and literacy over a span of year.
Justice Distance Learning Consortium, whose mission it is to provide accessibility, resources and opportunities for students and teachers to use distance learning to literally redefine the educational process in correctional institutions.
questionable headline, interesting event - For ex-cons, job picture is never good
Read a Book, Get Out of Jail, Leah Price, New York Times, February 26, 2009
State Correctional Education Programs - State Policy Update March 2002. Michelle Tolbert. EDPubs document EX0169P. Also available as a PDF file at http://www.nifl.gov/nifl/policy/st_correction_02.pdf ; "provides background on the criminal justice system, summarizes the funding sources, correctional philosophy, and laws affecting state correctional education programs, and describes the adult prison population today. In addition, the Update reviews the various components of correctional education, discusses the benefits of education to inmates, and highlights correctional education initiatives in three states - Maryland, Ohio, and Texas.
URI professor helps prisons make corrections - URI professor Leo Carroll consults with RI prisons administrators.
Women in Prison, issues of gender
Correctional Service of Canada: Women Offender Programs and Issues - descriptions of programs for incarcerated women and well as full-text online reports re: women, violence, abuse and incarceration.
Interview with Susan Rosenberg upon her release from prison - Deomcracy NOW! radio broadcast, January 23, 2001.
of Activists: Prison Women's Writings as Change Agent for their
- Irene C. Baird
Now - Justice Now works with women prisoners and local
communities to build a safe, compassionate world without prisons.
Not Part of My Sentence: Violations of the rights of women in custody -- Amnesty International report describing violations of the internationally guaranteed human rights of women incarcerated in the United States
Low Newton - Adrian Clarke, in the Paris Review, encodes narratives and makes photos of formerly incarcerated women here.
Unlocking Options for Women: A Survey of Women in Cook
The online version of Women in Action No. 3, 2003, issue on Women in Prisons.
Women and Prison by Rebecca Tuhus-Dubrow - Article from The Nation (March 25, 2004) with links to other relevant resources.
Women and Social Movements in the United States,
editorial projects of primary documents addressing the history of women
in reform movements in the U.S. http://womhist.binghamton.edu
and Prison information from Orchard Recovery Center
Women's Prison Association and Home - "a nonprofit agency working to create opportunities for change in the lives of women prisoners, ex-prisoners, and their families. WPA provides programs through which women acquire the life skills necessary to end their involvement in the criminal justice system and to make positive, healthy choices for themselves and their families."
Writings from Women on the Inside - anthology of poems and stories by women incarcerated at the Washington Corrections Center for Women The writing was produced in "Keeping the Faith" workshops by a Seattle-based performance ensemble, the Pat Graney Company..
parents, families, youth
Amachi: Mentoring Children of Prisoners in Philadelphia from PUBLIC/PRIVATE VENTURES - A unique partnership of secular and faith-based institutions, Amachi recruits volunteers from congregations to mentor children of prisoners. Looking at the role of the church in community, the report explores the implications of the Amachi experience for policymakers, funders, and others interested in starting similar programs. Amachi is a West African word that means “who knows but what God has brought us through this child.
Benefiting from Public Health and Corrections Partnerships - holistic approaches to reentry, from corrections.com
Children of Incarcerated Parents - the number of children by neighborhood of people sentenced to the Adult Correctional Institute in 2006. In 2006, 1,198 Providence residents were sentenced to the Adult Correctional Institute. Information submitted upon entry indicates 1,516 children.
Families against Mandatory Minimums Foundation - national nonprofit organization founded in 1991 to challenge inflexible and excessive penalties required by mandatory sentencing laws. FAMM promotes sentencing policies that give judges the discretion to distinguish between defendants and sentence them according to their role in the offense, seriousness of the offense and potential for rehabilitation. FAMM's 25,000 members include prisoners and their families, attorneys, judges, criminal justice experts and concerned citizens.
Families in Crisis, Inc. - founded to stabilize the family in crisis and to provide meaningful opportunities for change. We focus on the dynamics of the family unit and the significant role that family relationships play to help offenders rebuild their lives.
