Women and literacy
dis/abilities and learning disabilities issues
This page includes resources for learners with learning difficulties/disabilities, and includes resources for learners who are Deaf, blind or visually impaired, or affected by developmental disabilities. As well, the site lists resources for Rhode Island learners.
Some sites, which address issues across ability areas, are listed in the section devoted to learning difficulties and disabilities. As well, sites addressing technology and its applications are included.
Can You See Me Now? Meet Deaf America—a culture, a class, and a choice by Stefany Anne Golberg, from The Smart Set September-October 2011
UDL toolkit - Free Technology Toolkit for UDL in All Classrooms
Minnesota Adult Basic Education (ABE) Fully-Accessible Online Disability Resource Guide
Learning Disabilities resources from the Literacy Center at the University of Ohio; includes videos, powerpoint presentations and print resources.
Family Connect - site for Parents of Children with Visual Impairments
The U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants (USCRI), Assisting Refugees with Disabilities Program : Resource Guide for Serving Refugees with Disabilities
available at http://www.refugees.org/DisabilityGuide
The guide, written for refugee case managers and those serving refugees with disabilities, includes 139 pages of information about resources for serving adults and children with disabilities, housing for refugees with disabilities, assistive technology, medical resources, citizenship and disability, benefits for refugees with disabilities and more.
Guidance documents from the UK's Skills for Life – http://excellence.qia.org.uk/page.aspx?o=Guidance
– contextualizing work for those with clearly identified learning difficulties (defined as): physical and sensory impairments – for example those with mobility difficulties or hearing orvisual impairments; unseen disabilities such as health conditions, mental health difficulties and dyslexia; those whose disrupted learning experiences (for example those in offender establishments) and difficulties with learning have led them to work at a significantly lower level than the majority of their peers.
Fieldnotes on Learning Disabilities Vol. 17, No. 2 (Spring 2008)(PDF document http://www.sabes.org/resources/publications/fieldnotes/vol17/fn172.pdf; view as html here.
National Post-School Outcomes Center - Tools and resources to assist states in collecting and utilizing data on postsecondary education and employment status of youth with disabilities.
Program Quality Indicators for Adult Education Programs, Program Quality Indicators for Volunteer Literacy Programs and Program Quality Indicators for TANF Agencies? all edited by Donna S. Sherman. available here in PDF; for Word format, see below.
Reviewed by over forty practitioners and based on the Bridges to Practice Indicators of High Quality Service for Adults with Learning Disabilities, these program quality indicators can be used to plan for long-term program improvement in serving adults with learning disabilities. Use these program quality indicators with the Bridges to Practice guidebooks and training. Requests for copies of the indicators in Word format should be addressed to Kaye Beall at firstname.lastname@example.org.
accommodations process for LD learners in Rhode Island
Helping Adults with Learning Disabilities in Rhode Island
Department of Education's
of screening processes for
accommodations for adult with learning disabilities has
ended. A working group of practitioners has shared its
recommendations for practice with adults with learning
difficulties. Read those recommendations here: http://www.ride.ri.gov/adulteducation/Work%20Group.aspx
Resources in Rhode Island
Bradford L. Dunn Institute - non-profit organization that provides programs and services that address the needs of those living or working with learning differences.
E.N.O.B.L.E. - ENabling Opportunity By Lifelong Education. E.N.O.B.L.E. began because a group of educators and adults with disabilities recognized the special challenges that students with developmental disabilities face in furthering their education, whether it is to continue onto a college course or to learn the basic skills for employment. E.N.O.B.L.E. is dedicated to assisting individuals with developmental disabilities achieve their goals, whether by direct assistance or by acting as a support group or even as an advocate for those facing these challenges. E.N.O.B.L.E. is staffed by volunteers who share our goal of enabling individuals to receive the education they need and want to lead a more fulfilling life.
Rhode Island Association of the Deaf
- dedicated to bettering the Civic, Economic, Social, Academic and
Recreational opportunities of members of the community we serve.
