Nineteenth-Century Cities: Paris, London, Chicago

1301 [CRN: 25039]

What does it mean to be a reformer? In the nineteenth century, governments successfully regulated their relationship to nature, including water and air pollution. Scientists reformed police by measuring identities/classifying different kinds of people. Utopian movements proposed salvaging slums through refinement of knowledge. In the midst of these science-led experiments the limits of pollution reform gave way to Anthropocene that era of proliferating greenhouse gases. In midst of democratic reform riot and revolution erupted over each of these capitals multiple times during the century. What went wrong and how can we learn from these failures of governance? M
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