Family Justice - national not for profit organization with a mission is to identify, apply, and disseminate effective practices in using family supports to improve the success of individuals under justice system supervision and, in so doing, to enhance the well-being of their families.
from National Public Radio:
A Nation Behind Bars - coverage from the Washington Post, Sunday, April 13, 2003; Page B06
Parenting from Behind the Walls - by Julee Newberger. "Through a family literacy program, books become links between incarcerated parents and children. And learning together becomes a part of families' everyday lives," at Connect for Kids
- September, 1999, Connect for Kids
through Prison Walls - March, 2005, Kris Dickon, Connect for Kids
1.5 million U.S. children have at least one parent in jail -
of article "Nearly 1.5 million American children have a parent
is in a state or federal prison -- in line with the nation's record
population, a U.S. Department of Justice study finds. Many of these
report that their children have not visited them..." with additional
Arts and Prison
A Journey of Discouragement and Hope: An Introduction to Arts and Corrections by Grady Hillman. A reflection on pboth disheartening and promising trends in arts and corrections over the past several years; (one of a number of writings on arts and corrections at Community Arts Network
C.D. Wright: Poems born in prison - In "One Big Self: Prisoners of Louisiana," poet and Professor of English C.D. Wright portrays voices and stories of incarcerated persons in three Louisiana penal institutions. Of the state prison at Angola - The Farm - Wright says, "If not for the wire and the guardhouse, you could think you were at a college."
Griffin - writer and educator Ed Griffin shares his writing
and that of participants in creative writing workshops he teachers at
Matsqui Prison, a medium security prison in Western Canada.
HANDKERCHIEF ART FROM PRISON - "Thousands of inmates in prisons across the United States mail drawings and paintings done on handkerchiefs to loved ones on the outside every day. Folded and enclosed in envelopes which are often decorated as well, handkerchiefs depicting cartoon characters, religious themes, tattoo patterns, dedications to friends who have passed, depiction’s of prison life and visions of places outside the prison walls become an integral vehicle for affirming the artist’s existence to the outside world." Artworks on 100 handkerchiefs from artists in Connecticut's prisons are on view in "Handkerchief Art from Prison," an exhibition at Hygienic Galleries in New London, Conn., through May 21, 2000. [note: this exhibit had been removed from the site; but check the existing link to its archives]
If not art, then what? - on arts programs in Pennsylvania, California and New York, three states that provide arts programs for their inmates.
InsideOUT Writers and the Alethos Foundation - California-based writing project, with the mission, "performed by professional writers [of teaching] creative writing to incarcerated and at-risk youth so as to discourage youth violence, building in its place a spirit of honest introspection, respect of others, and a love of learning." One participant's in-depth description of and response to doing that work appears in True Notebooks, by Mark Salzman
The Penal Lexicon - information on matters concerned with prisons, criminal justice and penal affairs. Primarily the focus is on prisons in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Includes information on arts, women and other aspects of prison work and education.
Prison, Art and Some Myths - PERSIMMON BLACKBRIDGE, LYN MACDONALD, and MICHELLE CHRISTIANSON
Arts Project of the University of Michigan, "committed to
work in the arts in Michigan Correctional Facilities. Our purpose is to
enhance creative opportunities for inmates and to bring them the
and skills that come with each art. We attempt to provide the best
Rhode Island Training school http://www.brown.edu/Departments/IESE/Projects/RITS/
Shakespeare Behind Bars: The Power of Drama in a Women's Prison (St. Martin's 2001) Jean Trounstine. Middlesex Community College
Space in Prison for the Arts and Creative Expression (SPACE) was founded in 1992 by a group of women from Brown University interested in working in the Women's Division of the Rhode Island Adult Correctional Institution. After 6 years of experimentation and evolution, the program has grown to offer both theater, creative writing, and visual arts workshops to inmates of the medium and minimum security facilities, the drug rehabilitation program, and the Training School for juveniles.