RI Office of Rehabilitation Services - information about programs and services for Rhode Islanders with disabilities.
resources - another listing of resources in Rhode Island
How to Apply
Services - http://www.ors.state.ri.us/copied/HowToApplyforVRServices.htm
Rhode Island Commission on the Deaf and Hard of Hearing - state agency whose mission is "to provide innovative leadership in public policy, advocacy, service delivery and accessibility throughout the Ocean State, RI CDHH ensures opportunities for every deaf and hard of hearing person to become an empowered and contributing citizen."
Rhode Island Department of Human Services Learning Disabilities Project - "a unique initiative in the Department of Human Services that dedicates staff from the Office of Rehabilitation Services and the Family Independence Program to serve individuals with learning disabilities. This collaborative relationship identifies parents on cash assistance with learning disabilities, provides the necessary accommodations and vocational training programs in order for those individuals to become gainfully employed and independent." Learn more about it and voice your support of its important work.
Basic information about Bridges to Practice, the information on which much of RI's LD Partnership team trainings is based, is available at http://ldlink.coe.utk.edu/. The Partnership has worked since 1999 for systemic change in improving access to and the services available to adults with learning disabilities.
Bridges to Practice at the National Institute for Literacy website
to Practice and other LD-related issues in the state of Florida
Rhode Island School for the Deaf including links to resources for Deaf and hearing learners.
University Affiliated Program at Rhode Island College (UAP) - Programs to support meaningful participation of individuals with disabilities in school, work and the community.
learning and dis/abilities resources on line
Access for all - adult literacy, reading, writing, listening and speaking curriculum, standards and level descriptors along with resources for working with adults with a range of learning dis/abilities.
Eliminating Ableism in Education, by Thomas Hehir (full text article Harvard Educational Review)
Abstract In this article, Thomas Hehir defines ableism as “the devaluation of disability” that “results in societal attitudes that uncritically assert that it is better for a child to walk than roll, speak than sign, read print than read Braille, spell independently than use a spell-check, and hang out with nondisabled kids as opposed to other disabled kids.” Hehir highlights ableist practices through a discussion of the history of and research pertaining to the education of deaf students, students who are blind or visually impaired, and students with learning disabilities, particularly dyslexia. He asserts that “the pervasiveness of . . . ableist assumptions in the education of children with disabilities not only reinforces prevailing prejudices against disability but may very well contribute to low levels of educational attainment and employment.” In conclusion, Hehir offers six detailed proposals for beginning to address and overturn ableist practices.
Throughout this article, Hehir draws on his personal experiences as former director of the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Special Education
Programs, Associate Superintendent for the Chicago Public Schools, and Director of Special Education in the Boston Public Schools. (pp. 1-32)
ADA consulting - relevant information and references for ADA implementation, disability rights and resources, and products for buildings and facilities as well as for personal use.
ADDvance- An online resource for women and girls with Attention Deficit Disorder
Adult with Learning Disabilities - ERIC Digest
African American Adolescents and Adults with Learning Disabilities - An overview of assessment issues by Noel Gregg, Ph.D. Rebecca S. Curtis, M.S., CRC Stacia F. Schmidt, B.A. Editor, The University of Georgia/Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehabilitation
AIDTAC - American Indian Disability Technical Assistance Center
Applications of Participatory Action Research with Students who Have Disabilities - 2003 ERIC Digest (PDF format available here)
BC Coalition of People with Disabilities
BEST PRACTICE AND INNOVATIONS: LEARNING DISABILITIES Ontario Literacy Coalition, Spring 2001. Overview of learning disabilities, examples of successful practice and more.
Can Do! An ability focused web site dedicated to helping all people develop a "can-do" attitude and approach to life... no matter what the obstacles. While the site tends to provide resources for children, its focus on ability is worth considering in terms of working with learners of any age.
The Canadian Council on Rehabilitation and Work is a Canada-wide network of organizations and individuals. Our mission is to promote and support meaningful and equitable employment of people with disabilities. As innovators and agents of change, we build partnerships, develop skills, share knowledge and influence attitudes.
Dawn Canada - a national organization controlled by and comprised of women who self identify as women with disabilities. We are from all backgrounds and all disabilities.
Consortium for Citizens with Disabilities - coalition of national disability organizations advocating for national public policy that ensures the self determination, independence, empowerment, integration and inclusion of people with disabilities.
disabilityInfo.gov - information on US Federal programs, services and resources.
Disabilities Rights Advocates - DRA seeks to ensure dignity, equality and opportunity for people with disabilities
Disabilities Resources from Capitol Region Educational Council's Curriculum Clearinghouse.
Disabilities Resources for Adult Learning Professionals
DISABLED PEOPLE AND ACCESS OPPORTUNITIES INTO HIGHER EDUCATION - James M Palfreman-Kay. Paper presented at Higher Education Close Up, an international conference from 6-8 July 1998 at University of Central Lancashire, Preston. [from the Introduction] This research investigates the experiences of dyslexic and deaf students enrolled on access programmes at colleges of further education that are affiliated with De Montfort University... [and conclusion] Raising and promoting the issue of disability awareness should help to promote the idea of inclusion and unity within the student body. This will ultimately help the disabled adult to feel more on an equal level within education and society.
Disability Studies for Teachers - website "designed to help teachers integrate disability studies into social studies, history, literature, and related subjects in grades 6-12. The plans and materials also can be adapted for use in postsecondary education."
The ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education - provides access to professional literature, information, and resources on the education and development of individuals of all ages who have disabilities and/or who are gifted.
ESL Instruction for Learning Disabled Adults - ERIC Digest by Robin Schwarz, The American University, Washington, DC and Miriam Burt, National Center for ESL Literacy Education
Instruction and Learning Disabilities, a
from the National Center for ESL Literacy Education (NCLE) by Robin
and Lynda Terrill is available at http://www.cal.org/caela/esl_resources/digests/LD2.html
Guide to Learning Disabilities for the ESL Classroom Practitioner -
Christine Root Harvard University TESL-Electronic
Journal, Vol. 1 No. 1, April 1994.
Helping Children with and/or ADHD Cope with the September 11, 2001 Tragedy - Kathleen Ross-Kidder, Ph.D. , from LD Online.
Job Accommodation Network - international toll-free consulting service that provides information about job accommodations and the employability of people with disabilities. JAN also provides information regarding theAmericans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
Inclusive Education - " Inclusive education means that all students in a school, regardless of their strengths or weaknesses in any area, become part of the school community."
Literacy - annotated listing of resources appropriate for
with intellectual/developmental challenges. Compiled by Richard
Resource Developer, SARC Literacy Needs Project
The International Dyslexia Association
Learning disabilities and Spanish-Speaking Adult Populations: The Beginning of a Process - [to be downloaded in Word ] report on the national project associated with developing validated screening tools for learning disabilities for Spanish speaking adults. The project involves the development of a consensus diagnostic procedure for LD in Spanish speaking adults and the field testing of screening tools for that population. The second part of the process will be conducted through field tests during the year 2001 in California, Arizona, Texas, New Mexico,
Virginia, New York and Massachusetts. -- Glenn Young OVAE/DAEL project lead
Learning disAbilities Resources - Dr. Richard Cooper
Learning outside the Lines - astonishing first book by two former Brown university students about alternative learning paradigms.
read more about Jonathan Mooney and David Cole
LD Homepage - Seattle-King County Private Industry Council
LD Online- while addressing needs of children with learning disabilities, the site also has useful resources for adults
LD Pride Online - Liz Bogod designed this site as "an interactive online community, complete with a bulletin board, online site evaluation form, guest book and even live chat support." There is also a page addressing issues for Deaf learners as well. The site moves the notion of pride beyond self-esteem and explores ideas and concerns shared by many LD adult learners.
Learning Disabilities and Work Issues: A Self-Paced Tutorial - Two LINCS Special Collections have recently collaborated on a self-paced tutorial, (along with a set of resources that are searchable by topic or audience. The tutorial is useful to anyone serving as an instructor or coach for adults with learning disabilities who are engaged in looking for satisfying work and being successful in the workplace. Access the tutorial from either of these LINCS Special Collections: the Literacy & Learning Disabilities website at http://ldlink.coe.utk.edu/ld_work_issues.htm or the Workforce Education website at http://worklink.coe.utk.edu/ld_work_issues.htm.
Date: Fri, 21 Jan 2000 19:46:44 -0500 (EST)
Although the National ALLD Center has officially closed its doors, the Academy for Educational Development in Washington, DC is handling the dissemination of National ALLD Center publications for the present. Persons interested in the publication on ESL and LD, or on other ALLD publications, should call the following number in Washington, DC: 202-884-8186.