an article about SPACE, initially posted at the now-defunct at idealistoncampus - http://www.idealist.org/ioc/nftn-space.html
What I Want my Words to do to You - POV documentary by Madeleine Gavin, Judith Katz, and Gary Sunshine to air December 16, 2003: "The film focuses on a writing group led by Eve Ensler at the Bedford Hills Correctional Facility. Ensler's classes have given birth to a powerful writing community in which women from strikingly different strata of society, all of whom are serving long sentences, help each other tell their stories. The film documents both the ... personal journey undertaken by the inmates to find and understand the words they need to use, and the power of those words to move the wider world. "
The Orange in the Orange : A Novella & Two Stories by Fielding Dawson, Jan 1995 - author draws on his experiences as facilitator of prison writing program
as a Poem: My Years Teaching Poetry at San Quentin"
by writer Judith Tannenbaum, September 2000 from
University Press. "As invigorating as it is tragic, the book takes the
inside the northern California penal facility and into the lives of the
men who live there. In her preface, available this month in the Reading
Room on the CAN Web site, Tannenbaum talks about how prison arts
work and what is expected of them, and about the joys and challenges of
asking incarcerated people to 'shape their deepest vision into word,
sound or movement, thus encouraging the birth of creative expression in
another human being.'"
Conversations: an anthology of the work of oral historian, Tony
Doing Time: 25 Years of Prison Writing-A PEN American Center Prize Anthology Bell Gale Chevigny (Editor), et al / Hardcover / Published 1999
Prison Writing : In 20th-Century America H. Bruce Franklin(Editor), Tom Wicker / Paperback / Published 1998
Prisons and Social Justice
a Human Right to Communicate.
The Gatekeeper: Watch on the INS by Alisa Solomon Detainees Equal Dollars - The Rise in Immigrant Incarcerations drives a prison boom, The Village Voice, August 14 - 20, 2002 (see also other archived articles by Solomon re: incarceration and immigration)
Jails and Prisons - compilation of articles from the Nation
JUSTINFO, published the 1st and 15th of each
information from the NCJRS sponsoring agencies
Every Mothers Son - "In the late 1990s, three victims of police brutality made headlines around the country: Amadou Diallo, the young West African man whose killing sparked intense public protest; Anthony Baez, killed in an illegal choke-hold; and Gary (Gidone) Busch, a Hasidic Jew shot and killed outside his Brooklyn home. "Every Mother's Son" tells of the victims' three mothers who came together to demand justice and accountability."
Changes on Felony Disenfranchisement From: THE SENTENCING
National Alliance for Radical Prison Reform - Georgia-based group with the following mission: Repeal "three-strikes"-type legislation, harsh juvenile crime laws and other laws that target poor and and powerless people for incarceration; Advocate for prisoners' human rights and those of theirfamilies, and Promote programs for the re-entry, re-enfranchisement and economic self-sufficiency of former prisoners. (August, 2005 - all traces of NARPP sites have been removed from the web)
October 29, 2003 (Vol. 38, No. 5) No more prisons The movement for prison abolition demands a new form of intellectual and political literacy by Sharon Luk in the San Francisco Bay Literary Supplement.
Prison Justice.ca - website for prison justice organizing in Vancouver, BC; a project of the Vancouver Prisoners' Justice Day Committee, Joint Effort and Books 2 Prisoners.
Terrorism and the constitution : sacrificing civil liberties in the name of national security - excerpts from the text by by David Cole and James X. Dempsey, The New Press, 2002 [review, with relevant web links]
Colorlines Magazine: special issue on Prisons, Fall 1998
Critical Resistance seeks to build an international movement to end the Prison Industrial Complex by challenging the belief that caging and controlling people makes us safe.
CURE - Citizens United for Rehabilitation of Errants, a non-profit nationwide organization dedicated to the reduction of crime through the reform of the criminal justice system. We are a prison and jail reform advocacy group headquartered in Washington, DC with chapters or affiliates in most states of the union.
Debt to Society - Mother Jones Magazine and Justice Policy Institute (July 2001). Comprehensive analysis of corrections practice, health, education and policy.
Minority Confinement Resource Center - project of the
of Iowa School of Social Work, with a mission of promoting
culturally responsive practice across human service systems through
and evaluation, training and technical assistance, and information
Mass Imprisonment and the disappearing voters - Open Society Institute Forum focused on the impact of felony disenfranchisement laws in the United States. Moderated by Marc Mauer—a panel of criminal and social justice experts debated the issue of mass imprisonment and whether people convicted of felonies who have served their time should have the right to vote.