-Mary Ann Corley Director, Lindy Boggs
for Community Literacy Loyola University New Orleans (504) 864-7081
Lindamood-Bell - founded by the authors of programs that develop the sensory-cognitive processes that underlie reading, spelling, language comprehension, math, and visual motor skills. Process-Based education™ programs are for individuals ranging from severely learning disabled to academically gifted?ages 5 years through adult.
The National Arts and Disability Center (NADC) - national information dissemination, technical assistance and referral center specializing in the field of arts and disability, dedicated to promoting the full inclusion of children and adults with disabilities into the visual-, performing-, media, and literary-arts communities. Resource directories, annotated bibliographies, related links and conferences serve to advance artists with disabilities and accessibility to the arts.
National LINCS Literacy and Learning Disabilities Special Collection - information on issues affecting adults with learning disabilities and their families, as well as literacy practitioners and other human resource service providers who work with these persons. Much of the preparation for this collection was completed by the National Center for Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities between 1994 and 1999. From time to time the collection will also include information relating to adults with other disabilities (such as vision and hearing impairments or physical disabilities).
for Urban School Improvement - dedicated to supporting urban
communities that are implementing mainstream inclusion programs for
students; includes library of resources, discussion forum, events
National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR), conducts comprehensive and coordinated programs of research and related activities to maximize the full inclusion, social integration, employment, and independent living of disabled individuals of all ages.
regional centers listed below:
|Region 1 (CT, ME, MA, NH, RI,
New England DBTAC
Adaptive Environments Center, Inc.
374 Congress Street, Suite 301
Boston, MA 02210
(617) 695-0085 (V/TTY)
(617) 482-8099 (Fax) email: email@example.com
|Region 6 (AR, LA, NM, OK, TX)
Diability Law Resource Project -Southwest DBTAC
Independent Living Research Utilization
2323 South Shepherd Boulevard, Suite 1000
Houston, TX 77019
1-800-949-4232(V/TTY) ; 713-520-0232 (V/TTY)
713-520-5785 (Fax) email: firstname.lastname@example.org
|Region 2 (NJ, NY, PR, VI)
Northeast ADA & IT Center
Ithaca, NY 14853-3901
Tel (607) 255-8348
(607) 255-6686 (TTY)
Fax (607) 255-2763
|Region 7 (IA, KS, MO, NE)
Great Plains DBTAC
ADA Project, University of Missouri/Columbia
100 Corporate Lake Drive
Columbia, MO 65203
(573) 882-3600 (V/TTY)
(573) 884-4925 (Fax)
|Region 3 (DE, DC, MD, PA, VA,
451 Hungerford Drive, Suite 607
Rockville, MD 20850
(301) 217-0124 (V/TTY)
(301) 217-0754 (Fax)
|Region 8 (CO, MT, ND, SD, UT,
Rocky Mountain DBTAC
Meeting the Challenge, Inc.
3630 Sinton Road, Suite 103
Colorado Springs, CO 80907
(719) 444-0268 (V/TTY)
(719) 444-0269 (Fax)
|Region 4 (AL, FL, GA, KY, NC,
United Cerebral Palsy Association, Inc.
Center for Rehabilitation Technology at Georgia Tech
490 Tenth Street
Atlanta, GA 30318
(404) 385-0636 (V/TTY)
(404) 385-0641 (Fax) email: email@example.com
|Region 9 (AZ, CA, HI, NV,
California Public Health Institute
2168 Shattuck Avenue, Suite 301
Berkeley, CA 94704-1307
(510) 848-2980 (V)
(510) 848-1840 (TTY)
(510) 848-1981 (Fax)
|Region 5 (IL, IN, MI, MN, OH,
Great Lakes DBTAC
University of Illinois/Chicago
Department on Disability & Human Development
1640 West Roosevelt Road
Chicago, IL 60608
(312) 413-1407 (V/TTY)
(312) 413-1856 (Fax) email: firstname.lastname@example.org
|Region 10 (AK, ID, OR, WA)
Washington State Governor's Committee
on Disability Issues & Employment
P.O. Box 9046, MS 6000
Olympia, WA 98507-9046
(360) 438-4116 (V/TTY)
(360) 438-3208 (Fax) email: email@example.com
Schwab Foundation for Learning in San Mateo - LD resources
Sharing our Stories - an initiative of the women connected to the DisAbled Women's Network (DAWN).
Disabilities resources from the National Adult Literacy Data Base. (access to resources for learners with varying physical and developmental abilities ).
Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) - OSEP's Technical Assistance & Dissemination Network
Training, including information about the Wilson Reading
used to help many adults with learning disabilities learn to read.
Consulting Services on Learning Disabilities - Focus
on Adult Issues
Hub - assistive technology solutions
Adaptive Technology: Not Just
for People with Disabilities
Assistive Technology Incorporated
Assistive Technology: Meeting the needs of adults with learning disabilities by Adrienne Riviere (includes links to other LD sites and resources).
- online information resource providing up-to-date, thorough
on assistive technologies, adaptive environments and community
Georgia Assistive Technology Project (Tools for Life)
Kidsource - assistive technology for students with mild disabilities
Maxi-Aids: Products for blind, low vision, visually impaired, deaf, disabled and phsyically challenged people. Although this is a commerical site, it comes highly recommended by a member of the RI disabilities provider network.
Moving to the visual: Technology and new literacy possibilities for the learning disabled - Chris Abbott, King's College, London
Recording for the Blind and Dyslexic - learning through listening
S.A.R.A.W. Resource Manual - learning strategies for inclusion of people with disabilities, and companion to S.A.R.A.W. - an exercise workbook
Technology and Disability-Related Pages: from PlaneMath.
Technology info, tips, frequently asked questions you can use from the Disabled Women's Network Ontario
excerpted from the NIFL LD list serv (archived at http://www.nifl.gov/lincs/discussions/nifl-ld/learning_disabilities.html )
... a while back ...Glenn Young wrote an impassioned response to a list member's query about whether it does any good, or makes any difference, to have a student identified as having a learning disability. I was replying to his comments because this issue is addressed in the Bridges to Practice materials and I am interested in this wonderful project ... Here in New York State, we are using Bridges with adult educators in an attempt to make them aware of the "difference in the difference."
Learning differences are, of course, something we are aware of and plan for when planning instruction. Good instruction is designed to meet the needs of all learners in the classroom, so we try to plan for variety in our instruction, and variety in our teaching activities. The learning differences, whether we consider these learning styles, personality styles, or the numerous "ways of knowing" that have received so much publicity recently, are still just that - learning differences. What makes the difference into a disability is spelled out in the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities definition of a learning disability which the authors of the Bridges material chose to use in Book 1, and that is what Glenn was referring to, if I read his remarks correctly. I would like to quote fom the book: "Learning disabilities is a general term that refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by SIGNIFICANT difficulties (my caps) in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities...."
Bridges to Practice is designed to assist adult educators, who have little or no background in learning disabilities, as they try to understand the definition of disabilities, the characteristics of disabilities, and the identification of disabilities. It also discusses the importance of identification of LD for purposes of legal accommodations for the GED exam, or for employment purposes. The authors recognized that not all adult students who may have a disability will seek a legal diagnosis. What is important is that adult educators be aware of the need to recognize learning differences as differences, but disabilities as disabilities, which interfere significantly with major life activities. If it appears that an adult student may have a learning disability, the educator needs to know what to do, where the resources are, and how to explain this to the student. If we only talk about learning differences, we may be guilty of not informing an adult of the possibility for additional services for which s/he is eligible. This distinction can make the difference between whether the adult can receive funding for training or can use assistive devices for education or work. While teachers may not think that the label will make a significant difference in how they teach an adult, the adult may be relieved to learn that the learning problems s/he is experiencing may have an explanation that can, in the very least, improve the adult's self-image and make the lengthy education process more understandable and less frustrating. My teaching and training efforts are planned to meet the various learning needs of the students or professionals who are in my classes, but if I suspect that a learning need appears to be unmet through good teaching practices, I consider it my professional responsibility to recognize this. Once recognized, I need to be able to understand what the next logical steps should be for the learner and myself, and I need to be able to explain these steps to the learner. I also need to understand how a legal diagnosis is made and what the implications are for the learner and the educational system of which s/he is a part. For these reasons, I need to advocate for a clear understanding about the need for clear definitions of "difference" and "disability." Once the entire field understands the difference/disability vocabulary, we will have made the progress I referred to in my earlier posting..