New Inmate Population Figures Demonstrate Need for Policy Reform [July, 2003] from THE SENTENCING PROJECT - 2-page analysis of new Justice Department figures, which show a 2.6% rise in the national prison population, documents that a number of states have enacted sentencing and drug policy reforms in recent years, but that these have not offset the long-term impact of other harsh sentencing policies. The SENTENCING PROJECT is an independent source of criminal justice policy analysis, data and program information for the public and policy-makers
Mumia Abu-Jamal - numerous sites focused on writings, alerts and information on the struggle to free Mumia Abu-Jamal
The Prisons Foundation - "nonprofit organization dedicated to promoting the arts and education behind bars and to working for law and prison reform. We publish a bimonthly periodical entitled, Freedom Now! which is popular among men and women in prison and those who care about them."
Prison Issues Desk - part of the Prison activists' resource center, committed to exposing and challenging the institutionalized racism of the criminal injustice system and to further developing anti-racism as individuals and throughout our organization. Also includes subscription to listserv.
prison | release - Spring 2002 Alumnae Magazine of Sarah Lawrence College focused on programs in prisons and their participants.
Prisons, Policy and Criminal Justice
The Center on Crime, Communities and Culture - The Open Society Institute Criiminal Justice Initiative
Crime and Justice Electronic Data Abstracts --DOJ BJS [.zip, .wk1] from the Bureau of Justice Statistics
Rehabilitating Criminal Justice - including "new support for creative diversion, treatment, parole and re-entry policies" - articles from The American Prospects Special Report on Criminal Justice Reform
SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN PRISONS - 80% of the 1.7 million men and women behind bars are seriously involved with drug and alcohol abuse and the crime it spawns.
The National Center on Institutions and Alternatives - mission: "to help create a society in which all persons who come into contact with human service or correctional systems are provided an environment of individual care, concern and treatment. NCIA is dedicated to developing quality programs and professional services that advocate timely intervention and unconditional care."
The Secret Weapon of 2008 -
Felon re-enfranchisement trends across the country, Slate, Friday, April 27, 2007
prison industrial complex
BEHIND BARS: DOC puts budget squeeze on inmates by Steven Stycos, Providence Phoenix, December 5 - 11, 2003
Corrections Connections - online resource for corrections news and information; industry site
Corrections Corp of America - CCA, corrections management, investment opportunities.
google search: Corrections Corporation of
+ prisons", including numerous articles from numerous sources (e.g.
Watch, and,: Prisons
for Profit - December 99 article by Shirley Pasholk describing
the increased use of prisoners as below-minimum-wage workers and even
strikebreakers by U.S. corporations). Also see Christian
America and Vijay Prashad's Keeping
Up with the Dow Joneses, in which "Prashad examines
contradictions of the American economy. He assesses a range of related
issues:the oft-vaunted US economy, propped up by the rising debt of
and middle-class workers; welfare policies that punish those attempting
to escape the grip of debt and poverty; and a prison industry
regulates and houses the unemployed, as well as a reserve army of
Private prisons on the rise "As state governments eagerly transferred prisoners to the private sector, the country's largest for-profit prison company became known as "a theme stock for the nineties." That was before the stabbings, killings and escape of five convicted murderers from an overcrowded CCA facility in Youngstown, Ohio, in 1999. Inmates sued and won a $1.65 million settlement. The for-profit experiment seemed in peril. Luckily for CCA and other private prisons, the Bush Administration came running to the rescue." (from The Nation).
after year, The Wackenhut Corporation delivers unrivaled business
to a growing list of commercial, industrial and government
The National Park service presents Alcatraz Island - the official website.
Rhode Island Department of Corrections
RI DOC Inmate Handbook http://www.doc.ri.gov/documents/Inmate%20Handbook%20507.pdf
Rhode Island Training school http://www.dcyf.ri.gov/juvenile_corrections.php
last updated May 16, 2014
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