Patricia Ewins Learning Disability Specialist Coordinator, Program for Adult Achievement University of Hawai'i -- Leeward Community College 96-045 Ala Ike, Pearl City, HI 96782 Phone: (808) 455-0421 Fax: (808) 455-0471
Active Living Alliance/Alliance de vie active - for Canadians with disabilities, including resources for all, such as Words with Dignity, a guide to language that helps and language that doesn't.
Minds Wide Open - arts site for developmentally disabled adults; workshop and other activities with the goal of 'embracing and exploring human diversity through collaborative community art experiences for everyone. Our intent is empowerment of individuals by uniting the community through the arts.' (Minds Wide Open no longer exists, but some information about it is available via google.search)
for Teachers of Basic Skills - Lesson plans, software, and
to other resources for teachers of people with developmental
(This site may also be useful for teachers of basic adult literacy, children, and people learning ESL.) by Bill Straub
Deafie's World - a Personal Record: What it Means to Be Deaf, by Carl Brown, A.S.L. Instructor/Consultant
A Sign Language Dictionary Online - fully indexed, ASL visual
with additional resources about Deaf language and culture. - note -
this site is not linking properly; other links to sign language sites
with Deaf People - A to Z - (pdf file here)
Questions and Answers about Deafness and Hearing Impairments in the Workplace and the Americans with Disabilities Act - from The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Language Art - Toronto-based artist Susie Whaley's site, " a
hearing, visual artist. I work with a variety of materials including;
acrylic paint, papier mache, and plastic. During the past year
a half I have enjoyed studying all the levels of Sign Language offered
at the Canadian Hearing Society. I learned Sign Language because I have
a 4 year old niece who is deaf. Inspired by her and also the visual
of the language I have created artwork based on the American Sign
Brightly - Rhode Island-based organization, teaching
sign language to hearing babies and toddlers
Violence in the Lives of Persons who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing - information regarding the experiences and needs of individuals who are Deaf or hard of hearing and victims/survivors of domestic and/or sexual violence. (also see this page for more general information about dealing with violence)
Resources on Deafness - from the Ohio LRC site, "found through
the National Institute for Literacy - Learning Disabilities listserv,
on deaf literacy, and through our own personal research. They are
according to interests and are in alphabetical order.
resources for learners who are blind or visually impaired
American Foundation for the Blind - rich resource, including information pertaining to education. Read about Bridging the Gap, a train-the trainer event that brought together adult literacy and vision/rehabilitation workers
Printing House for the Blind
vision, literacy and practice: adult educators' mini-grant projects addressing issues of vision and adult learning - projects undertaken during 'Bridging the Gap - Literacy and Vision workshops held in November, 2003.
Blindness Resource Center - a service of the New York Institute for Special Education
Canadian National Insttute for the Blind
for the Blind, in Newton, Massachusetts. Services and
for people with visual impairments and those who work with them.
Description Key - Description is
the verbal depiction of key visual elements in media and live
productions. Also known as “audio description” or “video description,”
the description of media involves the interspersion of these depictions
with the program’s original audio. The Described and Captioned Media Program
has partnered with the American Foundation for the Blind to forge
guidelines to equal access for students with vision loss: the
Description Key: Guidelines for the
Description of Educational Media. The Description Key guidelines intended for new and experienced describers, description agencies, media producers and
distributors, and others who want to make educational media more accessible. Go to http://www.afb.org/descriptionguidelines.asp for this valuable resource. And to connect DCMP may be a new resource for you. To learn more about their extensive description resources available to
teachers and parents, check out DCMP Web site for free-loan educational accessible media needs.
National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS); The Library of Congress [searchable site]
Recording for the Blind and Dyslexic National Headquarters
Rhode Island Office of Rehabilitation Services: Services for the Blind & Visually Impaired
School for the Blind and Visually Impaired -
including resource lists (e.g. math
materials) and links to numerous related resources.
last updated September 8, 2011
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